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Review of the status of vegetable crops production and marketing in Ethiopia

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... [3] Similarly, Similarly, the major reasons associated with yield reduction in Ethiopia are shortage of improved varieties, infestation of disease and pests, poor agronomic practices, poor post-harvest handling. According to Fekadu and Dendena (2006) [14] , despite its importance, Ethiopian hot pepper production has been hampered by a number of factors, including the use of inferior varieties, poor cultural practices, and the increasing prevalence of fungal, bacterial, and viral diseases. CSA (2006) [7] reported that in spite of its importance, the hot pepper production system for green and dry pod has stayed as low input and low output with a national average yield of 7.6 t/ha for green pod whereas it was 1.6 t/ha for the dry pod respectively. ...
... CSA (2006) [7] reported that in spite of its importance, the hot pepper production system for green and dry pod has stayed as low input and low output with a national average yield of 7.6 t/ha for green pod whereas it was 1.6 t/ha for the dry pod respectively. Fekadu and Dandena (2006) [14] also expressed that the decline of hot pepper production is also attributed to poor varieties, poor cultural practices, the prevalence of fungal (blights) and bacterial as well as viral diseases. Likewise, West Haraghe highlands of study site is potential area for hot pepper production. ...
... CSA (2006) [7] reported that in spite of its importance, the hot pepper production system for green and dry pod has stayed as low input and low output with a national average yield of 7.6 t/ha for green pod whereas it was 1.6 t/ha for the dry pod respectively. Fekadu and Dandena (2006) [14] also expressed that the decline of hot pepper production is also attributed to poor varieties, poor cultural practices, the prevalence of fungal (blights) and bacterial as well as viral diseases. Likewise, West Haraghe highlands of study site is potential area for hot pepper production. ...
... L.) is one of the most important vegetables grown in Ethiopia. As a bulb crop, it is mainly produced by smallholder farmers as a source of cash income and for flavouring the local stew 'wot' [1,2]. A significant proportion of onion produced in Ethiopia is obtained from the Central Rift Valley region, which is mainly attributed to availability of irrigation potential and proximity to market [3]. ...
... However, the potential productivity could go far beyond the current national average yield with proper management practices. Reports indicated that vegetable production in Ethiopia is constrained mainly by, among others, depleting soil fertility and poor agronomic practices such as unbalanced/improper fertilization [6,2]. Accordingly, research gaps on agronomy of onion crop have been reported in Ethiopia in general and central rift-Valley region in particular [1]. ...
... The main effect of nitrogen significantly (P≤0.05) increased plant height while P and its interaction with N did not Table (2). Increasing the rate of nitrogen from nil to 34.5 and 69 kg N ha -1 increased plant height by 26 and 30%, respectively. ...
... Almost 80% of the population lives in the country side while the rest situated in urban area. An estimated five million people suffer from lack of vitamins and essential minerals, of which 80% are children [9]. With a population of over 70 million people, 44% of whom fall under the basic needs poverty line and a GDP which is 1/5 of the sub-Saharan African average, Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world sited by Dereje, et al. [10]. ...
... Vegetable crops are valuable sources of vitamins, minerals and proteins especially to a country like Ethiopia where the people experience malnutrition due to heavy dependence on cereals such as tef (Eragrostistef), maize (Zeamais), wheat and other cereals. The current investment policy in the country are favorable for expansion and diversification of vegetable crops both in the production and marketing sectors for export and foreign exchange earnings [9]. ...
... The status of vegetable production including indigenous one and consumption in the country yet need further improvement as cited by Dendana [9,18]. On the other hand, Ethiopia is well known for its diversity of indigenous food plants, including vegetables. ...
