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Material Flow Accounting and Information for Environmental Policies in the City of Stockholm

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This paper presents some thoughts on the use of material flow accounting (MFA) as a tool for providing information to the environmental policy making and management in a city. Examples are given from the early approaches to MFA made by the Environment and Health Protection Administration in Stockholm. Further, some results and experiences from a current research project on MFA and environmental information management at the municipal level are presented. The different MFA-studies carried out in Stockholm were able to clarify a number of questions regarding the magnitudes of various nitrogen, phosphorus and metal related problems in Stockholm. Further, connections between economic activities in Stockholm on the one hand, and emissions and environmental pressure on the other hand, are to some extent identified and quantified. Thus, better opportunities for setting proper goals and priorities in local environmental management have been, and will be further achieved. This will also make it easier to adopt a more pro-active approach in local environmental management. The studies, especially the most recent, have provided information to allow a more fruitful discussion between different stakeholders in the city. This is of great importance since local Agenda 21 work started in Stockholm and elsewhere is needed in order to cope with those problems that, regarding nitrogen and phosphorus, are identified as the most important.
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134
Parallel Session C:
MFA for Regional and Local
Materials Management
135
Material Flow Accounting and Information for Environmental Policies in the
City of Stockholm
Fredrik Burström*, Nils Brandt*, Björn Frostell* and Ulf Mohlander**
* Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
** Environment and Health Protection Administration, Stockholm
Abstract
This paper presents some thoughts on the use of material flow accounting (MFA) as a tool for
providing information to the environmental policy making and management in a city. Examples
are given from the early approaches to MFA made by the Environment and Health Protection
Administration in Stockholm. Further, some results and experiences from a current research
project on MFA and environmental information management at the municipal level are
presented.
The different MFA-studies carried out in Stockholm were able to clarify a number of
questions regarding the magnitudes of various nitrogen, phosphorus and metal related problems
in Stockholm. Further, connections between economic activities in Stockholm on the one hand,
and emissions and environmental pressure on the other hand, are to some extent identified and
quantified. Thus, better opportunities for setting proper goals and priorities in local
environmental management have been, and will be further achieved. This will also make it easier
to adopt a more pro-active approach in local environmental management. The studies, especially
the most recent, have provided information to allow a more fruitful discussion between different
stakeholders in the city. This is of great importance since local Agenda 21 work started in
Stockholm and elsewhere is needed in order to cope with those problems that, regarding nitrogen
and phosphorus, are identified as the most important.
Keywords: Environmental Information; Local; Material Flow Accounting; Policy; Stockholm
Introduction
The Swedish capital Stockholm is situated on the Swedish east coast, just at the outlet of Lake
Mälaren to the Baltic Sea (Figure 1). In 1995, the number of residents in the city was just above
700 000. The number of residents in greater Stockholm, which consists of the city, the suburbs
and the surrounding municipalities, was more than 1.5 millions. The main socio-economic
activities in the city of Stockholm are finance, trade and other services. There is no agriculture
and hardly any large industries.
Considering local environmental management in Stockholm, several tasks are assigned to the
Environment and Health Protection Administration in Stockholm (EHPAS). In short, the
assignment is to monitor and control the environmental and human health situation in
Stockholm. According to Swedish environmental and health legislation, EHPAS supervises the
handling of food, residence hygiene, public premises, and environmentally hazardous activities
(e.g. industries). Since 1986, EHPAS is the supervising authority for all environmentally
hazardous activities in Stockholm. This means that EHPAS is assigned with a task usually
assigned to the County Administration Board, a regional state authority. Other tasks are air
quality monitoring, noise controlling, prevention of cruelty against animals, and, last but not
least, planning and co-ordinating the local environmental management work. It should be
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mentioned that water quality monitoring is not a task of EHPAS, but of the municipal water
supply and treatment company.
Figure 1: The City of Stockholm.
When the supervision of industries was delegated from the County Administration Board,
EHPAS developed a data base for information on emissions from industries in Stockholm.
Because of that, EPHAS has got a relatively good knowledge of emissions from industries.
Today there are, with some exceptions, no direct discharges of waste water to water recipients
from households, industries or other activities in Stockholm. The waste water is led to municipal
sewage treatment plants (STPs). Likewise, about half of the storm water is led to and treated in
STPs. Because of this, the sewage sludge and outgoing water from STPs to a great extent mirrors
the ‘leakage’ of different materials from the city.
Early Approaches to MFA in the City of Stockholm
A comparison in the late 1980’s of the amounts of pollutants in waste water from the industries
and the total load on the STPs revealed that the contribution from the industries was very small.
This lead to the question: "Which are the most important contributing sources for pollutants to
STPs? " The answer to this question is of great importance for the possibility to reduce e.g. the
amount of metals in sewage sludge, and thus make it acceptable for application on arable land.
Since the existing monitoring and control programmes could not answer the question, a new
approach had to be taken in order to answer the question.
In 1989, some analyses of the sewage water from private households were made. They
showed that private households was responsible for 10-50% of the total load of metals on the
STPs. Also for several organic substances, the contribution from private households were
significant. Analyses of storm water and studies on material corrosion also indicated that
significant parts of the loads on the STPs were due to diffuse emissions. To compile the data and
make a deeper analysis of the new information, EHPAS accomplished some rough material flow
analyses for Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Zn and PCB in Stockholm. In Table 1 some interesting results
from the flow analyses are listed.
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Table 1: Some results from analyses of metals and PCB in Stockholm.
Element Results
Cu Large releases of Cu from fresh water piping and copper roofs on buildings in the city.
Zn Galvanised roofs and faces of houses, constructions, street furniture, electric pylons and wires are
significant sources for releases of Zn.
Hg Amalgam fillings of the inhabitants are a significant source for Hg-loads on the STPs and for Hg-
emissions to the atmosphere.
Cd The main inflow of Cd to Stockholm is the import of rechargeable batteries.
PCB The main source for PCB emissions to the atmosphere and soils is the joint adhesive composition in
houses made of concrete.
These studies have clearly showed that private households, buildings and structures contribute
to the greatest extent to the environmental pressure of metals and PCB in the Stockholm area. It
was also concluded that for many substances of high priority in different plans-for-action, the
most important sources to emissions were not the ones under control.
Influencing Environmental Policies and Management in the City of Stockholm
The results from these ‘early’ material flow analyses have in different ways supported the
environmental policy making in Stockholm:
On basis of the results from the metal studies, some long and short-term goals on the issue
‘chemical products and goods’ in Stockholm’s 4th environmental programme, ‘Environment
2000’, were formulated.
A policy on local storm water treatment was adopted by several municipal administrations
and companies. This policy contains e.g. requirements of storm water purifying equipment on
copper roofs greater than 1000 m2. A comprehensive storm water policy is now being
compiled.
The city administration is soon to ratify a ‘Programme on resource effective and
environmentally adapted building’, to be applied to all new building of dwellings on land
owned by the city administration and companies (which is the greater part of the available
land to build upon). The ‘catalogue-of-action’ of this programme contains several criteria to
meet if one is to get land assignments for building. As examples of criteria could be
mentioned that copper and zinc may not be used in roofs or faces unless the rainwater is
treated, and that copper may not be used in piping.
The PCB-analysis brought about further studies on leakage of PCB from joint composition in
buildings made of concrete. Those studies indicated emissions of PCB from the joints to the
soil and the atmosphere. Today, EHPAS is making inventories of buildings with PCB in joint
adhesive composition.
Results from the flow studies have also served as a basis for environmental criteria on some
goods and products as a part of environmental guidelines for purchase by municipal
administrations and companies.
Environmental Management, Environmental Monitoring and Environmental
Information Management in Stockholm
In September 1995, the Local Government adopted ‘Environment 2000’ as the 4th
environmental programme for the city of Stockholm. It says that the local environmental
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management work in Stockholm is to be committed to the environmental goals proposed. Hence
it is an important task to audit the fulfilment of environmental goals and to continuously review
the environmental policies of the city. It is further mentioned that the control of material and
energy flows, and the conservation of forests, green open spaces and fresh water are the
fundaments for the future community planning. These fundaments are in different ways
comprised in the local environmental goals, and will thus be the basis for the goal-oriented
environmental management work.
In ‘Environment 2000’, environmental monitoring is identified as a key tool for providing the
information necessary for auditing the fulfilment of environmental goals, and reviewing the
environmental policies of the city. A recent study on the environmental monitoring system in
Stockholm (Burström et al., 1997a) did however indicate shortages in the present monitoring
system and the management of environmental information, such that a lot of information
necessary for audits and reviews could not be provided. This is mainly due to lack of systems
approach in the overall environmental management and monitoring. These problems are
identified in other Swedish municipalities too (Brandt & Frostell, 1995; Brandt et al., 1997). As
a consequence, there is a risk of sub-optimising actions on different environmental issues taken
in Stockholm as well as in other Swedish municipalities.
To overcome these problems, local environmental monitoring and information management
(i.e. collection, storage, analysis/interpretation, and presentation of data) has to be further
developed. It has to be changed in character, especially with respect to goals, structure and
parameters investigated, as the local environmental management work develops and changes in
character. In order to cope with the environmental issues of today, which could also be seen as
important sustainability issues, the entire metabolism of society and nature will have to be
considered from a systems point of view in environmental management (cf. Ayres & Simonis,
1994). Thus, flows of matter and energy become increasingly important to monitor. As we see it,
a system for regular material flow accounts could be a useful tool for the local environmental
management, environmental monitoring and environmental information management, and thus
needs to be developed.
ComBox: A Model for Municipal Material Flow Accounting
From the experiences of the early approaches to material flow accounting in Stockholm, and the
identified need of systems approach to environmental monitoring, a joint research project on
local material flow accounting and environmental information management was launched in the
beginning of 1996. One of the aims is to establish improved methods for monitoring and control
of material and energy flows in the city of Stockholm, as a decision basis for planning and
investments. The project is to a great extent based on the concept of the so called ComBox
model, developed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.
The ComBox Model
The ComBox model, further described by Frostell et al. (1994 & 1997), has been established as
to create an intellectual basis for further work and discussions on collection and dissemination of
environmental information at the local political/administrative level. In the approach, traditional
state-of-the-environment monitoring is combined with material flow accounting. To this date,
only the flow part of the model is considered.
The model represents an open system which exchanges material, energy and information with
its surroundings through the three sub-systems: air, society and water. The spatial system
boundary consists of the geographical border of the local political and administrative unit, e.g.
the municipality. This border is extrapolated into the atmosphere and the earth crust, thus
forming a fictive box – a Community Box.
139
As mentioned, the in- and outflows to the system takes place in any of three interacting sub-
systems. Of these, the sub-system society is further divided, and is represented as 12 sectors:
Agriculture & Fishery Service
Forestry Infrastructure
Mining & Extraction Real Estate
Industry Transport
Food Supply Households
Energy Supply Waste Management
The selection of sectors has been influenced by the Swedish Environmental Accounts. The
reason to this is to contribute to the discussion on how to create a common structure for
municipal material flow accounting in Sweden. This would facilitate comparisons between
different municipalities, as well as making aggregation of information from the municipal level
to the provincial and national level possible. The latter would be of great importance for the
information supply to the Swedish Environmental Accounts.
Besides the three sub-systems in the ComBox model, there are two important storages
included, namely land (incl. soil and vegetation) and sediments. The reason why these parts are
not included as sub-systems in the overall model, is because no transport occurs in them. But as
they serve as important sources and sinks for various flows, they are accounted for in the overall
model.
The Metabolism of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the City of Stockholm
In connection to the work on developing a system for material flow accounting in Stockholm, we
have analysed the metabolism of nitrogen and phosphorus in the city of Stockholm. One aim of
the study was to present a comprehensive picture of the nitrogen and phosphorus flows in the
city of Stockholm for one year (1995) as to give valuable information for the local management
of nitrogen and phosphorus related environmental issues in the city Stockholm. The knowledge
of the overall metabolism of these substances in Stockholm is of great importance for the city to
take action against nitrogen and phosphorus related problems, and thus for the possibility to
reach some of the goals in the local environmental programme. Despite heavy reductions of the
discharges of nitrogen and phosphorus to the water recipient (Baltic Sea) from sources in
Stockholm, the concentration of these substances in the inner parts of the eutrophication
sensitive Stockholm archipelago are high according to the classifications from the Swedish EPA
(EPHAS, 1997). Further, emissions of nitrogen to the atmosphere contribute to the deposition of
nitrogen on land in Stockholm, that in several areas exceed the critical load level, and thus
contributes to acidification of soils and lakes. The resource aspect of nitrogen and phosphorus is
also relevant, as they are nutrients that can be used in agriculture. For relevant policies and
priorities to be made on issues related to nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as other substances, in
local environmental management, major and minor problems as well as responsibilities has to be
identified. To do this, we assert that local environmental monitoring and information
management have to give an answer to questions like the ones below.
Which are the main sources and underlying causes of emissions today?
Which are the possible sources for emissions tomorrow?
Which are the main sinks for material flows, and how much is accumulated in the
municipality?
To what extent does activities in the municipality contribute to environmental pressures in
the municipality?
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Does the municipality put more environmental pressure on its surroundings than the
surroundings put on the municipality?
What material flows may directly be influenced by the local community itself?
Our hypothesis is that questions like these can be answered by means of analysing the
metabolism of the local community.
Methods and Data
The quantification of nitrogen and phosphorus flows is made in the same way as in a study of the
nitrogen metabolism of a Swedish rural municipality (Burström et al., 1997b). The assessment of
the metabolism is to some extent based on available data for nitrogen and phosphorus flows in
Stockholm 1995, i.e. data from existing environmental monitoring at the local, regional or
national level with connection to Stockholm. The existing monitoring provides information on
discharges to air from different sources, on discharges to water from large point sources, and on
transportation within some watercourses. All other flows have been estimated by using different
calculation models. The information needed as input to these models, e.g. food consumption and
waste generation, was not provided by existing environmental monitoring programmes, and thus
had to be collected from other sources. This information has been obtained from official
statistics and scientific reports, by comparison with similar studies performed elsewhere, and to a
great extent by personal communication with different companies, business organisations,
experts, and employees at local, regional and national authorities.
Some Results
The total turnover of fixed nitrogen in the city of Stockholm 1995 was app. 11600 tons (Figure
2), while the total turnover of phosphorus was app. 1100 tons (Figure 3). For both elements, the
most significant inflows entered the society system. The flows entering the water and air systems
were considerably lower, especially much lower for the air system. A significant import (and
export) route for both nitrogen and phosphorus is the water system through Stockholm in the
form of lake Mälaren, emptying into the Baltic Sea through the river Strömmen. App. half of
Stockholm’s nitrogen and phosphorus discharge to the Baltic Sea is imported through the lake
Mälaren.
The flow charts (Figures 2 and 3) also show that for both nitrogen and phosphorus, the
principal function of Stockholm is to import these substances with goods, foods and energy
carriers and to spread them into the air and water systems. This is since the export of nitrogen
and phosphorus through the air and water systems are considerably larger than the imports.
An important result of the study is that it identifies the most important sources and sinks for
nitrogen and phosphorus in the city of Stockholm 1995. For nitrogen they were:
the food consumption in private households and restaurants resulting in large nitrogen
emissions to water;
the transport sector causing nitrogen emissions to air through the combustion of fuels;
the infrastructure sector with discharges of nitrogen to air from various types of combustion
engines in work machines and vehicles;
the energy supply sector by converting nitrogen in fuels to inert nitrogen gas.
and for phosphorus:
the food consumption resulting in an export of phosphorus in municipal sludge;
the service sector via import of phosphorus in detergents that end up in sewage sludge.
Further, the study have identified the dominant pathways for nitrogen and phosphorus flows
through Stockholm. For both elements they were import -> food supply -> households -> waste
management. From waste management and on, the fate of nitrogen and phosphorus differs.
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System Boundary (Municipal Boundary of Stockholm)
AIR
HOUSE-
HOLDS
WATER
REAL
ESTATE
INFRA-
STRUCTURE
TRANSPORT
ENERGY
SUPPLY
SERVICE
WASTE
MANAGEMENT
FOOD
SUPPLY LAND
2300
450 1100170060
160
4100
100
230
250
230
96
76
4100
4000 250
3800
310
620
66
2900
5600
2700
74
1500
830
3600
Figure 2: Nitrogen Metabolism of the City of Stockholm 1995. Only flows
>0.5% of the total turnover are shown, in tons N per year.
