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Bioefficacy of some botanicals against the sugarcane woolly aphid, Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehnter

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Abstract
Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehnter is a serious pest of sugarcane in many parts of India including Maharashtra and Karnataka. In the light of recent increased interest in developing plant based secondary chemistry into products suitable for integrated pest management, the objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of Acacia concianna, Acorus calamus, Momordica charantia, and Annona squamosa on Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehnter under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Among the tested plants, A. concianna was found to be more effective than other plants. Two rounds of applications of four botanicals along with control were made and the incidence of aphid (Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehnter) on sugarcane was recorded. The results indicated that C.I. mortality was concentrations and exposure time dependent one. Among the four botanicals Acacia concianna was the most toxic botanical under laboratory condition. Similar impact was also recorded under field condition too.
Bioefficacy of some botanicals against the sugarcane woolly
aphid, Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehnter
D. S. Patil and N. S. Chavan (Mulik)
ABSTRACT
Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehnter is a serious pest of sugarcane in many parts of India including Maharashtra and
Karnataka. In the light of recent increased interest in developing plant based secondary chemistry into products
suitable for integrated pest management, the objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of Acacia
concianna, Acorus calamus, Momordica charantia, and Annona squamosa on Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehnter
under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Among the tested plants, A. concianna was found to be more effective than
other plants. Two rounds of applications of four botanicals along with control were made and the incidence of aphid
(Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehnter) on sugarcane was recorded. The results indicated that C.I. mortality was
concentrations and exposure time dependent one. Among the four botanicals Acacia concianna was the most toxic
botanical under laboratory condition. Similar impact was also recorded under field condition too.
Key words: Botanicals, Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehnter, % mortality, Acacia concianna.
INTRODUCTION
Exploration of botanical pesticides in agricultural pest
management is urgent need of the era for the sustainable
agriculture development. Over 250 species of the
superfamily Aphidoidea feed on agricultural and
horticultural crops throughout the world. Sugarcane
woolly aphid Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehnter (Rabindra
et al., 2002; Joshi et al., 2004) caused crop loss in many
part of India, particularly in Sangali, Kolhapur, Pune, and
Solapur districts. A total 15.5 % area under sugarcane got
infested with the highest infestation in Sangali, followed
by Kolhapur was recoded during 2002. Continuous
infestation leads to the reduction in length, circumference,
weight and sugar content of stalk leading to loss in
tonnages as well as sugar recovery. It collapsed total
sugarcane industry which is major part of co- operative
area, beneficial economy of the area.
The aphid control measures have largely been depending
on the use of chemical pesticides including chlorinated
hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates,
endosulphon, dimethoate, malathion etc. (Joshi et al.,
2004) which besides causing resistant development in the
target population (Han and Li, 2004) affect adversely the
natural enemies of aphids in the field (Jansen, 2000). In
addition, increasing documentation of negative
44
environmental and health impact of synthetic insecticides
and increasingly stringent environmental regulation of
pesticides (Isman, 2000) have resulted in renewed interest
in the development and use of botanical pest management
products for controlling aphid pest. Many plant extracts
have been reported bioactive against A. craccivora and
other related species (Tewary et al., 2005; Tewary et al.,
2006). Natural enemies like naturally occurring
entomopathogenic fungi have been tested against this
SWA (Mehetre et al., 2008). However no information was
available about the botanical for sugarcane aphid
management. In the present investigation an attempt was
made to screen extracts of four locally available plants
such as Acacia concianna (pods), Acorus calamus
(rhizome), Momordica charantia (fruits), Annona
squamosa (seeds) under in vitro and in vivo conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
Plants were collected from Western Ghats and also from
local cultivars, washed with tap water and distilled water,
dried at 60°C and powdered using domestic blender. Plant
powder was extracted with ethanol in soxhelet apparatus.
Trace of crude extract was used for the insecticidal activity
evaluation. Various concentrations (2, 2.5, 10 and 25 %)
of the extracts were prepared in water.
Botanicals on sugarcane woolly aphid
© JBiopest. 52
Journal of Biopesticides, 2(1): 44-47 (2009)
45
Nymphs and adults of aphids were collected from infested
sugarcane fields and reared in the laboratory with its
natural host. Insects are obtained form established colony
maintained for many generations in the laboratory. Test
botanicals in four concentrations each were suspended
in distilled water were sprayed separately using hand
sprayer on the host plants. In the control set, the host
plants were sprayed with distilled water. All the treatments
were carried out in triplicates. All treated insects on plants
were maintained in the laboratory and mortality was
determined 24 and 48 h after the spray of test samples on
aphid infested plants. Test insects were considered dead
if appendages did not respond after being touched with a
camel hairbrush. Data from all bioassays were corrected
for control mortality using Abbott formula (Abbott, 1925).
LC50 values were determined using Pedigo (2002).
In another experiment, the bioefficacy of the botanicals
were carried out in the polythene caged field with plot size
of 25 x 50 m and spacing of 100 cm. Each treatment was
replicated thrice and compared with untreated check. Two
rounds of application of above said treatments were given
on sugarcane crop. Before the treatment, 11 infested leaves
of sugarcane marked and count the number of aphid,
expressed number of insects per sq cm long of the mid ribs.