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Vegetables provide an abundant and inexpensive source of energy, body-building nutrients, vitamins and minerals. This review paper was aimed to recognize opportunities, constraints and potentials in Ethiopia for production of vegetables. Major opportunities and potentials existing in the country for production of vegetables were reviewed and described. Policies and incentives of the government to attract both foreign and domestic investors engaged in vegetable production were found to be attractive. Ethiopia has a comparative advantage in production of horticultural commodities on account its favorable climate, proximity to European and Middle Eastern markets and cheap labor. Low cost, disciplined and trainable Labor force and the size of its domestic market and the numerous river basins affording great potential for irrigation. The status of vegetable production including indigenous one and consumption in the country yet need further improvement. Recently, despite of the ups and downs observed, the demand for vegetables especially for export is increasing. In general, the drawback to this sector in Ethiopia mainly include social and cultural habits of the population like cereal based food habit, dietary preferences for meat and other animal products, and distaste for vegetable crops, lack of consumer awareness, economic reasons of the local consumers, absence of nutrition intervention programme using vegetables. However, due to perishable nature and biological nature of vegetables production process, vegetables productions are risky investment activities. The constraints of horticultural production including vegetables production could be categorized in to Farmer related, institutional, natural and infrastructure related factors.
... L.) is one of the most important vegetables grown in Ethiopia. As a bulb crop, it is mainly produced by smallholder farmers as a source of cash income and for flavouring the local stew 'wot' [1,2]. A significant proportion of onion produced in Ethiopia is obtained from the Central Rift Valley region, which is mainly attributed to availability of irrigation potential and proximity to market [3]. ...
... However, the potential productivity could go far beyond the current national average yield with proper management practices. Reports indicated that vegetable production in Ethiopia is constrained mainly by, among others, depleting soil fertility and poor agronomic practices such as unbalanced/improper fertilization [6,2]. Accordingly, research gaps on agronomy of onion crop have been reported in Ethiopia in general and central rift-Valley region in particular [1]. ...
... The main effect of nitrogen significantly (P≤0.05) increased plant height while P and its interaction with N did not Table (2). Increasing the rate of nitrogen from nil to 34.5 and 69 kg N ha -1 increased plant height by 26 and 30%, respectively. ...
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Introduction Onion is an important cash crop for smallholder farmers in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. However, the yield of the crop is low owing to a number of constraints out of which soil nutrient depletion and inappropriate soil fertility management practices are the most important ones. Methods and Materials A field experiment was carried out for two consecutive years of 2011 and 2012 using irrigation at Melkassa, Central Rift Valley Region of Ethiopia, to assess the response of onion to different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers and to identify economical rates of the fertilizers for optimizing the yield and quality of the crop. The treatments consisted of five levels of nitrogen (0, 34.5, 69, 103.5 and 138 kg ha ⁻¹ ) and four levels of phosphorus (0, 46, 92, and 138 kg P 2 O 5 ha ⁻¹ ). The experiment was carried out as a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Results The results of the study revealed that the main effect of nitrogen significantly (P≤0.05) affected most of the growth parameters and bulb characters which all attained maximum values at 138 kg N ha ⁻¹ . The main effect of P significantly (P ≤ 0.05) influenced leaf number, leaf length, and bulb diameter. Nitrogen and phosphorus interacted to influence total and marketable bulb yields. Application of N at the rate of 103.5 kg N ha ⁻¹ combined with 138 kg ha ⁻¹ P 2 O 5 led to the production of the highest total and marketable bulb yield of onion. However, results of the economic analysis revealed that application of N at the rate of 103.5 kg ha ⁻¹ and P 2 O 5 at 92 kg ha ⁻¹ led to the highest net return.
... The average output ha -1 for green and red dry pod is low as compared to that of world average production productivity. This could be due to one or more of the different productivities limiting factors including shortages of improved cultivars, inadequate seed production and promotion, poor extension works, susceptibility of released cultivars to diseases, poor agronomic practices (plant population, irrigation amount and frequencies, fertilizer type and level) across location and seasons with corresponding cultivars (Fekadu and Dandena, 2006;Shumeta, 2012;Getahun and Habtie, 2017) [23,52,26] . To solve these problems, only some research activities like adaptation trial on hot pepper (Gebremeskel et al., 2015) [25] , plant population (intra and inter row spacing) for a single season and at one location, DAP and urea rates (Teka, personal communication, 2017) have been undertaken. ...