HOUSE-
HOLDS
WATER
REAL
ESTATE
ENERGY
SUPPLY
SERVICE
WASTE
MANAGEMENT
FOOD
SUPPLY
LAND
System Boundary (Municipal Boundary of Stockholm)
65
50
200
860
170
240
47
510
620
670
510
34
14
11
23
65
23
120
Figure 3: Phosphorus Metabolism of the City of Stockholm 1995. Only
flows >1% of the total turnover are shown, in tons P per
year.
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The major part of the nitrogen flow, 84%, leaves the households in the municipal sewage
water. Despite very modern treatment plants and a governmental bill from 1991 to install
nitrification in coastal STPs, the assessments show that the overall nitrogen reduction in
Stockholm was only 38% in 1995. This means that for every kg of food nitrogen, 0.62 kg is
discharged to the Baltic Sea, contributing to eutrophication.
The dominant part of the phosphorus was precipitated with iron- and aluminium salts in the
STPs and exported as sewage sludge. The overall phosphorus reduction in Stockholm in 1995
was app. 95%. The further fate of the phosphorus is an app. 60% application on farmland and
40% landfilling.
On the export side, the transport and infrastructure sectors are very important as sources for
nitrogen emissions besides the above discussed food -> household -> waste management route.
Here, NOX formation in combustion engines is the dominating pollution mechanism.
Influencing Environmental Policies and Management in the City of Stockholm
Since these analyses are just completed, it is too early to tell how the results will influence the
environmental policies and management in Stockholm. The analyses have however revealed a
lot of information of great importance for the future environmental management, such that policy
makers have to take it into account.
According to the flow analysis, the food supply system was the most significant import route
for both nitrogen and phosphorus. This finding is of great significance, since the hidden nitrogen
and phosphorus turnover are significantly higher. The losses of nitrogen and phosphorus in food
production are app. 80% and 90% respectively (cf. Isermann, 1991). This means that dietary
habits in Stockholm will be important to discuss with respect to an increased control of nitrogen
and phosphorus flows in Stockholm as well as in other areas, where the food consumed in
Stockholm is produced.
The flows analysed here are the direct ñ or primary ñ flows through Stockholm in 1995. For
all activities in the city there are large secondary flows. A very good example is the food chain
mentioned above, where food production represents a much higher turnover of nitrogen and
phosphorus than does food consumption. Of great importance is that the city administration has
only a limited decisive power over the primary flows and only very limited decisive power over
the secondary flows. The principal areas where the city has a direct influence is the energy
supply and waste management. In all other areas, the city has a more limited decisive power to
exert. Our analysis emphasises the fact that the most important flows of nitrogen and phosphorus
in Stockholm are determined by the life-style of the inhabitants, namely food habits and travel
habits. This finding is of great importance for the city administration, since these flows may not
be directly controlled by the city. Changes in life-styles may not be achieved by law, regulations,
fees and taxes only. Discharge limitations for industrial enterprises and vehicles as well as
various taxes and fees may be introduced, but to our opinion not efficient ones controlling
driving and food consumption habits. Likewise, our investigation indicates that changes in these
two areas are the most important measures to decrease the flows of nitrogen and phosphorus
through the city of Stockholm and thus ultimately the load on the environment. Such changes
will depend on life-style choices of the individuals. This in turn means that the local Agenda 21
work in Stockholm and elsewhere is very important. Thus, our study suggests that material flow
accounting, e.g. according to the ComBox model, may also develop into an important instrument
for the local Agenda 21 work.
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Conclusions from Studies on Material Flows in Stockholm
The different studies on material flows in Stockholm have revealed a lot of information of great
importance for the local environmental management in Stockholm. By further analysis of the
results, the following conclusions have been drawn.
For several substances, the society sub-system of Stockholm works as a dissipator. This
means that significant amounts of the substance in question dissipates from the system , i.e.
the city.
Diffuse sources are very important as sources for emissions to the environment.
Private households and the personal life styles are important as the origin and source to
emissions and environmental pressure of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Different structures in Stockholm (i.e. buildings, roads etc.) are important as sources to
emissions and environmental pressure of metals and PCB.
The societal activities identified as most important origins to environmental pressure are to a
great extent uncontrolled by present legislation or unsupervised by the environmental
administration.
A great problem in the analyses carried out has been the scarcity of relevant information
suitable for these types of analyses. This finding supports the conclusions about shortages in the
present system for environmental monitoring and information management in Stockholm,
mention earlier. It seems quite obvious that important changes in routines for collection, storage
and processing of environmental information will be necessary in the city of Stockholm to
accommodate regular analyses of this type. As is obvious from the nitrogen and phosphorus
study, the society system is the most important import channel for nitrogen and phosphorus. This
holds true also for metals and PCB. Information on these flows are at present not available on a
routine basis. The establishment of improved collection routines for such statistical data would
therefore be of much help.
Contributions of MFA and the ComBox Model to Environmental Information
Management in Stockholm
Our concerted experience of analysing material flows have made us see several advantages of
MFA in general and the ComBox model in particular as a tool in local environmental monitoring
and information management. Among the advantages to previous approaches to monitoring the
following were realised in the analyses:
The analyses carried out was able to clarify a number of questions regarding the magnitudes
of various nitrogen, phosphorus and metal related problems in Stockholm. Thus, better
opportunities for setting proper goals and priorities will be achieved.
The connections between economic activities in Stockholm on the one hand, and emissions
and environmental pressure on the other hand, are to some extent identified and quantified.
This will make it easier to adopt a more pro-active approach to environmental management
and to take action at the origins to the problems.
The establishment of a concerted picture of the environmental problems in the municipality
provides information to allow a more fruitful discussion between different stakeholders in the
city (e.g. decision makers and citizens) as they will get the same information and the same
picture of the overall situation.
The specific information achieved through this type of analysis forms an excellent platform
for further environmental work in the city, where more detailed analyses can be carried out
with respect to composition of different flows and their environmental impact.
144
The ComBox model provides a systematic structure to MFA and further to the management
of environmental information. This will facilitate auditing of the city’s environmental
performance, and reviewing of the environmental policies of the city.
Another, very important experience from our work is the importance of a close co-operation
between researchers and practitioners. We believe that this cross-breeding of practical
experience and theoretical approach is necessary for the successful development and
implementation of material flow accounting methods into the practical environmental
management work.
References
Ayres, R.U. & U.E. Simonis (1994) Industrial Metabolism: Restructuring for Sustainable
Development. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
Brandt, N & B. Frostell (1995) Kommunal miljöövervakning: ett försök till systemsyn.
(Environmental monitoring at the local community level in Sweden 1994). IVL-Report B
1173, Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Stockholm, Sweden. (In Swedish with
English summary).
Brandt, N., F. Burström & B. Frostell (1997) Is There a Need for an Increased Systems
Approach to Local Environmental Monitoring in Sweden? submitted for publication.
Burström, F., N. Brandt & B. Frostell (1997a) Lokal miljöövervakning i Stockholms Stad.
(Local Environmental Monitoring in the City of Stockholm). Report TRITA-IMA 1997:1,
Royal Institute of Technology. Stockholm, Sweden. (In Swedish with English summary).
Burström, F., N. Brandt & B. Frostell (1997b) Analysing Material Flows to Improve Local
Environmental Management: the Nitrogen Metabolism of a Swedish Rural Municipality.
submitted for publication.
EPHAS (1997) Miljöbokslut för Stockholm 1989-1995. (Stockholm Green Accounts 1989-
1995). Environment and Health Protection Administration. Stockholm, Sweden. (In Swedish).
Frostell, B., K. Hallding, S. Ekstrand & N. Brandt (1994) Integrerad miljöövervakning på
kommunal nivå: en idéskiss. (Integrated environmental monitoring at the municipality level: a
conceptual approach). IVL-Report B 1157, Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
Stockholm, Sweden. (In Swedish with English summary).
Frostell, B., N. Brandt & F. Burström (1997) The ComBox Model: A Conceptual Approach to an
Improved Environmental Monitoring in the Local Community. submitted for publication.
Isermann, K. (1991) Nitrogen and Phosphorus Balances in Agriculture: A Comparison of
Several Western European Countries. International Conference on Nitrogen, Phosphorus and
Organic Matter. Helsingør, Denmark, May 13-15, 1991.
145
Resource Management in the Federal State of Brandenburg
Daniela Thrän* and Marlies Schneider**
*University of Potsdam
**State Ministry for Environment, Brandenburg
The Brandenburg Ministry for Environment has carried out a research programme into strategies
for sustainable development of areas typical for Brandenburg. The characteristics of the Land
Brandenburg are:
More lakes than all other states with a great variety of biotopes and species.
Very low population density with 88 inhabitants/km2 - federal average 223 inhabitants/km2.
Highest share of formerly military areas, comprising 8% of the total land surface.
Grave changes in economic and scientific structures (unemployment July 1997: 17.7%;
rosion of industrial research and develop up to 90%).
In July 1996 an invitation for tender of a research program on ”Concepts and approaches for a
sustainable development of former military areas and underdeveloped rural regions in the Land
Brandenburg was done by the Environmental Ministry together with the Ministries of Economics
and Science. In these areas the need for employment creation is recognised as also being of
central importance. 11 case-studies are being carried out. This specific regional knowledge will
also inform the implementation of the State´s general technological strategy drawn up in 1994.
The research programme - first results of which were presented in 1996 - explores a wide range
of research areas:
Sustainable resource use and creation of exemplary closed production cycles.
Sustainable regional development, especially development of reference projects for
conversion of military areas and structurally underdeveloped regions.
Evaluation the transferability of concepts of sustainable development already implemented
elsewhere.
Analysis of necessary change of legal and other framework conditions.
Encouragement of environmentally conscious production, consumption and lifestyles.
Methodological work to evaluate sustainability.
In one of these projects the environmental Technology Reseach Group of the University of
Potsdam has explored the starting points for sustainable material flow management in the district
of Ostprignitz-Ruppin (Fig.1), a district almost as big as Saarland, with only 115 000 inhabitants,
that means 46 inhabitants/km2, and a predominantly agricultural economic structure.
146
Figure 1: The District Ostprignitz - Ruppin
Why did we chose this Methodology?
Concerning the idea of sustainable development we wanted to explore the possibility of
developing a closed cycle supply for the needs of the region with the aim of reducing the global
material flow and developing more economic activity in the region. Therefore it was necessary to
measure the regional material flow. That is to say:
production, recycling and consumption (term of transformation)
disposal (term of reservoir)
import and export of material and emissions (term of transport)
This methodology has many advantages, which have already been demonstarded in the
previous chapters. One additional aspect seems to be very important in relation to regional
studies: The results do not depend on incidental engagement and individual priorities, as we
often find in Local Agenda 21 processes and they also do not depend on political targets, which
influence the concepts of regional planing.
147
Advantages of Regional Material Flow Management for the Sustainable Development:
Full description of the area
Comparability of different regions
Foundation to formulate and control targets of sustainability
Results are less influenced by incidental engagement and individual priorities
Proposals for action do not depend on political targets, which influence the concepts of
regional planing
Open Questions:
How to take into consideration the lack of data?
How to find the “right size” of the area?
How to deal with distortions caused by the integration into the national economy?
Figure 2: Advantages of Regional Material Flow Management and Open
Questions
On the other hand there are some special problems of the regional material flow account
which are not yet solved:
Lots of data, especially production and consumption data is only available at national or state
level.
The "right" size of areas for material flow management can not be established independently
but one has to take into consideration the goal, the methodology along with other sociological
and geographical conditions. But to get any kind of data in fixing the size of an area one is
dependant upon administrative boundaries.
When doing material flow management on a smaller scale than that of the national, there is
the risk of distortion, because the regions are not autarc: They are integrated into the national
economy, so that processes that at the national level are sustainable may not recognised as
such at the regional level. On the other hand, the fact of their economic weakness makes
structurally weak regions appear to be sustainable managers of their resource base simply
because the absence of economic activities. However, this neglects the hidden use of
resources brought about by government transfers from richer regions with higher level of
economic activity.
So what did we find out about the Material Flow Account in Ostprignitz-
Ruppin?
For a first evaluation we made up a strength-weakness-profile of the region from the available
structure data. Some essential aspects are shown in figure 3. The German average is set at 100
and shown is data from Ostprignitz-Ruppin and from the average of the State of Brandenburg.
There is:
an obsolete structure of apartment buildings;
high activities in construction on useful areas, especially in commission of public authorities;
lots of employees in agriculture and forestry, average activities in trade, transport and
services and few employees in manufacturing;
low soil fertility and usability;
average number of cars.
148
All in all the district “Ostprignitz-Ruppin” shows a typical structure for the State of
Brandenburg with extremely obsolete apartment buildings, with a vacancy rate of 6%, especially
high activity in public works and a very rural economic structure, which struggle with the bad
conditions caused by the climate and the soil.
The structure of heating should also be mentioned (figure 4): A majority of one-familiy
houses is still heated by coal. We expect that they will be renovated during the next few years.
0
100
200
Licences for Motor-cars (per inhabitant)
Apartment buidings, build after 1948
Housing space (per inhabitant)
Construction of Housing space in 1994
(m per inhabitant )
Construction of U seful areas in 1994
(m per inhabitant)
Hours of working for Construction of
Public works (per inhabitant)
Tertiary s ec tor *)
Secondary sect or*)
Primary sector*)
Corn crop (per hectare)
Livest ock (per hectare)
Licences for trucks (per inhabitants)
Germany (100%) Brandenburg (difference %) OPR (difference %)
Figure 3: Strength-Weakness-Profile of Ostprignitz-Ruppin
district heating
fuel oil
natural gas
coal current
large multiple family dwelling
sm all m ultiple fam ily dwelling
one-family-houses
0
4000
8000
12000
16000
apartments
Figure 4: Heating structure in Ostprignitz-Ruppin
149
Consumption of private
households
Production
Meat products 5 400 no data
Fish products 150 300
Eggs 590 26 000
Dairy Products 4 900 65 000
Friuts 5 700 0
Vegetables 4 000 (200 ha cultivation area)
Potatos 3 600 52 000
Crop and crop products 5 700 147 000
Exotic food 3 000 0
Textiles 2 700 0
Useful articles of high value 6 600 Few
Timber No data 118 000
Coal 65 000 0
Natural Gas 10 0
Fuel oil and petrol 80 000 0
Figure 5: Material Flows in Ostprignitz-Ruppin (tonne per year)
Additionally, we tried to estimate the material flow of the region. It was possible to compare
the consumption of private households with that of production for a lot of materials. (figure 5). It
shows that:
the production of foodstuff is much higher than consumption – by approximately a factor of
10 to 30;
figures relating to the consumption of wood are not available, but the amount of wood that
was currently felled equals only approximately 40% of the yearly growth;
the amount of fossil fuels was comparable with the felled wood;
for consumer durables with high value and textiles only data from the state of Brandenburg
was available, 70% of the mass of consumer durables with high value are motor-cars;
the very low level of industrial production is also visible by the small amount of hazardous
waste, which are only 17 kg per inhabitant, what is 20% of the average of the Brandenburg;
material for construction and masses of buildings are not estimated but we are compiling data
on this;
the consumption of private households lead to 25,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste and
20,000 tonnes material for recycling.
All in all the district is characterised by a high biomass turnover and big imports of fossil
fuels. The high activities in construction and the import of consumer durables lead to another use
of resources from outside of the region.
What does it mean for the Material Flow Management in Ostprignitz-
Ruppin?
In order to come to some useful early conclusions a more thorough investigation is being
undertaken on a specific material flow. It was chosen by the following criteria:
The Material Flow should ...
be substantial in quantity and quality,
have influence on the use of resources and area,
be regarded as important by the local people,
150
offer possibilities of economic development for the local people,
contain the potential for co-operation with developing countries and not reduce the
possibilities of development in other regions.
Because of the relevance in land use, energy supply and construction the material flow of
wood was selected. Study of this material flow began in April 1997. This investigated the
amount and source of wood burnt as fuel, the amount and source of wood used in construction,
and the amount and source of wood employed in other activities. It further explored how the
wood is used, and through which means a circulation oriented supply system in combination
with a rational energy plan could be achieved.
There are a lot of interdependencies in the region:
The area of forestry is so large per head of population that forestry waste wood alone could
supply 60% of the private households with heating energy if the buildings were constructed
according to the German Heat Insulation Act.
The amount of wood which is currently felled equals approximately 40 % of the yearly wood
growth.
There is an high potential of wood waste in the obsolete buildings which may be demolished
during the next years. The demolition of a pre 1918 three-storey-apartment building would
deliver 100 tonne of waste wood.
It would be possible to implement a regulation which would encourage the use of local
materials in public construction projects.
