Article

Interventions for preventing weight gain after smoking cessation

Department of Primary Care & General Practice, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK, B15 2TT.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 6.03). 02/2009; 1(1):CD006219. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006219.pub2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Most people who give up smoking put on weight. This is of concern to many smokers and often puts people off trying to quit or leads to people going back to smoking after managing to quit. A variety of drug and behavioural treatments have been tested to see if they increase the chances of quitting whilst also limiting weight gain. Among the drug treatments, naltrexone showed the most promise, but there was no evidence of its effects on weight once drug treatment stopped or in the long term. Behavioural treatments were more successful when tailored to the individual, with very low calorie diets and cognitive behavioural therapy showing the most promise in limiting weight gain. Both treatments increased success in long-term quitting, but the long-term effect on weight was only found with cognitive behavioural therapy. There was not enough evidence to judge whether very low calorie diets helped people maintain their weight reduction long-term. Interventions to help smokers to quit may also have an effect on weight gain after quitting. Bupropion, fluoxetine and nicotine replacement therapy were all found to limit weight gain during treatment. However the effects on limiting weight gain were smaller once treatment had stopped, and there was not enough evidence to be sure that these effects persisted in the long term. Varenicline may also reduce weight gain during treatment, but there was not enough evidence to confirm this or to measure its long-term effect on weight. There was some evidence to suggest that exercise reduced long-term weight gain after quitting, but more studies are needed to confirm this effect.

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