Number of insects per leaf was about 56 to 91. Plant extract
(25 %) was sprayed in the sugarcane after 131 days after
the transplantation using five liter capacity KASS pressure
sprayer. The percentage mortality of aphid was recorded
24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after the botanicals sprayed.
.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
It has been well recognized that plant based secondary
chemistry could be developed into products suitable for
integrated pest management because many of them are
selective to pests, have no or few harmful effects on non
target organisms and the environment, act in many ways
on various types of pest complex, and may be applied to
the plant in the same way as other chemical pesticides. In
vitro screening of SWA shows that maximum per cent
mortality was caused by A. concinna followed by
A. calamus , M. charantia and A. squamosa (Table 1).
LC50 values for 48 hrs reveals that maximum toxicity was
recorded in A. concinna followed by Momordica
charantia. Acorus calamus and Annona squamosa (Table
2). Both LC30 and LC90 values also in agreement with the
LC50 value. Field experiment on smaller scale within
polythene cages helped in recording toxic-range for
various concentrations. Observations recorded in table-2
depicts % mortality in vivo at smaller scale as 97.5%,
80.75%, 78.56% and 30.11% for Acacia concianna, Acorus
calamus, Momordica charantia and Annona squamosa
respectively. Figure 1 gave graphical presentation of
sampling at larger scale showing 75.81 % mortality at 25%
concentration, 63.36 % mortality at 10 % concentration,
38.84 % at 2.5 %, 20.86 % at 2% concentration of Acorus
calamus after 48 hours. Acacia concianna gave 94.48%
mortality at 25 % concentration of extract, 80.27% mortality
Table 1. Toxic effect of chosen plants (25% concen-
tration) on sugarcane woolly aphids (in 2.5 cm length
along midrib) under in-vitro condition
Treatments
Mortality (in % after)
1st Spray 2nd Spray
24 hrs 48 hrs 24 hrs 48 hrs
Control 0 0 0 0
Acorus calamus 47.83 56.42 60.57 76.09
Acacia concianna 60.87 69.57 93.48 95.65
Momordica charantia 45.65 58.70 65.22 69.57
Annona squamosa 26.09 30.43 34.78 43.48
D. S. Patil and N. S. Chavan (Mulik)
Table 2. Impact of plant extracts on the LC50 parameters of C. lanigera
Plants Lethal concentrations Table χ2Calculated χ2Regression Equation
LC30 LC 50 LC90
Acorus calamus 0.2024 0.2310 0.2638 7.8147 0.0939 Y = -12.0203 + 7.2004 X
Acacia concianna 0.1624 0.1934 0.2304 7.8147 0.1436 Y = -9.3348 + 6.2690 X
Momordica charantia 0.1803 0.2093 0.2430 7.8147 3.7067 Y = -10.2104 + 6.5534 X
Annona squamosa 0.1867 0.4238 0.9619 7.8147 0.1356 Y = -3.5308 + 3.2470 x
46
for 10% concentration, 51.14 to 2.5%, 41.83 % to 2%
concentration. Thus it proves best to control the pest .
Momordica charantia gave 76.05% mortality at 25%
concentration of extract, 73.23% at 10%, 69.18 % at 2.5%
and 21.11% to 2% concentration of extract. Annona
squamosa gave comparatively poor result to control pest
as 26.67 %for 25% concentration, 22.71 % for 10%, 19.95%
for 2.5% and 16.79 % for 2% concentration after 48 hrs.
The emulsifiable concentrate UDA-245 based on an
essential oil extract from Chenopodium ambrosioi
des variety nearambrosioides, a North American
herbaceous plant, was compared with commercially
available pesticides for their effectiveness to control green
peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera:
Aphididae), western flower thrips, Frankliniella
occidentalis(Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and
greenhouse whitefly,Trialeurodes vaporariorium
(Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) (Chiasson et al.,
2004).
Figure 1. Toxic effect of botanicals (in 25% concentration)
on SWA population under polythene cage conditions at
different exposence period.
Field studies reveal that aphid’s mortality was gradually
increased from 24 hurs to 92 hrs. As observed in the
laboratory bioassay, field experiment confirms the in-vitro
experiments. Among the four plants maximum mortality
was recorded in A. concianna followed by M. charantia,
A. calamus and A. squamosa (Figure 1). In the light of the
above considerations and our results, Acacia concianna
appear to be promising botanical insecticide against
Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehnter and may hold potential
for identification of new lead structures. As they are
naturally obtained compounds, organic farmers could use
them but they also could be used in association with
organic synthetic pesticides in insecticide soaps. Their
incorporation within insecticidal formulations could
increase the number of biochemical targets in the insects,
limiting prospect for the onset of resistance and offering
the prospect of reducing pesticide dose (Regnault-Roger
et al., 2004). Further investigations are necessary in regard
to evaluating the bioactivity against other economically
important insects like Spodoptera litura, Plutella
xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera and developing
various formulations with enhanced activity.
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_____________________________________________
Dhanashri Sagar Patil*1 and N. S. Chavan (Mulik),
1Department of Botany, G.K.G College, Kolhapur, India.
2Department of Botany, Shivaji University, Kolhapur,
Email: niranjanac_2006 @yahoo.com
*Communication author E-mail: dspbotany_23@ yahoo. com.
D. S. Patil and N. S. Chavan (Mulik)
Journal of Biopesticides - Life members
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