There are 120 small business for wood working in the district which could work together to
close material cycles in the region.
The expected replacement of coal fuelled heating systems offers an exceptional possibility
for change.
The implementation of this switch should build on existing local activities. In addition to the
material flow account of wood, we currently are in discussion with local people and
organisations on practical ways to develop and implement a sustainable wood management
system. The Ministry of Environment expects important insights for new and sustainable ways of
producing added value and strategic recommendations of the Brandenburg Energy Concept with
the reference to the use of biomass to the amount of 3% by the year 2010.
Literature:
Daniela Thrän, Dr. Konrad Soyez, u.a.: Nachhaltiges Stoffstrommanagement als Bestandteil von
regionaltypischen Konzepten für eine nachhaltige zukunftsfähige Entwicklung von
Konversionsgebieten und strukturschwachen Regionen im Land Brandenburg. Eine
Untersuchung im Auftrag des Ministeriums für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Raumordnung des
Landes Brandenburg. Erster Zwischenbericht. Universität Potsdam, Dezember 1996.
151
Planning Future Handling of Biodegradable Waste in the City of Stockholm
Using MFA Combined with LCA
Anna Björklund* and Charlotte Bjuggren**
*Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
** Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), Stockholm
Abstract
Future treatment of biodegradable waste in the City of Stockholm has been analysed. We have
used the approach of systems analysis. A static material/substance flow model, ORWARE, was
used for calculating the studied system’s outputs of emissions, residual products and energy, as
well as necessary inputs of energy and other resources. Three future scenarios with emphasis on
nutrients recycling were evaluated against the present situation. LCA technique was adopted for
evaluating model results by aggregating substance flows to environmental impact categories.
Transports have shown to be of relatively low importance to the overall environmental
impact, which is remarkable considering the geographical circumstances. Certain technical
details, such as removal of NOx from combustion of landfill gas and biogas from anaerobic
digestion, or utilisation of biogas for combined power and heating or heating only, are of
significant importance. Adjacent systems, such as electric supply and district heating, are in
some aspects crucial for the overall outcome of the study. The potential future impact of
landfilling can not be ignored in comparison with more immediate impacts. Results from the
study are however not unambiguous, and conclusions drawn will depend on prioritised goals.
The general experience from this project is that modelling of material flows can be a useful
tool for decision support. The co-operation of different interested stakeholders brought about
valuable exchange of information, and has been developing for those involved in the project.
Keywords: municipal waste management, organic waste, static modelling, material flow
accounting, life cycle assessment, nutrient recycling, energy, environmental impact
1 Introduction
In agreement with national goals and goals set up in the work with Agenda 21, the Environment
and Health Protection Administration in the City of Stockholm (EHPAS) has set up goals to
increase the recycling of nutrients contained in biodegradable waste. Biodegradable waste is here
defined as the biodegradable fraction in municipal and industrial waste and sewage. Aiming at a
holistic perspective, the objective is to optimise the waste management system, taking into
account regional structures for farming, energy support, sewage treatment, transports and
environmental effects.
At present, the major part of the solid biodegradable waste generated in Stockholm is
incinerated as a part of mixed municipal waste. Waste incineration with heat recovery delivers
500 to 600 GWh per year in Stockholm, mainly as district heating. Sewage sludge is, as far
possible, spread as fertiliser on arable land. Because of quality limits and market limitations,
only about 50% of the sludge is used for this purpose, the rest is landfilled.
There are no general solutions to meet the goal of increased recycling of nutrients, since the
solutions must largely depend on local conditions. Being the largest city in Sweden, Stockholm
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will have to consider specific circumstances such as large amounts of organic waste generated,
shortage of farmland suitable for recycling nutrients within its near surroundings and
interdependencies between the waste management system and the energy system.
In early 1996, a joint research project was started to find guiding principles for the treatment
of biodegradable waste in Stockholm. Participating institutions have been the Swedish
Environmental Research Institute (IVL), the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), the Swedish
University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) and the Swedish Institute for Agricultural
Engineering (JTI). In addition, the EHPAS and companies engaged in waste management took
active part in the work.
To avoid suboptimisations, it was essential to carry out a systematic analysis, which rendered
possible a comparative assessment of various approaches to reach the goal of increased nutrient
recycling. Static modelling of substance and material flows was used as a means to systematise
the information. LCA-methodology was applied in the process of defining system boundaries
and for environmental evaluation.
In this paper we summarise the most important results from the simulations of three future
scenarios for handling biodegradable waste in Stockholm and discuss the policy relevance of the
results obtained.
2 Methods
Two methods have been combined in this study, material flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle
assessment (LCA). The ORWARE model (ORganic WAste REsearch) is a static material flow
model, for simulating future scenarios of biodegradable waste management (Dalemo et al, 1997),
Figure 1.
Transpo rts Transports
En er
gy
Emiss ion s
Energ y
Nutrient s as fertilizer
Transports
Toilets Househ. Trade Restaur. Industry Parcs
In ci n e-
ratio n
Sewage
treatmen t
Anaerob ic
digestion Compost
Landfill
Figure 1: Activities and system boundaries of the ORWARE-model.
All physical flows within the system are described by the same vector, containing substances
and materials that either cause environmental impact, or that are necessary for modelling the
various waste treatment processes. The model calculates emissions to air, water and soil, energy
turnover and resource consumption. The information generated by the ORWARE model can be
viewed as corresponding to the inventory made in an LCA, although more detailed. Emissions
from the system are classified and characterised according LCA methodology (Linfors et al,
1995). Another LCA concept which has been adopted is the one of functional units. Each
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functional unit should be fulfilled to the same extent in all scenarios to make them comparable.
This has been a criterion when defining system boundaries.
2.1 Applying the ORWARE-Model to Stockholm
Four functional units were defined in this study. They are based on the benefits provided by the
waste treatment system in Stockholm:
An acceptable treatment of the biodegradable waste and sewage produced within the borders
of the Stockholm municipality
A certain amount of district heating produced
A certain amount of bioavailable phosphorus spread on arable land
A certain amount of bioavailable nitrogen spread on arable land
The system boundary of the ORWARE model is indicated by the inner boundary in Figure 2.
Due to the chosen functional units, the system boundary was expanded to include some
additional processes. This expansion is illustrated by the outer boundary in Figure 2.
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Figure 2: System boundaries of the ORWARE model (inner dashed
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line).
Additionally, the waste incineration facility in Stockholm should be utilised at its maximum
capacity in all scenarios. This may be a rather short-term constraint of the system, but never the
less a very interesting issue for the municipality of Stockholm. We assume 85% of the
biodegradable fraction of the incinerated household waste to be source separated, leaving a
certain capacity free to be used for incinerating other types of waste. If Stockholm decides to
source separate its biodegradable waste, it is likely that the surrounding municipalities will act
similarly. Therefore there will be a surplus of a so called residual household fraction in the near
region of Stockholm, a drier fraction with higher energy content than the biodegradable fraction.
This residual household fraction will be used in the simulations to fill in the extra capacity.
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Figure 3: Illustration of the effect of separating a certain amount of the
biodegradable household waste from the incineration plant.
2.2 Scenarios in the Stockholm Study
Four main scenarios have been simulated and evaluated. These are:
Reference scenario, which illustrates the situation of today.
Composting scenario, where suitable fractions are composted in a large scale reactor
compost. The compost is spread as fertiliser.
Anaerobic digestion, where suitable fractions are anaerobically treated with recovery of
biogas. The digester sludge is spread as fertiliser.
Urine separation, where human urine is collected separately and spread as fertiliser.
Scenario 2 and 3 illustrate alternative ways of treating the biodegradable fraction of solid
waste. Scenario 4 illustrates an alternative to conventional sewage treatment.
In addition to the four main scenarios, several sub-scenarios, or variations of the main
scenarios, have been run in order to investigate some of the assumptions made when designing
the scenarios.
The model has been adjusted to local conditions in Stockholm concerning waste amounts and
the performance of the existing treatment plants. This was done in co-operation with technical
personnel, by interviews with companies, stakeholders and the municipality.
3 Results
The results are presented as to what degree the functional units are fulfilled within the waste
management system, potential environmental impact, spreading of metals, resource consumption
and quality of the residual products.
The results are better understood if some important circumstances in the scenarios are first
explained.
i) The waste incineration facility is utilised at its maximum permitted capacity in all scenarios.
In the composting and anaerobic digestion scenarios, a so called residual household fraction
is incinerated in place of the out sorted biodegradable fraction, generating more district
heating, electricity and emissions than in the reference scenario. The residual household
fraction is landfilled in the reference and urine separation scenarios, generating landfill
emissions.
155
ii) In the anaerobic digestion scenario, the produced biogas will further increase generation of
district heating.
iii) Increased nutrients recycling in all future scenarios results in less need for industrial
production of fertiliser.
3.1 Functional Units
Each functional unit is dimensioned by the scenario providing the biggest amount of that utility
within the waste management system. All other scenarios will provide less than 100% of that
functional unit, and are complemented by activities external to the waste management system to
fulfil the functional units.
Table 1: Extent of functional units that are provided by the waste management system (WMS).
100% corresponds to: phosphorus, 410 ton/year; nitrogen, 1 980 ton/year; district
heating, 11(108 MJ/year. Net electricity consumption is not a functional unit, and is
therefore reported in absolute amounts.
Scenario Phosphorus Nitrogen District heating Net electricity consumption
% of functional unit produced within WMS MJ/year
Reference 71 9 31 3.2*106
Compost 90 16 98 1.2*108
Anaerobic di
g
estion 88 23 100 3.7*102
Urine separation 100 100 32 1.1*103
3.2 Resource Consumption
Use of primary energy resources, material, water and land should be included in an LCA. The
extended ORWARE-model includes use of primary energy resources, water and direct
consumption of chemicals, but not land, production of chemicals and material in equipment.
Here, we only report primary energy resource consumption.
Table 2: Primary energy resource consumption (total amount of resource extracted from the
earth’s crust) as compared to the reference scenario.
Scenario
Primary resource type Compost Anaerobic digestion Urine separation
Non-renewable
Coal 0 - - -
Oil - - - - 0
Natural gas 0 - - -
Uranium 0 - - -
Peat 0 - - -
Renewable
Water power 0 - - -
Biofuel 0 - - -
0 0 to 10% increase or decrease in primary energy resource consumption
+ or - 10 to 50% increase or decrease in primary energy resource consumption
++ or - - 50% or more increase or decrease in primary energy resource consumption
156
Electricity and district heating is partly delivered from waste incineration, biogas and landfill
gas. When there is a need for extra delivery, electricity is produced using the Swedish average
mix of oil, natural gas, coal, uranium, peat, water power and biofuel (Brännström-Norberg, 1996
and Dethlefsen, 1997). District heating is produced by incineration of oil.
3.3 Environmental Impacts
Ecotoxicity is excluded in Table 3. Today there is no robust method for calculating this
environmental impact (Linfors, 1997). There are also data gaps in the modelling of hazardous
organic compounds in the ORWARE-model. In our view, it is therefore more relevant to
evaluate only the fate of specific heavy metals, instead of aggregated measures of ecotoxicity.
The impact category ”human health effects” is considered sufficiently robust for comparisons
between scenarios, whereas absolute values should be treated with care. Human health effects
from air emissions outweigh those from water and soil emissions, which therefore are not
reported either.
Long term effects comprise emissions from the landfilling, mainly leaching of heavy metals
and nutrients and methane emissions. These are reported separately due to the uncertainty
associated with the prediction of future landfill emissions.
Table 3: Potential environmental impact from the three main future scenarios as compared to
the reference scenario. 1
Scenario
Potential environmental Composting Anaerobic digestion Urine separation
impact short term2 lon
g
term3 short term long term short term long term
Acidification 0 n. e. 4 + n. e. + n. e.
Eutrophication 0 - 0 - - - -
Global warming - - - - - - - - - 0
Photo-oxidants, org. comp. - - - - - - + 0
Photo-oxidants, NOx 0 n. e. + n. e. + n. e.
Human health, air emissions 0 n. e. + n. e. + n. e.
0 0 to 10% increase or decrease in potential environmental impact
+ or - 10 to 50% increase or decrease in potential environmental impact
++ or - - 50% or more increase or decrease in potential environmental impact
2potential effect from all activities within the extended system, and 100 years of landfill emissions
3potential effect from all activities within the extended system, including all future landfill emissions
4n. e. = no effect other than the short term perspective
Statements about increased or decreased environmental impacts are meant as compared to the
reference scenario. As composting and anaerobic digestion are alternative means of treating solid
biodegradable waste, these two scenarios can also be compared with one another. The urine
separation scenario is not to be compared with the two former ones, as it deals with alternative
means of treating liquid waste.
Note that the results in Table 3 are only a direct compilation of simulation results. They do
not stand for themselves, but should be complemented with explanations of the underlying
reasons and possible variations of each outcome, as well as the results obtained in the sub-
scenarios. These aspects will not be illustrated in this text, as its intention is more to focus on
conclusions than on analysis.
3.4 Metals
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In all studied scenarios, heavy metals are spread by two main routes. They will end up either in
the landfill, or as contaminants in the residual products. In Table 4 the total metal inflow in all
scenarios and distribution in the reference scenario is described.
Table 4: Total inflow of heavy metals in all scenarios (kg/year) and distribution of heavy metals
to different media in the reference scenario (% of total inflow) 1.
All scenarios Reference scenario
Metal Total inflow Landfill Air, incineration Water, sewage treatment Soil, sewa
g
e slud
g
e
kg/year % % % %
Pb 34000 98 0 0.2 1.6
Ni 7000 75 0 22 3.3
Cu 40000 89 0 2 8.5
Zn 110000 91 0 5 4.7
Cd 720 97 0 0.3 2.2
Cr 7700 93 0.03 2.5 4.7
Hg 100 75 0.03 5.7 19
1 A minor part of all metals end up in compost from local composting of park waste included in the reference
scenario. This is excluded because of its minor importance.
The major part of the metals entering the system do not originate from the biodegradable
waste fractions, but from the residual household fraction. Therefore, there are no major
differences in the distribution of metals in the future scenarios. The metals in the residual
household fraction are landfilled either as a part of slag and flyash, or as untreated waste. There
is however one new type of residual product in each scenario. Compost and digester sludge
contain 0.6-3.5% of all metals entering the system. Urine contains only 0.02-0.4% of all metals
entering the system.
3.5 Quality of Residual Products
The residual products obtained in the different scenarios are intended to be used as fertilisers. As
such, they will contribute to the successive contamination of arable land, due to their metal
content. In Table 5, each residual product is compared to quality standards set up by the Swedish
EPA for sewage sludge for year 2000.
Table 5: Quality of the produced residual products in the different scenarios related to the future
quality standard for sludge according to the Swedish EPA. The calculation is done
based on a dosage of 20 kg P/ha.
Metal Sewage sludge,
without urinesep.
Sewage sludge,
with urinesep.
Reactor compost Anaerobic digester
sludge
Urine
(% of maximum limit, at 20 kg P/hectare)
Pb 150 230 550 560 2
Ni 60 100 128 110 10
Cu 77 120 120 120 1
Zn 60 90 70 60 2
Cd 140 220 180 160 5
Cr 62 94 126 100 2
Hg 90 138 10 7 1
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4 Discussion
4.1 Fertilisers and Energy
Recycling of phosphorous is fairly large in the reference scenario, 42%, and does not increase
much in any of the future scenarios, see Table 1. At most, 66% of is recycled in the urine
separation scenario. Therefore, industrial production of phosphorous fertiliser causes very small
changes of the emissions in all future scenarios. Recycling of nitrogen does not increase much in
the composting and anaerobic digestion scenarios, but is significantly higher in the urine
separation scenario. Therefore, industrial production of nitrogen fertilisers causes very small
changes of the emissions in the composting and anaerobic digestion scenarios, but does influence
emissions contributing to global warming, acidification, human health and photo oxidant
formation in the urine separation scenario.
As none of the calculated environmental impacts are significantly influenced by industrial
production of phosphorous fertilisers, recycling of phosphorous in biodegradable waste is mainly
a question of saving a potentially scarce resource, and preventing environmental impact from
leakage of phosphorous from landfills. Recycling nitrogen, on the other hand, is not a question of
saving nitrogen as a resource, but avoiding unwanted leakage of nitrogen and avoiding impacts
caused by industrial production of nitrogen fertiliser.
In the composting and anaerobic digestion scenarios, with the defined system boundaries, the
total utilisation of energy in household waste is increased. Due to this, the results of these two
scenarios in comparison to the reference scenario are largely influenced by energy supply
systems. For example, using biofuel for producing district heating or introducing better
technique for NOx-removal, may alter the results by changing the conditions in the reference
scenario in a crucial way. The urine separation scenario has very little influence on energy
supply.