... The average output ha -1 for green and red dry pod is low as compared to that of world average production productivity. This could be due to one or more of the different productivities limiting factors including shortages of improved cultivars, inadequate seed production and promotion, poor extension works, susceptibility of released cultivars to diseases, poor agronomic practices (plant population, irrigation amount and frequencies, fertilizer type and level) across location and seasons with corresponding cultivars (Fekadu and Dandena, 2006;Shumeta, 2012;Getahun and Habtie, 2017) [23,52,26] . To solve these problems, only some research activities like adaptation trial on hot pepper (Gebremeskel et al., 2015) [25] , plant population (intra and inter row spacing) for a single season and at one location, DAP and urea rates (Teka, personal communication, 2017) have been undertaken. ...
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Hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important crop. However, its production and productivities are constrained by different factors in which Cultivar and fertilizer level are the major ones. Thus, the experiment was conducted on two hot pepper cultivars (Melka Shote and Melka Awaze) and six rates NPSZn + urea; to determine the growth and yield response of hot pepper cultivars to different levels NPSZn + urea and interaction effect of both factors. A factorial RCBD (2*6) was used for the experiment and each treatment was replicated thrice. Growth, penological and yield data were collected and and analyzed using SAS version 9.3. ANOVA revealed that plant height, days to first harvest, total leaf area, leaf area index, number of pods plant-1 , marketable, unmarketable and total dry pod yield and pod length were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the interaction effect of cultivars and NPSZn + urea rates. The main effect of cultivars and NPSZn + urea exerted highly significant (p<0.01) and significant (p<0.05) difference on canopy diameter respectively. While days to 50% flowering was highly significantly (p<0.01) influenced by interaction effect of cultivars and NPSZn + urea. Number of primary and secondary branches were highly significantly (p<0.01) affected by the main effect of cultivars and NPSZn + urea respectively. The highest (2.24 t ha-1) and the lowest (1.46 t ha-1) total dry pod yield were obtained at the combined effect of Melka Shote with 84.5NPSZn+136.5 urea kg ha-1 and with the control respectively. It is suggested to repeat the study to come up with sound recommendation suitable for the area.
... These soils need substantial improvement in fertility and structure. Soil physical and chemical characteristics were reported to be the most influential factors for growth, yield, and quality of bulb onion (Fekadu and Dandena, 2006). Application of organic and inorganic fertilizers may be ways to improve soil structure and fertility (Fekadu and Dandena, 2006). ...
... Soil physical and chemical characteristics were reported to be the most influential factors for growth, yield, and quality of bulb onion (Fekadu and Dandena, 2006). Application of organic and inorganic fertilizers may be ways to improve soil structure and fertility (Fekadu and Dandena, 2006). ...
Article
Potential yield of onion (Allium cepa L.) in semi-arid regions is reduced by abiotic (soil infertility, poor agronomic practices, and unbalanced fertilization) and biotic (use of low yielding varieties, insect pest, and diseases) challenges. Soil infertility causes up to 60% yield loss in onion. This study was undertaken to assess the influence of manure and phosphorus (P2O5) fertilizer levels on growth and bulb development of onion under semi-arid conditions. Manure at 30 or 60 kg/5 m² or 0.24, 0.48 or 0.62 g/plant for phosphorus and treatments combined at each application rate were used. Application of phosphorus and manure at 0.24 to 0.48 g/plant and 30 kg/5 m² plot, respectively, improved vegetative and bulb development and weight. A combination of 30 kg/5 plot manure and 0.48 g/plant phosphorus produced an economic benefit based on number and weight of marketable bulbs. Application of 0.24 to 0.31 t∙ha⁻¹ of P2O5, increased number of unmarketable bulbs. ‘Red Bombay’ performed better than ‘Red Mantle.’ Individual or combination application of P2O5 at 0.12 to 0.31 t∙ha⁻¹ and organic manure at 60 t∙ha⁻¹ may produce adequate yield, and ‘Red Bombay’ maybe a better choice than ‘Red Mantle’ under semi-arid conditions. Application of manure and phosphorus improves vegetative and yield in onion cultivars. Use of 30 kg/5 m² of manure and a combination of 30 kg/5 m² and 0.48 g/plant manure and P2O5, respectively, appear to improve yield.
