Continuum models of particle entrainment and deposition in snow drift and avalanche dynamics
Abstract and Figures
Particle entrainment from, and deposition to, the snow cover are important processes in avalanche dynamics that have been neglected in most models because very little experimental information is available to guide modelers. For powder-snow avalanches, we present a two-layer model that expresses the dynamics in terms of physically well-defined sub-processes. A priori estimates of the model parameters can be based on the analogy with snow drift; detailed studies of the sub-processes will provide more precise values. We formulate hypotheses concerning the nature of different candidate entrainment mechanisms in dense-snow avalanches and their possible dependence on the flow regime. A series of experiments on a chute and in existing avalanche test sites are proposed for studying the basic processes and calibrating future models. Particle-dynamics simulations are expected to become instrumental in the development of continuum entrainment models.
Figures - uploaded by Dieter Issler
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