4.2 Environmental Impact
As the environmental impact categories are only summarised in Table 3, but not discussed and
explained, a lot of important information will not be revealed to the reader. Disregarding this,
based on the results from the main scenarios and the sub-scenarios, we argue that increased
recycling of nutrients in solid biodegradable waste can be introduced, giving positive effects on
all environmental impacts considered in Table 3. On the other hand, urine separation can not yet
be introduced without increasing environmental impact.
4.3 Metals
As long as source separated biodegradable waste and sewage sludge are contaminated with
metals, increased recycling of nutrients will inevitably increase spreading of metals on arable
land. At present, the only residual product which will be accepted for spreading by the year
2000, is urine. If other residual products are to be recycled, something must be done to reduce
their degree of contamination. Only if one believes this to be possible, evaluating the other
impacts will be meaningful.
4.4 Relating to Total Emissions in Stockholm
The results can be viewed and discussed in different contexts with different aims. Either the
small scale, finding what activities related to the management of biodegradable waste contribute
the most to the different environmental impacts. Or the large scale, finding the system exerting
the lowest overall environmental impact. In order to achieve the latter, it is not sufficient to
consider the results as presented above, but one must somehow rank the importance of each
159
category relative the others. To do this, the results from the simulations can be related to the
amounts of emissions or material flows in Stockholm as a whole. Relating the results from the
reference scenario to these total flows, will give a hint of what is important and what is not.
In order to make relevant comparisons, we analyse what substances contribute the most to the
various impacts. These are then related to total flows/emissions. This summary also gives a good
picture of the small scale context as described above.
Table 6: Major contributing emissions for each environmental impact and their major sources in
the reference scenario; entire system and actual waste management system (WMS).
Actual WMS Entire reference scenario
Environmental
impact
Major
contributing
emission
Major contributing
activity
Major contributing
emission
Major contributing activity
Acidification NH3 sludge storage NOx district heating
Eutrophication NO3-, NH4+, P sewage treatment same as WMS same as WMS
Global warming VOC incl CH4 landfilling fossil CO2 district heating
Photo-oxidants,
org. comp. VOC incl CH4 landfilling same as WMS same as WMS
Photo-oxidants,
NOx NOx waste collection,
transports, burning
biogas
NOx district heating
Human health,
air emissions SOx, NOx burning landfill gas,
transports
NOx, SOx district heating, burning landfill
gas
This summary suggests that NH3/ NH4+, NO3-, P, VOC including CH4, NOx, SOx and
fossil CO2 should be examined further by relating to total emissions in Stockholm. It should be
noticed that emissions of ecotoxicological importance are not examined.
The system boundary of total material flows through Stockholm does not correspond entirely
with the system boundary in this study. Our analysis is not strictly limited to the geographical
boundaries of Stockholm. Thus, emissions that partly occur outside Stockholm, can not be used
to calculate to what extent the management of organic waste contributes to total emissions.
Relating the two to each other will however give a good hint of its relative importance.
Excluding all external activities in the comparison would give a false picture of waste related
emissions. For clarity, emissions from the actual waste management system and external
activities, are reported separately.
Table 7: Some examples of relating material flows from the waste management system to total
flows from Stockholm.
Emission Total in
Stockholm
[tons]
External
activities
[tons]
Waste
system,
not landfill
[tons]
Landfill,
surveyable
time
[tons]
Landfill,
infinite time
[tons]
Total
[tons] 3
Importance [%
of total in
Stockholm]
P, total outflow 1 145 1 0 322 2 404 728 64
N, total outflow 10 390 1 30 3 260 67 76 3 433 33
fossil CO2 2 500 000 2 7 330 2 710 0 9 700 20 740 1
1 In 1997 (Burström et al., 1997)
2 In 1992 (EHPAS, 1995)
3 Emissions do not necessarily occur in Stockholm. The landfills are for example located outside Stockholm.
160
Total material flows are scarcely calculated in Stockholm. Therefore we so far only outline a
possible way of structuring the data. The waste management system apparently plays a
significant role in the metabolism of phosphorous and nitrogen in Stockholm. Emissions of fossil
CO2, on the other hand, should be of very little importance when evaluating the waste
management system. This comparison should however be done for all emissions that are to be
prioritised according to Table 6.
4.5 Policy Relevance
The ORWARE-tool has been applied in a small town (Dalemo et al, 1997), a rural region
(Oostra, 1996), and now a large city. Combining MFA and LCA methodology has proven to be a
useful means to widen the basis for strategic decisions concerning management of biodegradable
waste in communities or regions.
Specific results from a case study are not generally applicable, and the results from one region
can not serve to guide in decisions for another. This becomes evident for example when realising
the major influence of the existing waste incineration facility in Stockholm. Specific results from
one region can however be used for understanding more of the complexity of management of
biodegradable waste. Some general conclusions may possibly also be drawn about what parts are
more or less important for different impacts.
Apart from specific results in the case study in Stockholm, the policy relevance of the
ORWARE-model depends on how the results can be utilised and what side effects the project
brings about. The approach systematises existing knowledge and helps to point out critical
questions when discussing future waste and sewage treatment systems. Working with scenarios
is also a good way to better understanding of yet untested solutions and systems. The modularity
of the ORWARE-model, enabled by the MFA approach, makes scenario building rather
straightforward. Close co-operation with different stakeholders and practitioners gave the
benefits of combining research with practical experiences, as well as improving communication
between different stakeholders in the municipality.
Acknowledgements
We thank Ulf Sonesson and Thomas Nybrant (SLU) and Magnus Dalemo and Huibert Oostra
(JTI) for good work, and the stakeholders who took active part in the project. The project was
financed by the EHPAS and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
References
Brännström-Norberg, B. M., Dethlefsen, U., Johansson, R., Setterwall, C. and Tunbrant, S.
(1996) Livscykelanalys för Vattenfalls elproduktion, sammanfattande rapport, Vattenfall,
Stockholm, Sverige (in Swedish)
Burström, F., Brandt, N., Frostell, B. and Mohlander, U. (1997). Material Flow Accounting and
Information for Environmenatl Policies in the City of Stockholm. Proceedings of ConAccount
conference ”Analysis for Action”, 11-12 September, 1997. Wuppertal, Germany.
Dalemo, M., Sonesson, U., Björklund, A., Mingarini, K., Frostell, B., Jönsson, H., Nybrant, T.,
Sundqvist, J.-O., Thyselius, L. (1997) A simulation model for Organic Waste Handling
Systems, Part 1: Model Description, Accepted for publication in Resources, Conservation and
Recycling
Dethlefsen, U. (1997) personal communication,Vattenfall, Stockholm, Sweden
161
EHPAS (1995) Environment 2000, Stockholm’s Environmental Programme. Environment and
Health Protection Administration. Stockholm, Sweden (in Swedish)
Lindfors, L.-G., Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V., Hanssen, O.-J.,
Ronning, A., Ekvall, T., Finnveden, G. (1995) LCA Nordic, Technical Reports No 10 and
special reports 1-2. Tema Nord 1995:503. Nordic Council of Ministers. Copenhagen,
Denmark.
Lindfors, L.-G. (1997) personal communication, Swedish Environmental Research Institute,
Stockholm, Sweden
Oostra, H. H. (1996). System analysis of different waste handling systems for rural and sparsely
populated areas. AFR-report 100, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm
162
Towards a Sustainable Company: Resource Management at the "Kambium
Furniture Workshop Inc."
Christa Liedtke, Thomas Orbach and Holger Rohn
Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy
1. Introduction
In appendix 1D of the EEC-Audit-Ordinance1“good management practices”, both the direct
environmental effects of running a business as well as the life cycle spanning burdens associated
with the environmental effects of the products should be taken into consideration in an
environmental management system. Which method should be employed in the assessment and
analysis of the product line-wide environmental effects and how the results of such an analysis
are to be integrated into an environmental management system is left open.
In light of the very high number of materials transformed in the context of production - or at
one production site - a consideration of the life cycle wide view of the environmental stress
intensities seems highly complex if not altogether impossible. The experiences of many firms
and professional associations with product line derived environmental analyses (Schmitz et al.
1995, Mallay/Pfriem 1993, Umweltbundesamt 1992, Schmidt-Bleek/Liedtke 1995a, SETAC
1992) to date cause businesses to hesitate for reasons of both cost and time about considering
this recommendation in the context of their EEC-audit procedures. It is becoming apparent that
the rather weakly phrased requirement in the ordinance, to consider environmental aspects from
the perspective of product lines, will often not take place in the environmental management
procedures of businesses.
A prerequisite for the development of a sustainable economy is that wealth/well-being and
social security can be provided with one tenth the level of resource consumption of today
(Schmidt-Bleek 1994). For industrial production of goods and services, this does not mean that
the resource productivity of every single process or every individual phase of the life cycle must
be drastically increased (Liedtke/Schmidt-Bleek 1995b) but rather that the resource consumption
in societies should be reduced by as much as possible across the board. In the big picture, it may
turn out to be ecologically preferable to “invest” more resources at particular points in the life
cycle of a product, in order to increase the resource productivity across the entire life cycle. This
is most often the case with durable goods such as office furniture out of stainless steel or wood
furniture in general, pipes, bridges or large architectural constructions. Besides exhausting the
technical potential for efficiency increases, a fundamental “revisioning of our concept of use”
(Bierter 1995, Hopfenbeck/Jasch 1995, Schmidt-Bleek/Tischner 1995, Sachs 1994) is in order: a
deliberate and conscious shift toward a dematerialized consumer culture throughout all areas of
life. The consideration of product line derived environmental aspects in environmental
management systems of those firms participating in a given product line is decisive, as this is the
only manner in which the potential for dematerialization can be fully utilized. For individual
firms this is an injunction to undertake the greatest possible measures toward influencing how
material and energy is used both upstream and downstream. This is the ecological equivalent of
the familiar injunction to minimize the costs to the final consumer.
1 Verordnung (EWG) Nr. 1836/93 des Rates vom 29. Juni 1993 über die freiwillige Beteiligung gewerblicher Unternehmen an
einem Gemeinschaftssystem für das Umweltmanagement und die Umweltbetriebsprüfung, Amtsblatt der Europäischen
Gemeinschaften Nr. L 168/1. In the international discussion about the EU-Audit-Ordinance the abbreviation EMAS is
commonly used, which stands for “Environmental Management and Audit Scheme.”
163
Scientists estimate (International Factor-10-Club 1994) that the important changes to how we
run our economies will have to have occurred by the middle of the next century, unless we are
willing to run the risk of threatening human life as we know it beyond the point of no return. It is
therefore imperative to ensure that in the development processes of industrialized nations the
necessary improvements in resource productivity are begun as soon as possible. In the context of
“developmental assistance,” the development of dematerialized infrastructures for less
industrialized nations should be made a central issue: not the materially intensive and resource
wasting systems of the industrialized nations in the areas of construction, transport,
communication and energy should be promoted as high tech; instead the ideas underlying service
oriented, resource saving technologies are the market of the future, which, in regionalized market
structures, can be utilized by countries as they need them. The earth won’t be able to cope with
another materially intensive industrial development as has occurred in the North over the past
century.
In order to operationalize such an “environmental goal” it appears useful - in light of the
multitude and diversity of the goods on today’s markets and their complex chemical composition
- to use a system like the “Chemikaliengesetz” (Germany’s laws governing the use of chemicals)
to arrange a step-process which would augment the environmental compatibility assessment of
goods by a directionally stable procedure as a rough first approximation.
1.1 The MIPS Concept
The resource productivity can be defined as the amount of use (or service) associated with, or
derived from, a given amount of energy and material, and with reference to the total life cycle of
the “service delivery machines” (Schmidt-Bleek 1994) employed toward that end. In so doing,
each raw material, intermediate, or end product that is employed is paired with an “ecological
rucksack,” consisting of the weighted sum of all matter and energy used for its production-from
cradle to grave. In this manner the environmental quality (associated with the resource effort) of
all functionally equivalent goods or production sites can be compared directly. Whatever
knowledge about the human - or eco-toxicity of materials involved that is available is to be
included in all decision making processes - which is generally already required by law.
The inverse of the resource productivity is the material input per service unit, or MIPS. The
material input (including energy and transport intensities (Manstein 1995a, Stiller 1995a,
1995b)) reflects all the material displaced with the help of technology in nature in either kg or t,
and with reference to a service provided. An example would be the sum total of all resources
which were afforded on a life cycle wide basis for a person-kilometer in an automobile.
The material input is summarized in five different statistical categories.
abiotic raw materials
biotic raw materials
earth movements in forestry and agriculture
water, and
• air.
The material intensity in each respective category contains the material or resource input per t
of material or specific product weight. Seven tons of abiotic raw materials, for instance, per t of
sheet steel, or 88 t abiotic raw materials per 110 kV reinforced concrete power pole (Merten et
al. 1995). The ecological rucksack, on the other hand, represents the resource consumption
without the tare weight of the material or product in question. In the case of the sheet steel,
(MIabiotic raw materials = 7t/t) the ecological rucksack of abiotic raw materials weighs 6 t (7 t
abiotic resource consumption minus 1 t tare weight of abiotic raw materials).
MIPS can be used to analyze both durable and less durable goods and in principle it can also
be used to examine complex facilities and infrastructures.
164
With the help of the indicator “resource productivity” it is possible to identify sustainable
market niches for materials and products. In this context we use the term sustainable to denote a
marriage between what is economically feasible and ecologically necessary.
1.2 Offensive Environmental Management and Competition
The concept of offensive environmental management is worthwhile for businesses in both an
economic and an ecological sense, as it enables them to avoid negative environmental
consequences in advance, where this is possible, and thereby seeks to reduce the costs of
environmental protection.
How then is a sustainable economy to be conceptualized, which uses competition to cost
effectively introduce and establish socially and ecologically sound products on the market?
Socially sound implies a product or system which is tailored to specifically meet the service
demanded.
In examining the ecological measures in a business, the emphasis should rest on performance.
In contrast to the usual systematics (Porter 1989, 1990) of “cost drivers,” cost disadvantages and
failure, it is necessary to identify “value drivers” that lead to competitive advantages-permitting
firms to be both sustainable and successful. The ecological focus of management provides such a
“value driver” (Zäpfel 1989). An early entry into a position of ecological leadership as a value
driver enables a business to erect barriers to entry. In addition, legislative requirements are
surpassed, giving the consumer an idea of what is ecologically feasible. Potential competitors,
unable to meet the standards which result from such a performance are no longer a threat to the
leader. Furthermore, it might be possible to identify customers particularly concerned about the
environment among the clientele of the competition. In a focused strategy these consumers could
then be wooed with exceptional ecologically sound products from the company discussed here.
Under the right circumstances, this could even foster higher prices, justified by the increased
utility to the consumer. Ecological production management can thus support both product
differentiation and focusing strategies, making it an effective instrument in the context of
competition. Such a strategy is being pursued by the Kambium Furniture Workshop, Inc., which
is participating in this project. For this reason, this business and its production concept are
particularly suited to the task of showing how a position of ecological leadership is both a factor
in competition and a value driver.
In order to make a mark in the market of sustainable products and environmentally sound
production, businesses must first show that they are able to effectively and successfully
implement such a strategy. Besides the already mentioned procedure for determining the life
cycle wide resource productivity of products and services as an ecological indicator, businesses
require information on how they can set up a cost and eco-efficient environmental management
system at their site.
With the ordinance (EWG) No. 1836/93 of June 29, 1993 on the voluntary participation of
commercial enterprises in a joint system for environmental management and environmental
audits (the EEC-Audit-Ordinance) the EEC commission has created an instrument, evolved
through political negotiation, which, despite all the criticism, has successfully delivered on its
promise of an offensive environmental management which doubles as a strategic performance
factor.
As the first such instrument on a European scale, the ordinance provides the opportunity of
developing a management system that attempts, through the use of preventative policy measures
and strategies, to avoid cumulative environmental costs, while improving, or at least stabilizing,
the profitability of a business.
The objective of this study is to find evidence of this by way of the environmental audit of a
small business, the Kambium Furniture Workshop, Inc.
The resource management program developed at the Wuppertal Institut on the basis of the
MIPS concept of Prof. F. Schmidt-Bleek represents the foundational instrument for a product
165
line derived and site specific environmental analysis. It combines the firm’s input-output
analysis with a product line spanning analysis of resource demands as well as with a firm’s cost
accounting procedures. Consequently the study contains - on the basis of the MIPS concept -
both a delineation of the operational as well as of the product-centered analysis of the
environmental consequences associated with the production spheres.