... One of the major bottlenecks of onion production in Ethiopia is improper agronomic practices. Many reports indicate that, in Ethiopia the low productivity of vegetables including onions is attributed to depleting soil fertility, poor agronomic practices such as imbalanced fertilizer application (Lemma andShimeles, 2003 andFekadu andDandena, 2006). ...
... One of the major bottlenecks of onion production in Ethiopia is improper agronomic practices. Many reports indicate that, in Ethiopia the low productivity of vegetables including onions is attributed to depleting soil fertility, poor agronomic practices such as imbalanced fertilizer application (Lemma andShimeles, 2003 andFekadu andDandena, 2006). ...
Article
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A field experiment was conducted at Shire, Lemlem demonstration farm under rainfall condition to study the impact of nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and intra row spacing on growth bulb yields and profitability of onion (Allium cepa L.). Treatments consisted of factorial combination of four rates of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1) and four intra row spacing (4, 6, 8, and 10 cm). The experiment was laid out as a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The result of this study revealed that the interaction effect of N and spacing affected days to maturity and plant height. The main effect of N significantly affected most of the studied parameters while spacing affected number of leaves and yield. Days to maturity of onions were prolonged in response to the increased rate of nitrogen application. Increasing nitrogen from the nil to 150 kg N ha-1 decreased bolting percentage by 62%. Increasing the rate of nitrogen from 50 to 100 kg N ha-1 increased the total bulb yield and leaf number by about 26.7% and 29% respectively. However, increasing the rate of N further from 100 to 150 kg N ha-1 tended to decrease total bulb yield by 5.3 %. Higher marketable yield of 31.455 t ha-1 were obtained at 100 kg N ha .-1. The result of partial Budget analysis showed that 100 kg N ha-1 combined with 6 cm intra row spacing was found the best treatment than others in relation to bulb yield and economic benefits under the condition of Shire, northern Ethiopia.
... In Africa Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa and Niger are the leading producers of the crop in Africa (FAOSTAT, 2008). In Ethiopia, the crop is one of the most important vegetables produced by smallholder farmers mainly as a source of cash income and for flavoring the local stew 'wot' (Lemma and Shemelis, 2003;Fekadu et al., 2006). In 2016/17, the total area under onion production in Ethiopia is estimated to be 33603.39 ...
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Onion is one of vegetable crops grown under irrigation in the central highland of Ethiopia. Furrow irrigation is most commonly used method of irrigation. A field study was carried out at the experimental site of Debre Zeit agricultural research center to investigate the effect of furrow irrigation methods and identify deficit irrigation level on crop growth and yield of onion. Treatments include three furrow irrigation methods, viz., alternate, fixed and conventional furrow irrigations and three deficit irrigation levels of 85% crop evapotranspiration (ETc), 70% and 55% ETc and a control irrigation of 100% ETc in split plot design with three replications. A furrow irrigation method was assigned as main plots and the irrigation levels as sub plots. Irrigation water was applied at allowable soil moisture depletion (p=0.25) considered for onion. Analysis of variance indicated furrow irrigation methods and irrigation levels significantly (P<0.01) affected onion growth and yield. The interaction of furrow irrigation methods and irrigation levels had no significant effect on growth and yield of onion. The highest total bulb yields were obtained from alternate furrow irrigation and control irrigation of 100% application. Among the deficit irrigation, 85%ETc gave significantly higher yield, plant height, number of leaves and leaves length.
... In Africa Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa and Niger are the leading producers of the crop in Africa (FAOSTAT, 2008). In Ethiopia, the crop is one of the most important vegetables produced by smallholder farmers mainly as a source of cash income and for flavoring the local stew 'wot' (Lemma and Shemelis, 2003;Fekadu et al., 2006). In 2016/17, the total area under onion production in Ethiopia is estimated to be 33603.39 ...