The goals are,
to test on site the degree to which the aforementioned ecological assessment instrument
MIPS is operationalizable and whether it satisfies the product line and firm specific demands
of the ordinance;
to figure out ways for small and medium sized firms to minimize the costs of obtaining the
desired certification while gaining the highest possible level of information about the
environmental management system that is to be installed as well as about the environmental
stress intensity of their products;
to specify a resource management strategy for the Kambium company that permits the
determination of specific methods for firm specific material flow management and ecological
design, incorporating alternative modes of product use, as well as of firm specific
environmental management, and
to compile possible improvement suggestions for revisioning the EEC-Audit-Ordinance
1998.
2. Eco-Audit & Resource Management at the Kambium Furniture Workshop,
Inc.
Kambium-a company presents itself
The Kambium Furniture Workshop, Inc. is a small to
medium sized business with a payroll of about 35 and a
fairly horizontal organizational structure, typical for a
business of this size. In 1994, roughly 120 kitchens, as
well as a few other pieces of furniture, were produced,
yielding a turnover of 5.5 million DM. The kitchens are
made of solid wood, and are produced and marketed
with the highest standards of environmental compatibility
in mind.
The choice of a site suitable for the use of wind energy
as well as the architectural and energy concepts
employed in the company structures (wind turbine,
cogeneration, ecologically mindful construction methods)
and the approaches to product and production methods
and direct marketing (local markets within a 100km
radius and the avoidance of transport packaging) all point
to a deep commitment to principles of environmental
compatibility.
Kambium kitchen
Kambium kitchens are situated at the high end of the
market in every respect. The use of modern computer
technologies (CAD and CNC) facilitates the production of
very individual kitchens, tailored to the customer’s
specifications.The primary material is wood from
European sources (shorter transport routes).
The methods employed in the assembly is a derivation of
the traditional "Hirnleistenbauweise" which guarantees
integral structural stability, despite the characteristic of
solid wood to shrink and swell over time.
The use of paint is avoided entirely - the furniture
surfaces are impregnated with natural oils.
Kambium kitchens are particularly durable.
Obsolescence does not figure into the company’s
scheme, i.e., as long as the company is in business,
reorders, repairs as well as conversions and
modifications always remain possible. When one day a
piece of such kitchen furniture should no longer fulfill the
service needs it was purchased to meet, it can easily be
returned to natural cycles, as it is free of all pollutants.
166
2.1 The Environmental Management System at Kambium
As a first step toward obtaining certification under the EEC-Audit-Ordinance the Kambium
Furniture Workshop, Inc. put together an ten point environmental policy document which allies
environmental protection with its primary business objectives besides featuring the elements
required by the EEC-Audit-Ordinance. In addition, the document contains ambitious demands
such as an examination of the environmental effects of the products spanning the entire product
line, the regional focus of the firm, as well as their resource saving energy supply. The document
is made available to employees, business partners, the community, governmental authorities and
customers, as well as to the public, in order to inform all relevant groups about the
environmentally based precepts of this business.
Parallel to the formulation of environmental policy guidelines, the first environmental audit
was carried out at Kambium. It consisted of the following five categories:
iv) Registration of all relevant mass and energy flows in the in-house mass-survey.
5. Identification of ecological problem areas through the use of check lists.
6. Registration of the intra-firm material flows and comparison of the building construction with
the planning and construction blue prints in the course of a plant inspection.
7. Questioning of the employees in two workshops.
8. The search for dematerialization potentials through an examination of Kambium products
according to the criteria for ecological design.
All the problem areas and savings potentials identified in the course of the environmental
audit are combined into a catalogue of measures, from which management-after having made
preliminary ecological, economic and legal assessments-selects those areas which are to be
included in the environmental program. In order to achieve a steady implementation of the
environmental program, every measure is tabulated on a form, on which the responsibilities,
deadlines, budgets and any possibly necessary incremental steps toward implementation are
enumerated.
In the next step, the environmental management system is established, which constitutes one
of the focal points of the eco-audit concept. This facilitates the creation of structures which aid in
the continual improvement of in-house environmental protection. Organizational structures are
to be determined at this stage, as well as the responsibilities, behavioral patterns, formal
procedures, sequences and means. These explicitly enumerated ambitious demands from the
EEC-Audit-Ordinance constitute the greatest hurdle for small to medium sized businesses, which
generally do not have ready access to a sophisticated management system, on the road to
certification.
2.2 Operational and Material Flow Analyses
In the operational and material flow analyses all relevant material and energy flows at the
Kambium Furniture Workshop, Inc. for the reference year 1994 are recorded. The uniform
system of mass accounts, which was developed for the in-house mass tabulation constitutes a
comprehensive environmental information system which is simultaneously a core component of
the environmental management system yet to be installed.
Alongside the basic objective of tabulating all relevant in-house material and energy flows,
the uniform system of mass accounts has the additional task of ensuring a parallel sequence of
cost and mass accounting (Preimesberger 1994) as well as facilitating a direct linking of the firm
to a product line spanning material flow analysis. An important parameter in this context is the
compatibility of the data collection framework of the uniform system of mass accounts and the
computer based material flow analysis of the product line.. The expressed objective is thus to
standardize all accounts to mass units (kg or t). The conceptual and methodological delineations
are based on the MIPS concept and its tabulation criteria.
167
The basic structure reflects an hierarchical tabulation framework, that is organized according
to useful categories. By analogy to national accounting, the basic structure includes both input (I)
and output (O), as well as asset accounts (A). The additional category inventory or store (S) was
also formed (Fig. 1).
I. input O. output
I. 1. raw materials O. 1. products
I. 2. energy O. 2. energy
I. 3. water O. 3. waste water
I. 4. air O. 4. vitiated air
I. 5. products O. 5. waste
I. 6. merchandise O. 6. merchandise
I. 7. communication O. 7. communication
I. 8. services O. 8. services
I. 9. transport O. 9. noise
S. store A. assets
S. 1. raw materials A. 1. land areas
S. 2. energy A. 2. structures
S. 3. water A. 3. plant and equipment
S. 4. products A. 4. vehicle fleet
S. 5. merchandise
S. 6. communication
Figure 1: Structure of the account framework
The various areas are divided into accounts and subsidiary accounts, all of which are assigned
a specific index. With the continual tabulation of all environmentally relevant data it becomes
possible to regularly collate the results, providing a basis for assessing the environmental
situation and its development. On the basis of the multi-levelled interconnections between
product lines and firm specific (economic zone specific (Bringezu 1995)) analyses,
improvements and cost saving potentialities on all important levels and in all areas can be
shown. Outside the firm, the uniform system of mass accounts can serve as an important
environmental information system in the context of the firm’s environmental communication.
So as to interfere as little as possible with the operational production sequence, it is necessary
that the in-house tabulation system – as represented by the uniform system of mass accounts and
demanded by the EEC Audit Ordinance be set up incrementally, and completed over time.
Particular emphasis should be placed on the use of available informational and organizational
structures, on computer aided material flow tabulation and evaluation, on offensive
environmental communication as well as on active, participatory employee involvement and
training.
2.3 The Kitchen – From "Cradle to Grave"
In light of the comprehensive ecological assessment of Kambium, the environmental effects
associated with the product line “solid wood kitchens” were tabulated. These include all material
flows attributable to production which were determined and evaluated using the MIPS concept.
The material intensity analysis covers the entire life cycle of the kitchen, i.e. from raw material
procurement/extraction, through the production of lumber, the assembly of the boards and
assorted other parts, to the finished kitchen, the use phase and the recycling or disposal of the
kitchen. The material intensity of a solid wood kitchen was computed both for the individual life
stages (production, use, recycling/disposal) of the product line “kitchens” as well as for the entire
life cycle (Fig. 2). This was compared to an equivalent kitchen constructed of Formica-covered
168
particle board. Additionally the material intensity of a “second hand” Kambium kitchen was
determined (see 2.4 Design), so as to be able to judge possibilities for environmentally sound
kitchen recycling.
Biotic Resources
Abiotic Resources
Air
Water
10 kg 1 kg
*same volume, without electric mashines;life cycler: sawnwood kitchen 50 years, plywood kitchen 20 years
S
a
w
n
w
o
o
d
K
i
t
c
h
e
n
P
l
y
w
o
od
K
it
c
h
e
n
60 kg 3739 kg
228 kg
865 kg
39 kg
13 kg
Biotic Resources
Abiotic Resources Water
Air
Figure 2: Life cycle wide material intensity of a solid wood and a
plywood kitchen in kg/l storage space
The storage capacity of a kitchen according to DIN (German Industrial Standard, similar to
ISO) 18022 was computed to be 2,061 liters/average kitchen1. In the case of the solid wood
kitchen, a life span of 50 years was assumed, for the particle board kitchen, a life span of 20
years was imputed (Preimesberger 1996).
Fig. 2 identifies the solid wood kitchen as a significantly resource saving product. Looking at
the life cycle spanning resource consumption, the input of biotic materials for the solid wood
kitchen is thirteen times higher than in the case of the particle board kitchen. The input of abiotic
materials, water and air on the other hand is about four times higher for the particle board
kitchen than for the solid wood kitchen.
In the present study the electrical appliances were not considered, either in the resource
intensity analysis of the product line or in the considerations about design.
While Kambium employees are not able to directly affect the design and installation of
electrical appliances in the realm of the kitchen, they can affect the selection of the appliances
through their consulting. When selling a kitchen built to very high environmental criteria
specifications it makes sense to recommend those fixtures, which, from an environmental
perspective, fair the best. The Low-Energy-Institute-in Detmold2 publishes an annual
informational pamphlet on particularly conserving household appliances. In addition to
mentioning total resource consumption, Kambium customers should consider this information in
the selection of electrical appliances.
1 The average kitchen is defined according to the fictitious solid wood kitchen which Kambium conceived as a basis for
determining the material intensity according to DIN 18022 („Küchen, Bäder und WC`s im Wohnungsbau”, DIN
Taschenbuch Nr.110, Wohnungsbau, Berlin 1991) This average kitchen was also conceptualized in four different variations
with different materials.
2 Niedrig-Energie-Institut GbR, Michael & Scharping, Rosental 21, 32756 Detmold.
169
2.4 Design
An examination of the design had three objectives: to identify strengths and weaknesses of the
present Kambium kitchen concept, to develop strategies for minimizing the material and energy
throughput in production, use and disposal of Kambium kitchens, and to optimize the service
performance.
This covers questions at the product level (i.e. materials used, principles of construction,
aesthetics of durability), as well as at the system level, as in the marketing structures, product
redemption and recycling options. Possibilities for expanding the resource-conserving Kambium
concept onto other customer or user groups were also discussed.
Service
An optimal environmentally considerate design requires a careful definition of what we mean by
service. The definition corresponds to the following categories:
• storing
• preparing
cooking, roasting, baking, re-heating
arranging/serving; (eating - only with a sufficiently large kitchen area)
cleaning, dish-washing
waste disposal.
The kitchen floor-plan and the number of users are important specifications for planning a
kitchen which adequately meets the demands. As all the above service options cannot be
captured in a functional unit, a service unit was defined with reference to the smallest common
denominator: liters of storage space per year. In this manner the life cycle wide resource
consumption of various kitchen variations can be compared with reference to a functional unit.
The service options which can be met by the kitchen in question, and which go beyond this
definition, can be ascertained from the description of expanded services, or, with reference to the
level of the MI value. While this allows us to measure, we have not yet been able to fully grasp
the service provided by a given kitchen. Only if two kitchens meet roughly the same service
demands can they be compared using the formula above. If a kitchen supplies an expanded array
of desired services, this kitchen is to be preferred over another providing fewer services, if the
material and energy requirement were equal in both cases.
Analysis of strengths and weaknesses
With the help of a list, which enumerates the environmentally relevant product characteristics,
the ecological qualities of the Kambium kitchen are to be examined.
Thoughts on the re-design of the product Kambium kitchens
A re-design considers constructive and design measures which can reduce the material or energy
input into a Kambium kitchen beyond the previous levels while preserving its service functions,
or, increasing the services at a constant level of material and energy input. Possibilities for
variations on the concept of the "Hirnleistenbauweise" were drawn up, and the issue of a fitted
kitchen vs. pieces of furniture was dealt with at length.
Thoughts on the re-design of the system Kambium kitchen
The Kambium company estimates the life expectancy of their fitted kitchens to be roughly 100
years. This appears to be a realistic time frame, as far as the material quality and the construction
are concerned. At the same time this implies that the users of the kitchen (at least two
generations) must agree to a long-term fixed kitchen installation. In many cases such a long use-
period will not occur. Moving, changes in familial constellations, the death of the user are but a
few examples of situations that could terminate the first use phase of a Kambium kitchen. What
happens, though, when the next generation, or the successive renter is not interested in sticking
with the installations? What happens in the case of a move? If the Kambium kitchen is to be
kept, it must be adapted to the specifications of the new surroundings. The problem of every
fitted kitchen is that they are quite inflexible when it comes to unanticipated changes. In the case
170
of a kitchen that purports to last 100 years, the above situations can occur far more often over the
course of the use phase.
It is therefore important to develop strategies which permit the use capacity potential to be
utilized to the fullest extent. Among the many suggested options and ideas, the following are
particularly noteworthy: product redemption concepts, the Kambium kitchen “light” (kitchens
designed for single occupants, low budget kitchens) and variations such as renting instead of
selling.
2.5 Building Analysis
The physical characteristics of the structures are significant in determining the energy demands
of a building (heating, lighting, cooling). Thus aspects such as the use of sun light and radiant
heat as well as the creation of a natural indoor climate were considered in the planning of the
Kambium buildings (passive systems).
In the case of Kambium’s production facility, the building is solid construction with the outer
walls being of brick for the most part. The building concept included a concern for minimizing
the demand for heating energy during the use phase. The passive energy systems, made possible
because of the specific building concept, facilitated this. Climate control is provided by the 50
cm thick outer walls made of brick, the glass bricks in the outer walls (incident sunlight enters
the building in winter, providing additional light and warmth; no direct sunlight in the summer,
obviating the need for direct cooling), the extensive use of grasses on the Sedum-roof and the
head block paving inside the building.
In the chapter on “building analysis” the repercussions of the construction physics peculiar to
Kambium were examined with reference to the system-wide demand for energy as well as to the
system-wide demand for resources of the building. These impressions were compared to a
fictitious alternative structure, built according to conventional specifications (steel skeleton
construction) providing equal services.
2.6 Energy Management
Energy management, energy conservation and the selection of energy sources comprise a
substantial component of the ecological operations concept of Kambium Furniture Workshop,
Inc. In the context of their environmental policy, Kambium commits itself to
guarantee the least use of energy possible in the development of both products and processes,
pursue continual improvements in the environmental compatibility of the use and generation
of energy and
to achieve 100% coverage of the energy needs through renewable energy sources.
In implementing these business objectives Kambium is engaging in energy management
which relies on both active and passive systems. Besides various energy saving measures
(passive systems), Kambium generates most of its energy itself. The demand for electricity is
mostly covered through an in-house wind power facility as well as a block-type thermal power
plant. To heat the buildings and cover the energy needs of drying the wood, both a natural gas
fired heating system and the waste heat from the block-type themal power plant are used.
Part of the electricity demand in 1994 had to be obtained from the grid (is-situation). Due to
control-technical problems, the wind power generator only produced 35% of the power
guaranteed by the producer. Only at 100% performance of the wind power generator will the
"ought-situation” occur at Kambium.
Compared to conventional energy management (standard situation: without in-house power
generation) Kambium was already able to drastically reduce their energy-dependent resource
consumption in 1994. Substantially reduced quantities of abiotic material, water and air were
taken up system-wide for energy provision.
171
Table 1: Energy-dependent resource consumption-comparison of the is-situation (1994), the
ought-situation and the standard situation.
abiotic materials
[kg]
water
[kg]
air
[kg]
is-situation (1994) 419.028 6.653.172 152.910
ought-situation 287.841 4.447.342 136.265
standard situation 914.394 15.791.580 180.234
In the case of the ought-situation, the system-wide resource consumption by Kambium are
below the conventional energy supply system by a factor of 3.5 (with generally comparable use
rates).
The resource savings on the input side necessarily lead to a reduced level of air pollution due
to energy consumption on the output side. In 1994, for instance, roughly 52 t less CO2 were
emitted into the atmosphere.