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Irrigation is the only solution to improve crop production and productivity thereby contributing towards food security, self-sufficiency and export market. The efficient use of water by irrigation system is becoming increasingly important in arid and semi-arid regions with limited water resources. The Experiment was conducted in Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center with the Regulated Deficit Irrigation and Onion (Allium cepa L.) Yield Response on Water Productivity in Ethiopia during 2017/2018 cropping season. The objective of the experiment was identify the pin point of water stress threshold value of onion under deficit irrigation and investigate the effect of alternate, fixed and conventional furrow irrigation methods on crop yield and water productivity under deficit irrigation. The experimental treatments had three furrow irrigation methods, (alternate furrow irrigation (AFI), fixed furrow irrigation (FFI) and conventional furrow irrigation (CFI)) and two deficit irrigation levels of application, viz., 85 % ETc, and70 % ETc and a control irrigation of 100%ETc. The design of the experimental plot was split plot in RCBD arrangement and replicated three times. The three furrow irrigation methods were arranged as main plots and the deficit levels as sub plots a total of nine (9) treatment combinations. All collected data, were statistically analyzed using SAS 9.1 statistical software. The experimental study result showed that bulb diameter, unmarketable bulb yield and total bulb yield of onion were highly significance difference (p<0.001) both in furrow irrigation methods and irrigation levels. Likewise diameter of onion also gave highest on CFI and 100%ETc irrigation water application level which is 6.69cm and 6.94cm respectively. According to the results obtained, the highest total yield was recorded for the treatment of 100%ETc irrigation water application and AFI of the furrow irrigation method 38947kgha-1 and 35920kgha-1 respectively however, the lowest total bulb yield of 30253kg ha-1 and 29135kg ha-1 were recorded when FFI system was applied and in 70%ETc of water applied. Bulb height of onion was highly significance difference (p<0.001) only on deficit irrigation levels. On the other hand, marketable bulb yield, irrigation water use efficiency and crop water use efficiency were significance difference (P ≤ 0.05) by the interaction of furrow irrigation methods and deficit irrigation levels. The highest average marketable bulb yield of onion was obtained 42219kgha-1 on CFI with the combination of 100%ETc irrigation level in addition to this IWUE and CWUE both are recorded highest result on 70%ETc and AFI furrow irrigation method. Generally, among all irrigation treatments 70%ETc deficit irrigation level applied under AFI method was efficient in conserving significant irrigation water. Therefore, it could be concluded that, AFI can save a substantial amount of water and labor without highly reduction of onion yield and the lowest CWUE and IWUE was gave FFI followed by CFI.
... In Africa Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa and Niger are the leading producers of the crop in Africa (FAOSTAT, 2008). In Ethiopia, the crop is one of the most important vegetables produced by smallholder farmers mainly as a source of cash income and for flavoring the local stew 'wot' (Lemma and Shemelis, 2003;Fekadu et al., 2006). In 2016/17, the total area under onion production in Ethiopia is estimated to be 33603.39 ...
Article
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Onion is one of vegetable crops grown under irrigation. Furrow irrigation is most commonly used method of irrigation. Field study was carried out on clay soil at experimental site of Debre Zeit agricultural research center to investigate the effect of furrow irrigation methods and identify optimal deficit irrigation level on crop yield and water productivity of onion. Treatments include three furrow irrigation methods, viz., alternate, fixed and conventional furrow irrigations and three deficit irrigation levels of 85% ETc, 70% ETc and 55% ETc and a control irrigation of 100%ETc laid out in split plot design with three replications. A furrow irrigation method was assigned as main plots and the irrigation levels as sub plots. Irrigation water was applied at allowable soil moisture depletion (p=0.25) for onion. Analysis of variance indicate furrow irrigation methods and irrigation levels significantly (P<0.01) affected onion yield and water productivity. The highest total bulb yields were obtained from alternate furrow irrigation and control irrigation of 100%ETc application. Among the deficit irrigation, 85%ETc gave significantly higher yield. Although 55%ETc application under alternate furrow irrigation gave the highest Crop Water Use Efficiency (CWUE) and Irrigation Water Use Efficiency (IWUE), yield penalty was significant compared to all other deficit irrigation. However, deficit irrigation of 70%ETc under alternate furrow irrigation gave above the mean value of CWUE and IWUE and hence can be considered best practice in a water resources limited area.