2.7 Transport
In the context of the study, transport management at Kambium was examined, both for "internal
transport” - especially employee commuting - as well as the area of "external transport”.
"External transport” includes all transport induced directly by operational activity, i.e. delivery
of merchandise.
The distributional boundary of the product Kambium kitchen of 100km contrasts with the supra-
regional transport interconnections of the firm. The analysis shows that the material input for
solid wood kitchens for abiotic and biotic materials, water and air, dependent upon transport
comes to about 10% of the total inputs. In order to achieve the possible improvement potential,
the supplier structure should be further optimized, similar to the way in which their own
deliveries are. Kambium’s self imposed limit on the delivery radius already saves resources
today, while benefiting both humans and nature.
3. Summarizing discussion
The MIPS concept attempts to open up the possibility of using a screening procedure that
considers the environmental relevance of the various life stages of a product to link an
operational accounting with an estimation of the environmental stress intensity across the entire
product line.
Preliminary promising points of departure were worked out at the Kambium Furniture
Workshop:
The material operational account can be adapted to the tabulational and computational system
of the MIPS concept without any difficulty. The material flow survey for the reference year
1994 at Kambium was successfully implemented for all environmentally relevant areas. All
the data gathered in the operational account can easily be converted into material intensities
with the help of corresponding factors. For example, the consumption of gasoline - collected
in units of liters in the operational account - can be directly converted to corresponding
material intensities of the MIPS survey categories.
The computer supported conversion of these data will introduce significant time savings in
the future. As new data are entered for the operational account (for transport in the units t and
km, energy in kWh or J) the software system CARA will be able to generate the ecological
rucksacks in parallel.
The results of the product line related material intensity analysis (energy management,
selection of intermediate products with the least resource demands etc.) and, building on that,
172
of the ecological kitchen design ("Kambium light,” use of other materials such as fabrics etc.)
point to substantial potentials for improvement, even in the case here of a business like
Kambium which is already set up according to environmental principles.
An initial test of Kambium kitchens according to eco-design criteria generated suggestions
about commercially sensible sales and leasing models which contribute to the protection of
the environment across the entire life cycle, while keeping Kambium solvent.
The qualitative and organizational demands made by parallel systems of material and
operational accounting as well as mass accounting according to the MIPS system upon the
business can be easily transformed into an environmental management system.
Several catalogs of measures were developed for the various areas of analysis such as
environmental management, operational accounting, product lines, energy management,
ecological design etc. The suggested measures all take into account the objective of
contributing to a reduction in resource flows across the entire life cycle. The catalogs of
measures must be summarized in the ongoing EEC-Audit-Ordinance, evaluated and adopted
into a program of measures with and by the employees of Kambium.
In light of the present results, carrying out a comprehensive, product related life cycle
analysis for Kambium’s solid wood kitchens appears unnecessary. Continuing analyses for
individual life phases of the product line wood should be undertaken, such as in the case of
forestry. In order to ensure that Kambium could obtain wood from forestry operations
devoting the greatest attention to natural and resource conserving methods, an
environmentally considerate performance or tender specifications pamphlet was developed. It
is more time and cost efficient to obtain environmentally relevant information with the help
of tender specifications than to carry out individual process related life cycle analyses. For
other product lines (i.e. the chemical industry) though, process related life cycle analyses can
be highly recommended. The tender specifications mentioned can be conceptualized
gradually for all upstream suppliers across the product line. Environmental information
increases over the entire product line from inquiry to inquiry and the companies can act
accordingly.
The results of the present study point to the necessity of itemizing the EEC-Audit-Ordinance
in relation to the procedure for assessing the environmental stress intensity of products. A
screening procedure based on the MIPS concept appears suited to surveying the environmental
relevance of products across the entire life cycle in such a way that an environmental program
and management system can be established (see below "screening”). The methodology of the
material intensity analysis showed itself to be operationalizable in a company, and with the
present concept it satisfies the demands of the EEC-Audit-Ordinance. In addition it was possible
to develop a resource management plan spanning the entire life cycle for Kambium.
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List of Authors
Angst, Gabriele; University of Technology Vienna; Research Institute for Chemistry and
Environment; Getreidemarkt 9 / 191; A - 1060; Wien; +43 1 58 801 5193; fax: +43 1 581 29
52; gangst@fbch.tuwien.ac.at
Björklund, Anna; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH); Department of Chemical Engineering &
Technology / Industrial Ecology; Osquars Backe 7; S - 10044; Stockholm; +46-8-790 6473;
fax: +46-8-790 50 34; annab@ket.kth.se
Bjuggren, Charlotte; Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL); P.O.Box 21060; S-
10031; Stockholm
Bovenkerk, Chiel; Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment; Chemicals and
Environmental Health Division; P.O.Box 30945; NL - 2500 GX; The Hague; +31-70-3394
729; fax: +31-70-3391 297
Brandt, Nils; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH); Department of Chemical Engineering &
Technology / Industrial Ecology; Osquars Backe 7; S - 10044; Stockholm; +46-8-790 8059;
fax: +46-8-790 5034; nilsb@ket.kth.se
Bringezu, Stefan; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division Material
Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100 480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-2492 131;
fax: +49-202-2492 138; stefan.bringezu@wupperinst.org
Burström, Fredrik; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH); Department of Chemical Engineering
& Technology / Industrial Ecology; P.O.Box; S - 10044; Stockholm; +46-8-790 61 81; fax:
+46-8-790 50 34; fredrikb@ket.kth.se
Frostell, Björn; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH); Department of Chemical Engineering &
Technology / Industrial Ecology; Osquars Backe 7; S - 0044; Stockholm; +46-8-790 6137;
fax: +46-8-790 5034; bjorn@ket.kth.se
Gielen, Dolf; Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN; Unit Policy Studies; P.O.Box 1;
NL - 1755 ZG; Petten; +31-224-56 44 60; fax: +31-224-56 33 38; gielen@ecn.nl
Hansen, Erik; COWI, Consulting Engeneers and Planners; Flegborg 6; DK - 7100; Velje; +45
764 26424 or 26400; fax: +45 764 264 02; ehn@cowi.dk
Höhn, Bärbel; Minister of the Environment, Regional Planning and Agriculture for the State of
North Rhine-Westphalia; P.O.Box ; D - 40190 Düsseldorf; +49-211-4566 548
Jänicke, Martin; Free University of Berlin; Environmental Policy Research Unit;
Schwendenerstr. 53; 4195; Berlin; +49 30 83850 97/98/99 or 8385585; fax: +49-30-831 63 51
Jiménez-Beltrán, Domingo; European Environment Agency (EEA); Kongens Nytory 6; DK -
1050; Kopenhagen K; +45-33-36 71 26 (Zentrale:-36 71 00); fax: +45-33-36 71 28
Kleijn, René; Leiden University; Centre of Environmental Science (CML); P.O. Box 95 18; NL -
2300 RA; Leiden; +31-71-5-277 480; fax: +31 71 5 277 434 ; kleijn@rulcml.leidenuniv.nl
Kram, Tom; Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN; Unit Policy Studies; P.O.Box 1;
NL - 1755 ZG; Petten; +31-224-56 44 60; fax: +31-224-56 33 38
Liedtke, Christa; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division for
Material Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-
2492 130; fax: +49-202-2492 138, christa.liedtke@wupperinst.org
Michaelis, Laurie; OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development); 2, rue
André-Pascal; F - 75775; Paris Cedex 16; +33-1-45 24 98 17; fax: +33-1-45 24 78 76;
laurie.michaelis@oecd.org
Mohlander, Ulf; Environmental and Health Protection Administration; P.O.Box 38024; S -
10064; Stockholm; +46-8-616 9772; fax: +46-8-616 9640; ulfm@mfa2.sthmf.se
175
Moriguchi, Yuichi; National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES); Environment Agency
of Japan; 16-2 Onogawa, Ibaraki; J - 305; Tsukuba, Ibaraki; +81 298 50 2540; +81 298 50
2570; moriguti@nies.go.jp
Oers, Lauran van; Leiden University; Centre of Environmental Science (CML); P.O. Box 95 18;
NL - 2300 RA; Leiden; +31-71-5-277 477; fax: +31 71 5 277 434 ;
oers@rulcml.leidenuniv.nl
Orbach, Thomas; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division for
Material Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-
2492 245; fax: +49-202-2492 138; thomas.orbach@wupperinst.org
Radermacher, Walter; Federal Statistical Office, Germany; Integrated Environmental and
Economic Accounting (IVB); Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 11; D - 65180; Wiesbaden; +49 611
75 2223; fax: +49 611 72 39 71 or -4000; stba-ugr@t-online.de
Rodenburg, Eric; World Resources Institute; 1709 New York Avenue, N. W.; USA - 20006;
Washington D. C.; fax: +1-202-628 0878; eric@wri.org
Rohn, Holger; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division Material
Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100 480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-24 92 207;
fax: +49-20224 92 138; holger.rohn@wupperinst.org
Schneider, Marlies; State Ministry for Environment, Brandenburg; Albert-Einstein-Straße 42-46;
D- 14473; Potsdam; +49-331-866 73 99
Schuster, Martina; Federal Ministry for Environment, Youth and Family, Austria; Stubenbastei
5; A - 1010; Wien; +43-1-51522 1326; fax: +43-1-51522 7325; martina.schuster@bmu.gv.at
Sors, Andrew; European Commission; Directorate General for Science Research and
Development XII/D-5 Research on Economic and Social Aspects of the Environment; Rue de
la Loi 200; B - 1049; Brussels; +32-2-2957 659; fax: +32-2-2994 462;
andrew.sors@dg12.cec.be
Spapens, Philippe; Friends of the Earth Netherlands; P.O.Box 19 199; NL - 1000 GD;
Amsterdam; +31-20-62 56 547; fax: +31-20-62 75 287 or -602; spapens@tip.nl or
susteur@foenl.antenna.nl
Thraen, Daniela; University of Potsdam; Templiner Str. 21; D - 14473; Potsdam; +49-331-279
1431 or 1427 private: +49-30-396 5653; fax: +49-331-279 1419; thraen@rz.uni-potsdam.de
Voet, Ester van der; Leiden University; Centre of Environmental Science (CML); P.O. Box 95
18; NL - 2300 RA; Leiden; +31-71-5-277 480; fax: +31 71 5 277 434 ;
voet@rulcml.leidenuniv.nl
Weizsäcker, Ernst Ulrich von; President of the Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and
Energy; P.O.Box 100 480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-2492 101; fax: +49-202-2492 108
Windsperger, Andreas; University of Technology Vienna; Research Institute for Chemistry and
Environment; Getreidemarkt 9 / 191; A - 1060; Wien; +43 1 58 801 5189; fax: +43 1 581 29
52; awindspe@fbch.tuwien.ac.at
176
List of Participants
Ågren; Helen; Swedish Environmental Protection Agency; Blekholmsterrassen 36; S - 10648;
Stockholm; +46-8-698 1457; fax: +46-8-698 1655; helen.agren@environ.se
Ayres; Robert U.; INSEAD-The European Institute of Business Administration; CMER-Center
for the Management of Environmental Resources; Boulevard de Constance; F - 77305;
Fontainebleau Cedex; +33 1 6072 4000 or 4128 (direct); fax: +33 1 6074 5564;
ayres@insead.fr or larvaron@insead.fr
Azkona; Anton; European Environment Agency (EEA); Kongens Nytorv 6; DK - 1050;
Kopenhagen K; +45-33-36 72 10; fax: +45-33-36 71 99; anton.azkona@eea.dk
Bergbäck; Bo; Kalmar University; Department of Natural Sciences; Box 905; S - 39129;
Kalmar; +46-480-44 62 45; fax: +46-480-44 62 62; bo.bergback@ng.hik.se
Berry; David; Interagency Workgroup on Material and Energy Flows; 722 Jackson Place; USA -
Washington, DC; +1-202-395 7424; fax: +1-202-456 0753; david_berry@ios.doi.gov
Birberg; Winnie; National Chemicals Inspectorate KEMI; P.O.Box 1384; S - 17127; Solna; +46-
8-730 6526; fax: +46-8-735 7698; winnieb@kemi.se
Björklund; Anna; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH); Department of Chemical Engineering &
Technology / Industrial Ecology; Osquars Backe 7; S - 10044; Stockholm; +46-8-790 6473;
fax: +46-8-790 50 34; annab@ket.kth.se
Bleischwitz; Raimund; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; P.O.Box
100480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-2492 215; fax: +49-202-2492 108
Boeker; E.; Free University Amsterdam; De Boelelaan 1105; NL - 1081 HV; Amsterdam; +31-
20-444 5318; fax: +31-20-444 5300; ac.huisman@dienst.vu.nl or egbertb@nat.vu.nl
Bourdeau; Philippe; Université Libre de Bruxelles; IGEAT - CP 130/02; Av. F.D. Roosevelt, 50;
B - 1050; Bruxelles; +32-2-650-43 22; fax: +32-2-650-43 24; clelou@ulb.ac.be
Bovenkerk; Chiel; Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment; Chemicals and
Environmental Health Division; P.O.Box 30945; NL - 2500 GX; The Hague; +31-70-3394
729; fax: +31-70-3391 297
Brandt; Nils; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH); Department of Chemical Engineering &
Technology / Industrial Ecology; Osquars Backe 7; S - 10044; Stockholm; +46-8-790 8059;
fax: +46-8-790 5034; nilsb@ket.kth.se
Bringezu; Stefan; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division Material
Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100 480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-2492 131;
fax: +49-202-2492 138; stefan.bringezu@wupperinst.org
Brüggen; Irmhild; EPEA Internationale Umweltforschung GmbH; Feldstr. 36; D - 20357;
Hamburg; +49-40-439 2081; fax: +49-40-439 2085
Brunner; Paul H.; Technical University Vienna; Institute for Water Quality and Waste
Management; Karlsplatz 13; A - 1040; Wien; +43-1-588-01 31 38; fax: +43-1-504-22 34;
pbrunner@email.tuwien.ac.at
Burström; Fredrik; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH); Department of Chemical Engineering
& Technology / Industrial Ecology; P.O.Box; S - 10044; Stockholm; +46-8-790 61 81; fax:
+46-8-790 50 34; fredrikb@ket.kth.se
de Balle; Maria; Chamber of Commerce of Barcelona; Head of Environment Department; Av.