... In developing countries, postharvest losses of fresh produce vary between 25-50% of the total production, depending on the commodity. The post-harvest losses of perishable (vegetable and fruits) food crops amounted to be about 30% (Fekadu and Dandena, 2006) The shelf-life depends mainly on the Ziziphus cultivar, storage temperature, packaging method, and stage of harvest. During storage, the fruits lose weight and shrivel, change color and become red, lose acidity and ascorbic acid, but gain in sweetness. ...
... In Ethiopia, up to 30% of vegetable harvests are reported to be lost due to poor postharvest handling (Fekadu and Dandena, 2006). During peak harvesting seasons, the loss is high and the products are sold at low price because of lack of means to preserve and store the products. ...
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Dehydration of vegetables is a process commonly used to preserve the product. However, collapse of the structure, discoloration and beneficial compound loss are frequent quality problem. The combination of osmotic dehydration (OD) and other drying techniques is widely used process that could improve the qualities of dried products. Osmotic dehydration (OD) is one of the most promising pre-treatment techniques. It gives product of high quality and preserves reasonably good quantity of naturally occurring microelements and vitamins in fruits and vegetables. It also provides good returns in terms of less energy consumption, palatable, aesthetically acceptable and consumer preferred product. This study was undertaken to investigate the drying characteristics of Adama red onion (Allium cepa) in an oven and fludized bed dryer after treating the onion slice in osmotic solution. Osmotic dehydration (OD) conditions of onion slices were optimized using response surface methodology(RSM) with respect to osmotic solution concentration 10–20 % (w/w), soaking time (30–60 Minutes) and soaking temperature (35–55 °C) for maximum water loss (WL) and minimum solid gain (SG) as response variables. General factorial design was used as experimental design. The models developed for all responses were significant (p<0.05). The optimized conditions obtained were osmotic solution concentration 11.08%, soaking time 38.75 minutes and soaking temperature 45.8 °C in order to obtain WL of 14.7 (g/100 g of fresh weight), SG of 6.3 (g/100 g of fresh weight). The osmotically dehydrated onion slices were then dried in a fluidized bed dryer and conventional oven at drying air temperatures of 50°, 60°, and 70°C. The quality parameters, such as rehydration ratio, ascorbic acid, microbiological quality and sensory quality (color, appearance, and overall acceptability) of the dehydrated onion were determined. The highest number of acceptable quality parameters was reported for osmotic fluidized bed dried samples at 50°C (p<0.05). Key words: Osmotic dehydration, Onion, Optimization, Response surface methodology Salt solution , Fluidized bed drying ,Oven drying
... It is heartening to note that the Government of Ethiopia has reaffirmed its commitment to the agricultural sector by scaling up the management practices that enhance the productivity of farms [13]. e low productivity of onions in Ethiopia could be ascribed to a host of agronomic, environmental, and management factors, with the irrigation and fertilization being the important ones [14,15]. Presently, both water and nutrients are not properly managed, resulting in crop yields far below their potential. ...
Article
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Onion (Allium cepa L.) is an important cash crop for smallholder farmers in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. However, its productivity is low, owing to a number of factors including inappropriate irrigation water and nitrogen management. A field experiment was, therefore, conducted at Amibara farm, Arba Minch, Ethiopia, during the 2018/19 dry season to determine the effect of the irrigation interval and nitrogen rate on growth, yield, and yield components of onion (Bombay Red variety). The treatments comprised four irrigation intervals (3, 6, 9, and 12 days of crop water requirement, ETc) and four nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg·N·ha−1). The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design using irrigation intervals as main plots and nitrogen rates as subplots with three replications. The growth parameters, yield components, and final yield of onion were significantly higher with 3 and 6 days irrigation intervals (which were statistically similar) than 9 and 12 days irrigation intervals. The increasing N rate significantly increased the growth and yield components up to 150 kg·N·ha−1, but the response was significant only up to 100 kg·N·ha−1 on the final yield of the crop. The growth and yield contributing parameters, showing enhancement with frequent irrigation and higher N rates, had a significant bearing on the final yield of onion. The irrigation at 6 days interval combined with 100 kg·N·ha−1 gave a higher marketable yield (30.21 t·ha−1), net return (Birr 288,458 ha−1), and marginal rate of return (8586%). As such, irrigation at an interval of 6 days and fertilizer N at the rate of 100·kg·ha−1 may be recommended for higher productivity and profitability of onion at Arba Minch, Gamo Zone, southern Ethiopia.