Diagonal, 452; E - 08006; Barcelona; +34-3-4169 300; fax: +34-3-4169 301
De Marco; Ottilia; University of Bari; Department of Geographical and Commodity Science; Via
Camillo Rosalba, 53; I - 70124; Bari; +39-80-504 90 80; fax: +39-80-504 90 19
Deller; Kerstin; Humbold-Universität zu Berlin; Philosophische Fakultät III; Unter den Linden
6; D - 10099; Berlin; +49-30-2093 1537 (Secr.: 1630); fax: +49-30-2093 1438;
kerstin.deller@sowi.hu-berlin.de
177
Eberl; Hans Christian; Federal Ministry for Environment, Youth and Family; Stubenbastei 5; A -
1010; Wien; +43-1-515 22 35 31; fax: +43-1-515 22 30 03; hans-christian.eberl@bmu.gv.at
Femia; Aldo; ISTAT u.o. Amb/B; Via A. Ravà 150; I - 00142; Roma; +39-6-5490 0419;
aldo.femia@iol.it
Fischer-Kowalski; Marina; Institute of Interdisciplinary Research and Continuing Education
(IFF); Department of Social Ecology; Seidengasse 13; A - 1070; Wien; +43 1 52 67 50-1 or -
132; fax: +43 1 52 35843; marina.fischer-kowalski@univie.ac.at
Föller; Alex; Verband der Chemischen Industrie e.V.; Karlsstr. 21; D - 60329; Frankfurt; +49-
69-2556 1635; fax: +49-69-2556 1621
Foxon; Timothy J.; Imperial College of Science, Technoloy & Medicine; Energy Policy research
Group, Centre for Environmental Technology; 48 Prince's Gardens; UK - SW7 2PE; London;
+44-171-594 67 81; fax: +44-171-581 02 45; t.j.foxon@ic.ac.uk
Frostell; Björn; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH); Department of Chemical Engineering &
Technology / Industrial Ecology; Osquars Backe 7; S - 0044; Stockholm; +46-8-790 6137;
fax: +46-8-790 5034; bjorn@ket.kth.se
Ghorab; Hanaa; Helwan University, Kairo; c/o Wuppertal Institute; P.O.Box 100480; D - 42004;
Wuppertal
Gielen; Dolf; Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN; Unit Policy Studies; P.O.Box 1;
NL - 1755 ZG; Petten; +31-224-56 44 60; fax: +31-224-56 33 38; gielen@ecn.nl
Girardet; Herbert; 93 Cambridge Gardens; UK - W10 6JE; London; +44 181 969 6375; fax: +44
181 960 2202; herbie@easynet.co.uk
Gößling; Stefan; Universität Hamburg; Institut für Experimentelle Physik; Luruder Chaussee
149; D - Hamburg; 040-8998-2251; stefan.goessling@desy.de
Hagedorn; Hans; Univerity of Dortmund; Vogelpothsweg 110; D - 44227; Dortmund
Hansen; Erik; COWI, Consulting Engeneers and Planners; Flegborg 6; DK - 7100; Velje; +45
764 26424 or 26400; fax: +45 764 264 02; ehn@cowi.dk
Hatard; Susanne; Bauhaus-University Weimar; Coudraystraße 7; D - 99423; Weimar; +49-3643-
584 622; fax: +49-3643-584 637; susanne.hartard@bauing.uni-weimar.de
Hendriks; Carolyn; University of New South Wales; Institute of Environmental Studies;
University of New South Wales; AUS - 2052; Sydney; +61-2-938 55 707; fax: +61-2-9663
1015; c.hendriks@unsw.edu.au
Herre; Roman; WEED - Weltwirtschaft, Ökologie und Entwicklung e.V.; Berliner Platz 1; D -
53111; Bonn; +49-228-6964 79; fax: +49-228-6964 70; weed@bonn.comlink.apc.org
Hinterberger; Friedrich; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division
Material Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100 480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-
2492 162; fax: +49-202-2492 138
Hochfeld; Christian; Öko-Institut e.V.; Bunsenstr. 14; D - 64293; Darmstadt; +49-6151-8191 44;
fax: +49-6151-8191 33; hochfeld@oeko.de
Högberg; Sverker; Swedish Environmental Protection Agency - SWEPA; Waste Research
Council (AFR); Blekholmterrassen 36; S - 10648; Stockholm; +46-8-698 1453; fax: +46-8-
698 1655; sverker.hogberg@environ.se
Höher; Christian; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division for
Material Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100480; D - 42004; Wuppertal
Höhn; Bärbel; Minister of the Environment, Regional Planning and Agriculture for the State
North Rhine-Westphalia, Federal Republic of Germany; P.O.Box; D - 40190; Düsseldorf;
+49-211-4566 298; fax: +49-211-4566 388
Hoffrén; Jukka; Statistics Finland; P.O.Box 6A; SF - 00022; Tilastokeskus; +358 9 1734 3351;
fax: +358 9 1734 3429; jukka.hoffren@stat.fi
178
Hüttler; Walter; Institute of Interdisciplinary Research and Continuing Education (IFF);
Department of Social Ecology; Seidengasse 13; A - 1070; Wien; +43-1-526 750 10 or -35;
fax: +43-1-523 5843; walter.huettler@univie.ac.at
Huppes; Gjalt; Leiden University; Centre of Environmental Science (CML); P.O. Box 95 18; NL
- 2300 RA; Leiden; +31-71-5-277 477; fax: +31 71 5 277 434 ; huppes@rulcml.leidenuniv.nl
Idenburg; Annemath; National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM);
Laboratory for Waste Materials and Emissions; P.O.Box 1; NL - 3720 BA; Bilthoven; +31-
30-274 2626; fax: +31-30-274 4417; Annemarth.Idenburg@rivm.nl
Jänicke; Martin; Free University of Berlin; Environmental Policy Research Unit;
Schwendenerstr. 53; 4195; Berlin; +49 30 83850 97/98/99 or 8385585; fax: +49-30-831 63 51
Jiménez-Beltrán; Domingo; European Environment Agency (EEA); Kongens Nytory 6; DK -
1050; Kopenhagen K; +45-33-36 71 26 (Zentrale:-36 71 00); fax: +45-33-36 71 28
Juutinen; Artti; University of Oulu; Thule Institute; P.O.Box 400; SF - 90751; Oulu; +358-8-
553 35 53; fax: +358-8-553 35 64; artti.juutinen@oulu.fi
Kanning; Helga; University of Hannover; Herrenhäuser Straße 2; D - 30419; Hannover; +49-
511-762 5157; fax: +49-511-762 5219; kanning@laum.uni-hannover.de
Karigl; Brigitte; Federal Environment Agency UBA; Spittelauer Lände 5; A - 1090; Wien; +43-
1-31 304 5512; fax: +43-1-31 304 5400; karigl@uba.ubavie.gv.at
Karlsson; Sten; Chalmers University of Technology; Institute of Physical Resource Theory;
Chalmers University of Technology; S - 41296; Göteborg; +46 31 772 3149; fax: +46 31 772
3150; frtsk@fy.chalmers.se
Köckler; Heike; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Working Group on
New Models of Wealth; P.O.Box 10 04 80; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-2492 193;
Kopf; Christian; University of Witten/Herdecke; Alfred-Herrhausen-Strasse 50; D - 58448;
Witten; +49-2302-27 332; fax: +49-2302-926 587; chkopf@uni-wh.de
Kytzia; Susanne; Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology EAWAG;
Überlandstrasse 133; CH - 8600; Dübendorf; +41-1-823 5506; fax: +41-1-823 5226;
kytzia@eawag.ch
Lagioia; Giovanni; University of Bari; Department of Geographical and Commodity Science;
Via Camillo Rosalba, 53; I - 70124; Bari; +39-80-504 90 86; fax: +39-80-504 90 19
Lassen; Carsten; COWI, Consulting Engeneers and Planners; Flegborg 6; DK - 7100; Velje; +45
764 264 12; fax: +45 764 264 02; crl@cowi.dk
Lettenmeier; Michael; Finnish Association for Nature Conservation; Viitailantie 11; SF - 17430;
Kurhila; +358-40-54 12 876; fax: +358-3-7665 133; michael.lettenmeier@sci.fi
Ludwig; Jutta; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division Material
Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-24 92 163
Lustig; Sandra H.; Technical University Berlin; Institute for Management in Environmental
Planning (IMUP); Franklinstr. 28-29, FR 2-7; D - 10587; Berlin; +49-30-314 73 325; +49-30-
314 73 517; lustig@imup.tu-berlin.de
Mäenpää; Ilmo; University of Oulu; Thule Institute; P.O.Box 400; SF - 90751; Oulu; +358-8-
553 35 55; fax: +358-8-553 35 64; ilmo.maenpaa@oulu.fi
Malley; Jürgen; ECONFORM; Schönsitzstr. 2; D - 53639; Königswinter; +49-223-90 30 96; fax:
+49-202-90 30 97; j.malley@t-online.de
Mannaerts; Hein; CPB (Centraal Planbureau); Postbus 80510; NL - 2508 GM; Den Haag; +31-
70-338 33 21; fax: +31-70-338 33 50; hjbmm@cpb.nl
Mattern; Kati; Federal Environmental Agency (UBA); General Affairs of Ecology and Resource
Management; Bismarckplatz 1; D - 14193; Berlin; +49-30-8903 2169; fax: +49-30 2285;
kati.mattern@uba.de
179
McLaren; Jake; University of Surrey; Centre for Environmental Strategy; University of Surrey;
UK - GU2 5XH; Guildford, Surrey; +44-1483-300 800 ext 2283; fax: +44-1483-259 394;
j.mclaren@surrey.ac.uk
Meyer-Mönnich; Lucie; Ministerium für Umwelt, Raumordnung und Landwirtschaft des Landes
Nordrhein-Westfalen MURL; Referat I C4; P.O.Box; D - 40190; Düsseldorf; +49-211-4566
669
Michaelis; Laurie; OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development); 2, rue
André-Pascal; F - 75775; Paris Cedex 16; +33-1-45 24 98 17; fax: +33-1-45 24 78 76;
laurie.michaelis@oecd.org
Mohlander; Ulf; Environmental and Health Protection Administration; P.O.Box 38024; S -
10064; Stockholm; +46-8-616 9772; fax: +46-8-616 9640; ulfm@mfa2.sthmf.se
Moll; Henri C.; University of Groningen; Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies IVEM;
P.O. Box 72; NL - 9700 AB; Groningen; +31-50-363 -46 07; fax: +31-50-363-71 68;
h.c.moll@fwn.rug.nl
Moll; Stephan; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division Material
Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100 480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-2492 119;
fax: +49-202-2492 138
Moore; Stephen; University of New South Wales; School of Civil Engineering; AUS - Sydney;
+612-9385-50 73; fax: +612-9385-61 39; s.moore@unsw.edu.au
Moriguchi; Yuichi; National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES); Environment Agency
of Japan; 16-2 Onogawa, Ibaraki; J - 305; Tsukuba, Ibaraki; +81 298 50 2540; +81 298 50
2570; moriguti@nies.go.jp
Mündl; Andreas; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division Material
Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-24 92 171;
fax: +49-202-24 92 138
Münzing; Tell; University of East Anglia; Ludwig Uhland Weg 3; D - 31812; Bad Pyrmont;
+49-5281-5070; fax: +49-5281-5011; r.münzing@t-online.de
Notarnicola; Bruno; University of Bari; Via Camillo Rosalba, 53; I - 70124; Bari; +39-80-504 90
85; fax: +39-80-504 90 19
Oehme; Ines; Interdisziplinäres Forschungszentrum für Technik, Arbeit und Kultur, IFZ;
Schlögelgasse 2; A - 8010; Graz; +43-316-81 39 09 21; fax: +43-316-81 02 74;
oehme@ifz.big.ac.at
Östman; Margareta; National Chemicals Inspectorate KEMI; P.O.Box 1384; S - 17127; Solna;
+46-8-730 6737; fax: +46-8-735 7698; margaos@kemi.se
Orbach; Thomas; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division for
Material Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-
2492 245; fax: +49-202-2492 138; thomas.orbach@wupperinst.org
Oscarsson; Charlotte; Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL); P.O.Box 21030; S -
10031; Stockholm; +46-8-729 1594; fax: +46-8-318 516; lotta.oscarsson@ivl.se
Palm; Viveka; Statistics Sweden; Environment Statistics; P.O. 24 300; S - 10451; Stockholm;
+46 8 783 42 19; fax: +46 8 783 47 63; viveka.palm@scb.se
Patel; Martin; Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI); Breslauerstrasse
48; D - 76139; Karlsruhe; +49 721 6809 256; fax: +49 721 6809 272; mp@isi.fhg.de
Poole; Stephen; Manchester Metropolitan University; Dept. Mechanical Engineering; Chester
Street; UK - M1 5GD; Manchester; +44-161-247 6289; fax: +44-161-247 6326;
s.j.poole@mmu.ac.uk
Puolamaa; Maila; EUROSTAT; Bâtiment Jean Monnet, rue Alcide de Gasperi; L - 2920;
Luxembourg; +352-4301 35 364; maila.puolamaa@eurostat.cec.be
Rabelt; Vera; Federal Environmental Agency (UBA); Bismarckplatz 1; D - 14193; Berlin; +49-
30-8903 30 77; fax: +49-30-8903 38 33; vera.rabelt@uba.de
180
Radermacher; Walter; Federal Statistical Office, Germany; Integrated Environmental and
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75 2223; fax: +49 611 72 39 71 or -4000; stba-ugr@t-online.de
Ratte; Christa; Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety;
Division G14; P. O. Box 12 06 29; D - 53048; Bonn; +49 228 305 2435; fax: +49 228 305
3524; g14-2002@wp-gate.bmu.de
Reckerzügl; Thorsten; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division
Material Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100480; D - 42004; Wuppertal
Renn; Sandra; Wuppertal Institut for Climate, Environment and Energy; P.O. Box 100480; D -
42004; Wuppertal
Rodenburg; Eric; World Resources Institute; 1709 New York Avenue, N. W.; USA - 20006;
Washington D. C.; fax: +1-202-628 0878; eric@wri.org
Rohn; Holger; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division Material
Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100 480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-24 92 207;
fax: +49-20224 92 138; holger.rohn@wupperinst.org
Rose; David; Imperial College London; ICCET; 48 Prince's Gardens; UK - SW7 2PE; London;
+44-171-59 46 781; fax: +44-171-58 10 245; d.rose@ic.ac.uk
Rouhinen; Sauli; Ministry of the Environment Finland; P.O.Box 399; SF - 00121; Helsinki;
+358-9-199 19 468; fax: +358-9-199 19 453; sauli.rouhinen@vyh.fi
Scharnagl; Andrea; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division for
Material Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-
2492 171; fax: +49-202-2492 138
Schmitz-Ohl; Grischka; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ; Postfach
5180; D - 65726; Eschborn; +49-6196-79 3454; fax: +49-6196-79 6325;
grischka.schmitz@gtz.de
Schuster; Martina; Federal Ministry for Environment, Youth and Family, Austria; Stubenbastei
5; A - 1010; Wien; +43-1-51522 1326; fax: +43-1-51522 7325; martina.schuster@bmu.gv.at
Schwarz; Günter; Research Centre Jülich; P.O.Box; D - 52425; Jülich; +49-2461-61 45 40; fax:
+49-2461-61 25 40; gu.schwarz@fz-jülich.de
Seifert; Eberhard; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Working Group on
New Models of Wealth; P.O.Box 100480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-24 92 178; fax:
+49-202-24 92 138
Sors; Andrew; European Commission; Directorate General for Science Research and
Development XII/D-5 Research on Economic and Social Aspects of the Environment; Rue de
la Loi 200; B - 1049; Brussels; +32-2-2957 659; fax: +32-2-2994 462;
andrew.sors@dg12.cec.be
Spangenberg; Joachim; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division for
Material Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-
2492 128; fax: +49-202-2492 138
Spapens; Philippe; Friends of the Earth Netherlands; P.O.Box 19 199; NL - 1000 GD;
Amsterdam; +31-20-62 56 547; fax: +31-20-62 75 287 or -602; spapens@tip.nl or
susteur@foenl.antenna.nl
Spitzer; Hartwig; University of Hamburg; Luruper Chausee 149; D - 22761; Hamburg; +49-40-
8998 23 13; fax: +49-40-8998 32 82; hartwig.spitzer@desy.de
Steffens; Claudia; DGB-Bildungswerk e.V.; Hans-Böckler-Str. 39; D - 40476; Düsseldorf; +49-
211-4301 279; fax: +49-211-4301 500; claudia.steffens@dgb-bildungswerk.de
Sternbeck; John; IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute; P.O.Box 21060; S - 10031;
Stockholm; +46-8-729 15 41; fax: +46-8-31 85 16; john.sternbeck@ivl.se
Thraen; Daniela; University of Potsdam; Templiner Str. 21; D - 14473; Potsdam; +49-331-279
1431 or 1427 private: +49-30-396 5653; fax: +49-331-279 1419; thraen@rz.uni-potsdam.de
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Tukker; Arnold; TNO Centre for Technology and Policy Studies (TNO-STB); P.O.Box 541; NL
- 7300 AM; Apeldoorn; +31-55-549 39 07; fax: +31-55-542 14 58; tukker@stb.tno.nl
Udo de Haes; Helias; Leiden University; Centre of Environmental Science; P.O. Box 9518; NL -
2300 RA; Leiden; +31-715277461; fax: +31-71-5-277 496; udodehaes@rulcml.leidenuniv.nl
van Wickeren; Peter; ORG-Consult; Bismarckstr. 51; D - 45128; Essen; +49201-872 630; fax:
+49-201-779 663
Vaze; Prashant Bhaskr; Office for National Stats, UK; 1 Drummond Gate; UK - SWV 2QQ;
London; +44-171-533 5916; fax: +44-171-533 5903; prashant.vaze@ons.gov.uk
Voet; Ester van der; Leiden University; Centre of Environmental Science (CML); P.O. Box 95
18; NL - 2300 RA; Leiden; +31-71-5-277 480; fax: +31 71 5 277 434 ;
voet@rulcml.leidenuniv.nl
Vögele; Stefan; Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW); P.O.Box 103 443; D - 68034;
Mannheim; +49-621-12 35-205; fax: +49-621-12 35-226; voegele@zew.de
Voßeler; Christof; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ;
Reinickendorferstr. 110; D - 13347; Berlin; +49-30-462 8388; chvocjja@sp.zrz.tu-berlin.de
Wallgren; Björn; Swedish Environmental Protection Agency; Blekholmsterrassen 36; S - 10648;
Stockholm; +46-8-698 1312; fax: +46-8-698 1663; bjw@environ.se
Weaver; Paul; Centre for Eco-Efficiency & Enterprise, University of Durham & University of
Portsmouth; 245, rue de Bercy; F - 75012; Paris; +33-1-43 44 42 17;
p.m.weaver@durham.ac.uk
Weizsäcker; Ernst Ulrich von; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy;
President; P.O.Box 100 480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-2492 101; fax: +49-202-2492
108
Welfens; Maria Jolanta; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division
Material Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100 480; D - 42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-
2492 163; fax: +49-202-2492 138
Windsperger; Andreas; University of Technology Vienna; Research Institute for Chemistry and
Environment; Getreidemarkt 9 / 191; A - 1060; Wien; +43 1 58801 5189; fax: +43 1 581 29
52; awindspe@fbch.tuwien.ac.at
Zeininger; Heinz; Siemens AG; Paul Gossen Str. 100; D - 91052; Erlangen; +49-9131-31083;
fax: +49-9131-32131; heinz.zeininger@erls.siemens.de
... For cities in developed countries, such as Sweden, the major phosphorus input is from food commodities and products with a high phosphorus content (e.g. Burström et al., 1997) and after consumption the flows are transported with different waste streams. In order to prioritise different management strategies, a previous study by Kalmykova et al. (2012) compared future scenarios of phosphorus flows in such cities focusing on phosphorus recycling and different scenarios downstream (collection and treatment). ...