... Despite the enlargement of onion production, its productiveness in Ethiopia and the Southern vicinity of Ethiopia is low with 9.28 t ha -1 and 10.41 t ha -1 respectively (CSA, 2018) compared to the world's common yield of 17.30 t ha -1 (FAO, 2010); even tons decrease than different African countries (Nigussie et al., 2015;MoANR, 2016). Depleting soil fertility and weak agronomic practices which include unbalanced/flawed fertilization are most of the important constraints that affect vegetable production in Ethiopia (Fekadu and Dandena, 2006) and different components of the world (Pathak, 1994). ...
... In Ethiopia, onion is an important bulb crop produced for home consumption and is a source of income to many smallholder farmers (Fekadu and Dandena 2006). Onion stands in the first rank among the bulb crops. ...
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An experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of onion to different rates of chicken manure (CM) and blended fertilizer (BF) on growth and bulb yield at Jimma, Southwestern Ethiopia during the 2017/18 cropping season. Treatments consisted of four rates of CM (no CM, 5, 10 and 15 t ha- 1) and four rates of BF (no BF, 62.5, 125.0 and 187.5 kg ha_1) and laid out in 4*4 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on growth and bulb yield of onion were collected and analysed using SAS version 9.3. Results showed that application of 15 t ha_1 CM + 125 kg ha_1 BF resulted in significantly (p<0.05) desirable onion bulb characteristics such as larger bulb neck diameter (1.6 cm) bulb diameter (6.7 cm) and higher bulb dry weight (26.05 g plant_1). In addition, aboveground dry biomass weight (4.67 g plant_1), harvest index (84.79%), marketable bulb yield (37.34 t ha_1) and total bulb yield (37.86 t ha_1) were significantly influenced by the combined application of CM and BF suggesting that that productivity of onion can be improved through combined application of CM with BF. We conclude that combined application of CM along with BF could improve soil fertility and productivity of low input onion production systems.
... The average output ha -1 for green and red dry pod is low as compared to that of world average production and the actual yield of pepper cultivars which in turn lowers the profit from the farm. This could be due to different profitability and productivity limiting factors including shortages of improved cultivars, inadequate seed production and promotion, poor extension works, susceptibility of released cultivars to diseases, poor agronomic practices (plant population, irrigation amount and frequencies, fertilizer type and level) across location, seasons with corresponding cultivars and market instability (Fekadu and Dandena, 2006;Shumeta, 2012;Getahun and Habtie, 2017). To solve these problems, only some research activities like adaptation trial on hot pepper (Gebremeskel et al., 2015), DAP and urea rates (Teka, personal communication, 2017) have been undertaken. ...
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The experiment was conducted to draw information on the economic feasibility of the application of blended fertilizer and urea rates on hot pepper cultivars (Melka Awaze and Melka Shote) under Raya Azebo Agro-ecological Condition. The experiment consisted of two hot pepper cultivars (Melka Shote and Melka Awaze) and five NPSZn + urea rates and one without fertilizer as a control. The trial was conducted to determine the most profitable rate/s of NPSZn + urea on selected two hot pepper cultivars. Two factor experiment (2*6) was arranged in RCBD with three replications. For the achievement of this objective, marketable red dry pod yield data was collected and analyzed using SAS version 9.3. The highest marketable (2.29 t ha-1) yield was recorded when Melka Shote cultivar was combined with 84.5 NPSZn +136.5 urea kg ha-1. In terms of economic feasibility, application of fertilizer at the rate of 84.5 NPSZn + 136.5 urea kg ha-1 to Melka Shote cultivar was found to be the most profitable, which gave net benefit of 132037 ETB ha-1 and marginal rate of return above the acceptable minimum rate of return (51.63%.). Thus, at Mehoni agricultural research site and for the surrounding farmers in Raya Azebo and other areas which have similar agro-ecological conditions, application of 84.5 NPSZn + 136.5 urea kg ha-1 to Melka Shote cultivar is recommended to obtain maximum economic return. However, to give sound recommendation it is important to repeat the experiment at this location in different season.