... In contrast to these developing countries, agriculture is often disconnected from cities in developed countries. As an example of an early study for the city of Stockholm, Sweden, Burström et al. (1997) proposed a Combox model consisting of a bundle of socio-economic sectors and found that phosphorus imports to the city were mainly driven by the business sector and households. However, the model was simplified and suitable only for general information management. ...
... According to Welch et al. (2009), dietary intake of phosphorus in Malmö, Sweden, is higher than the recommended value for humans given by Yates et al. (1998). Moreover, a study by Burström et al. (1997) showed that the major inputs of phosphorus to most Swedish cities are from food waste and products with a high phosphorus content (e.g. detergents). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Managing anthropogenic emissions in urban areas is a major challenge in sustainable environmental development for cities, and future changes and increasing urbanisation may increase this challenge. Systems perspectives have become increasingly important in helping urban managers understand how different changes may alter future emissions and whether current management strategies can efficiently manage these emissions. This thesis provides some systems perspectives that have been lacking in previous studies on modelling and managing future anthropogenic emissions in urban areas. The city of Stockholm, Sweden, was selected as the study site and studies about nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon were chosen, given world-wide urban eutrophication and global concerns about climate change. A substance flow analysis (SFA) structured model, comprising a source model coupled with a watershed model in an SFA structure, was developed to investigate future nutrient loading scenarios under various urban changes in small urban lake catchments. The results demonstrated that climate change potentially posed a greater threat to future nutrient loads to a selected lake catchment in Stockholm than the other scenarios examined. Another SFA-based study on future phosphorus flows through the city of Stockholm indicated that the best management option may depend on the perspective applied when comparing future scenarios of phosphorus flows and that both upstream and downstream measures need to be considered in managing urban phosphorus flows. An evaluation approach for examining current management plans and low-carbon city initiatives using the Driving forces-Pressure-States-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework, was formulated. With such an evaluation approach, investigation of how well selected plans cover different aspects of the DPSIR framework and whether root causes and systematic measures are highlighted is possible. The results revealed that the current low-carbon city initiative in Stockholm falls within pressure-based, driver-orientated plans and that technical, institutional and cognitional measures are generally well covered.
... With respect to the nitrogen cycle, there have been a smaller number of relevant UM studies. Nitrogen balances have been undertaken, for example, in studies of Bangkok (Faerge et al. 2001), Hong Kong (Warren-Rhodes and Koenig 2001), Stockholm (Burstrom et al. 2003), and Phoenix (Baker et al. 2001). Nitrogen fluxes specifically in urban food metabolism have been established for Toronto (Forkes 2007) and for nineteenth century Paris (Barles 2007). ...
Article
Methodology is developed for linking the urban metabolism (UM) to global environmental stresses on the carbon (C) cycle, nitrogen (N) cycle, and biodiversity loss. UM variables are systematically mapped to the drivers of carbon, nitrogen, and biodiversity impacts. Change in mean species abundance is used as metric of biodiversity loss, by adopting the dose-response relationships from the GLOBIO model. The main biodiversity drivers related to UM included here are land-use change (LUC) and atmospheric N deposition. The methodology is demonstrated by studying the nexus for Shanghai in 2006, based on energy and soybean consumption. Results for Shanghai show a strong nexus between C, N, and biodiversity impact due to electricity consumption and energy used in manufacturing industries and construction. Prioritization of the shift away from coal energy will therefore lead to lowering the urban growth impact on all three dimensions. Road transportation, domestic aviation, and the metal industry impact only the C footprint highly, whereas district energy impacts only biodiversity loss highly, showing a weak nexus. Among the global impacts of soybean consumption in Shanghai on biodiversity loss (due to LUC only), the highest impact occurs in Uruguay (0.52%) followed by Brazil (0.05%) and Argentina (0.02%). The local impact on biodiversity loss (i.e., within China) of soybean consumption in Shanghai is 1.03%. However, the methodology and results are limited due to the partial inclusion of drivers, a carbon footprint based on carbon dioxide emissions only, and limitations of biodiversity loss models. Potential to overcome methodological limitations is discussed.
... Similarly, in a metaanalysis,Kennedy et al. (2007)concluded that eight metropolitan regions across five continents exhibited 'increasing per capita metabolism'. But most case studies – Tokyo (Hanya and Ambe, 1976), the Swiss Lowlands (Baccini, 1997), Paris (Barles, 2007aBarles, , 2007bBarles, , 2009), Vienna (Hendriks et al., 2000), Stockholm (Burström et al., 1997), Toronto (Sahely et al., 2003), Singapore (Schulz, 2007), Beijing (Zhang et al., 2011), and Lisbon (Niza et al., 2009) – have been temporal snapshots, with varying degrees of flow inclusiveness (usually water, materials, and energy, sometimes food). Within this cluster, an interesting research strand combines MFA with Eugene Odum's systems ecology (1953,1969) and H.T. Odum's concept of 'emergy' (1983,1996) – a measurement unit for a system's energy (expressed as solar energy equivalents). ...
Article
The interconnection of urbanization trends and environmental pressures, are due to the rising demand for resource consumption, waste production and greenhouses gas emissions. Taking into consideration the massive reduction of natural resources, the deprivation of the life quality and the climate change, the scientific community indicates the necessity to emphasis and understand the relationship between cities and the environment as a dynamic concept. Consequently, cities are facing the challenge to implement alternative strategies towards more sustainable management of urban resources. This research aims to shed light on the concept of urban metabolism, the methods that are been used to gauge urban metabolism (i.e Emergy Analysis, Material Flow Analysis, Ecological Footprint etc.), as well as the assessment of the proposed methodologies through SWOT analysis and Analytical Hierocracy Process, considering multi-criteria analysis and how those reflect to Circular Economy and European Green Deal Strategy. The results showed that, the existing methodologies needs refreshment to cover the needs for the cities of tomorrow and a new hybrid approach which will include new set of Key Performed Indicators is essential. Furthermore, the results could serve as a beneficial reference point for policy makers, consultants, rural developers as the new hybrid approach can be used to measure and assess the level of metabolism in one area in order to prevent future expansion.
Article
Sustainability of urban areas is paramount in the coming years as cities continue to grow in population and resource consumption. A number of methods to model cities have been developed, including material flow analysis and urban metabolism, but these accounting methods do not fully analyze the complex network dynamics present within cities. Ecological network analysis (ENA) provides a new perspective into these urban areas by using metrics designed for analysis of natural ecosystems. This study analyzes 29 urban–industrial ecosystems using ENA, comparing the networks to each other as well as comparing them to previously analyzed eco‐industrial parks and natural food webs. It is found that these systems perform similar to other human‐designed systems, which consistently lack in ecological performance when compared with the natural ecosystems. Additionally, the impact of specific actor types within these networks is shown indicating the importance of industry, agriculture, and the natural environment. Finally, the types of networks are determined to affect the ecological metrics, with the more linear‐based energy networks having the worst performance. This new dataset of ecologically analyzed networks provides a deeper understanding of urban networks and their infrastructure, while providing useful information on how to potentially improve their sustainability.
Chapter
Cities are like organisms, drawing in resources and emitting wastes. In nature, organisms are related to ecosystems characterized by a circular metabolism, so a green planning to move towards sustainable cities needs to adopt a circular approach to the way in which are managed the resources consumed (materials, food, energy, water and land) and the emissions produced (solid waste, airborne and waterborne) in cities and their related territories. Initially, the origins of the theme of circularity are illustrated, in particular, in relation to urban applications (urban metabolism) and territorial (industrial ecology) and current developments, with the analysis of a virtuous example. Thereafter, some possible strategic approaches to favour urban circularity (urban mining, building regeneration) are analysed, highlighting the importance of flow mapping and the creation of exchange platforms. Finally, some methods of assessing environmental impacts are shown to verify the effectiveness of circularity with respect to the objective of sustainability, and examples of benchmarks/targets adopted in some concrete cases experienced are presented.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to examine the role of surface water quality for the decisions by Swedish municipalities to adopt environmental targets and action plans, as well as allocating these decisions to a responsible authority. To this end, we assess how environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, as well as the availability of environmental expertise, affect these municipal decisions. Questionnaire data from the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, in combination with environmental monitoring data and official statistics, are used for the econometric analysis. Results show that: (i) municipalities with bad water quality, greater coastal length, and higher income are more inclined to adopt local policies; (ii) collaboration with interest groups increases the likelihood of adopting local policies; and (iii) municipalities with high Center Party representation tend to set responsibility for environmental policy with the municipal council board.
Article
The resource challenge associated with anthropogenic forces gained attention in recent years. However, the pathways toward urban sustainability are complicated and depend on local conditions, which need an understanding of the characteristics of urban metabolism (hereafter referred to as “UM”). This study adopts the flow perspective and develops a methodological framework to conduct a local-scale assessment of resource input to an urban system and related consumption, stock, and output. Through categorizing human activities and describing inner flows, a model of urban metabolism is constructed to clarify interrelationships among different sectors within the urban system, enabling the estimation of material dynamics. By determining metabolism profile and resource scarcity, the results reveals how metabolism takes effect on surrounding environment and urban resilience. This methodological framework is demonstrated through a case study of Guangzhou, China. The main characteristics identified are diversified material consumption, high resource intensity, dependence on non-metallic material and fossil energy import, and a high percentage of CO2 emission associated with industrial production. This result is meaningful in understanding the local resource scarcity and driving a regenerative process in Guangzhou, which is an industry-based economy. Advanced policy is further suggested that refers to clean energy use, waste management techniques, rigorous population control, and advanced measures and data sharing platform in urban management. These findings suggest the need to rethink the trajectory of urban development and gain awareness of the need to focus on new local initiatives in resource use optimization.
Book
Früher forderten die Umweltschützer neue gesellschaftliche Tugen­ den. Heute rufen sie nach besseren Managementstrategien. Früher drängten sie auf mehr Demokratie und lokale Eigenständigkeit, doch jetzt liebäugeln sie mit einer globalen Machtergreifung durch Regierungen, Konzerne und die Wissenschaft. Es ist lange her, daß sie sich für kulturelle Vielfalt einsetzten, inzwischen sehen sie kaum eine andere Möglichkeit, als auf eine weltweite Rationalisierung der Lebensstile zu bauen. Tatsächlich scheinen in dem Maße, wie im­ mer häufiger Umweltthemen auf der Tagesordnung der internatio­ nalen Politik einen wichtigen Platz einnehmen, Teile der Umwelt­ bewegung zahmer zu werden. So hat sich in den letzten Jahren ein Diskurs über globale Umweltpolitik eingespielt, der Betrachtungen über Macht, Kultur oder Moral nicht zuläßt und statt dessen die Bestrebungen einer aufsteigenden Ökokratie verrät, die Natur (und die Menschen dazu) wohlwollender Planung zu unterwerfen. Eine Bewegung, die einst die Menschen zur Demut mahnte, hat parado­ xerweise Experten hervorgebracht, die der Versuchung zum Hoch­ mut oft nicht widerstehen können. Verschiedene Beobachter hatten verschiedene Meinungen über die UN -Konferenz für Umwelt und Entwicklung (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro 1992. Einige sahen in ihr einen Erfolg, viele betrachteten sie wenigstens als einen befriedigenden Auftakt für eine lange Reise, und ein paar beurteilten sie als Fehlschlag. Es macht gewiß die Neuheit von Rio aus, daß die Regierungen der Welt zum ersten Mal gemeinsam die Bedrohung durch die ökologische Krise ernst nahmen und sich dazu bereit fanden, kollektive Verpflichtungen für den zukünftigen Kurs der Politik einzugehen.
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The Wageningen UR Library Catalogue contains bibliographic data on books and periodicals held by the libraries of Wageningen University and Research Centre and some 15 associated libraries. Holding data are added to each record. ... Subjects covered include Agrotechnology, Food and Food Production, Plant and Animal Sciences, Soil Science, Geo-information, Landscape and Spatial Planning, Water and Climate, Ecosystem Studies, Economics and Society. ... The joint collections of the participating libraries cover a substantial part of ...
Stubenbastei 5; A -1010; Wien; +43-1-51522 1326; fax: +43-1-51522 7325; martina.schuster@bmu.gv.at Schwarz; Günter
  • Schuster
  • Martina
  • Ministry
  • Environment
  • Youth
  • Austria Family
Schuster; Martina; Federal Ministry for Environment, Youth and Family, Austria; Stubenbastei 5; A -1010; Wien; +43-1-51522 1326; fax: +43-1-51522 7325; martina.schuster@bmu.gv.at Schwarz; Günter; Research Centre Jülich; P.O.Box; D -52425; Jülich; +49-2461-61 45 40; fax: +49-2461-61 25 40; gu.schwarz@fz-jülich.de
Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Working Group on New Models of Wealth
  • Eberhard Seifert
Seifert; Eberhard; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Working Group on New Models of Wealth; P.O.Box 100480; D -42004; Wuppertal; +49-202-24 92 178; fax: +49-202-24 92 138
European Commission Rue de la Loi 200; B -1049; Brussels; +32-2-2957 659 462; andrew.sors@dg12.cec.be Spangenberg; Joachim; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division for Material Flows and Structural Change
  • Andrew Sors
Sors; Andrew; European Commission; Directorate General for Science Research and Development XII/D-5 Research on Economic and Social Aspects of the Environment; Rue de la Loi 200; B -1049; Brussels; +32-2-2957 659; fax: +32-2-2994 462; andrew.sors@dg12.cec.be Spangenberg; Joachim; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division for Material Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100480; D -42004; Wuppertal; +49-202- 2492 128; fax: +49-202-2492 138
NL -1000 GD; Amsterdam; +31-20-62 56 547
  • Philippe Spapens
Spapens; Philippe; Friends of the Earth Netherlands; P.O.Box 19 199; NL -1000 GD; Amsterdam; +31-20-62 56 547; fax: +31-20-62 75 287 or -602; spapens@tip.nl or susteur@foenl.antenna.nl
Office for National Stats, UK; 1 Drummond Gate; UK -SWV 2QQ; London; +44-171-533 5916 5903; prashant.vaze@ons.gov.uk Voet
  • Prashant Vaze
  • Bhaskr
Vaze; Prashant Bhaskr; Office for National Stats, UK; 1 Drummond Gate; UK -SWV 2QQ; London; +44-171-533 5916; fax: +44-171-533 5903; prashant.vaze@ons.gov.uk Voet; Ester van der; Leiden University; Centre of Environmental Science (CML);
Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division Material Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100 480; D -42004; Wuppertal
  • Maria Welfens
  • Jolanta
Welfens; Maria Jolanta; Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy; Division Material Flows and Structural Change; P.O.Box 100 480; D -42004; Wuppertal; +49-202- 2492 163; fax: +49-202-2492 138
A -1060; Wien; +43 1 58801 5189; fax: +43 1 581 29 52; awindspe@fbch.tuwien.ac.at Zeininger; Heinz; Siemens AG; Paul Gossen Str. 100; D -91052; Erlangen
  • Andreas Windsperger
Windsperger; Andreas; University of Technology Vienna; Research Institute for Chemistry and Environment; Getreidemarkt 9 / 191; A -1060; Wien; +43 1 58801 5189; fax: +43 1 581 29 52; awindspe@fbch.tuwien.ac.at Zeininger; Heinz; Siemens AG; Paul Gossen Str. 100; D -91052; Erlangen; +49-9131-31083; fax: +49-9131-32131; heinz.zeininger@erls.siemens.de