... According to survey work conducted on small-scale irrigation users of 500 agro-pastorals households at Amibara and Fentale districts of the Awash basin, onion cultivar Bombay Red yielded on average 19.3 tons per ha at an increasing rate of returns to production where the household generated to income in profitability rate [19]. In Ethiopia, the crop is one of the most important vegetables produced by smallholder farmers mainly as a source of cash income and for flavoring the local stew 'wot' [10]. ...
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Enhancing water productivity of irrigated crops through Agricultural water management is a vital option in water scarce areas, such as, Rift valley. Accordingly, a field experiment was conducted at Werer Agricultural Research Center to evaluate the effects of deficit irrigation and straw mulching levels on growth, yield and water productivity of onion (Allium cepa L.). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in factorial arrangement of three levels of irrigation (100, 80 and 60% of Crop Evapotranspiration and four levels of straw mulch (0, 3, 6 and 9ton wheat straw per ha) in three replications. The output of Cropwat model indicated that the highest seasonal water requirement of onion was 422.5 mm at 100% ETc while; the lowest was 253.5 mm at 60% ETc. The analysis of variance revealed that there was significant (p<0.05) difference in growth parameters and yield parameters were highly significant (p<0.01) influenced by the interaction effects of deficit irrigation and straw mulch levels. The highest marketable bulb yield (33.47 t/ha) was obtained from an experimental plot treated with combined application of 100% of ETc and 6 t/ha straw mulch, while the lowest (21.10 t/ha) was obtained from plots treated with 60% ETc irrigation level and no mulch treatment. Water productivity was also highly significant (p<0.01) influenced by the interaction effects of deficit irrigation and straw mulching levels; the highest (10.22 kg/m 3) and the lowest (6.11 kg/m 3) were recorded from the plots treated with 60% ETc and 9 t/ha straw mulch, and 100% ETc and no mulch treatments, respectively. Therefore, in terms of marketable bulb yield and water productivity, irrigating with 80% ETc with 6 t/ha straw mulch would be recommended for production of onion in the study area.
... Its productivity is also far below the level realized at global level 19.5 t ha -1 (FAO, 2010). Several factors are responsible for this discrepancy, among which irrigation and fertilization are the foremost factors (Lemma and Shimelis, 2003;Fekadu and Dandena, 2006).Many experiments have been conducted on onion for optimum N rate fertilization (Kumar et al., 2001;Khan et al., 2002;Lemma and Shimelis, 2003;Abdissa et al., 2011), however, recommendations vary widely. For instance, Lemma and Shimelis (2003) reported that application of 92 kg N ha -1 was found adequate for dry bulb production in upper Awash region in Ethiopia, but Abdissa et al. (2011) proved that application of 69 kg N ha -1 enhanced the growth and bulb yield of onion in Showa Robit, Ethiopia. ...
Article
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This study investigated the effects of different Nitrogen (N) levels and irrigation regimes on yield and yield components of Onion (Allium cepa L.) at Hawassa area district, southern Ethiopia in 2012. It was a factorial experiment laid out in split plot design with three replications of four irrigation regimes and five N levels. Data on yield and yield components were collected and analyzed. Application of N at different levels and irrigation regime increased total and marketable bulb yield over the unfertilized plot, and their interaction showed a significant effect on the average bulb weight; mean bulb diameter and water productivity of onion. Further increase in N application beyond 100 kg Nha-1 and irrigation beyond 75% crop evapo-transpiration ETc did not bring about significant changes. Therefore, 100 kg Nha-1 and irrigation at 75% ETc can be tentatively recommended for onion production to the studied area.
... In Ethiopia, land holders living near urban centre largely practice vegetable farming. Most vegetables are not commonly practiced by the rural peasant holders [6]. Most of the vegetables produced in Ethiopia include cabbage are grown from imported seeds from various countries except limited once such as shallot, garlic, hot pepper and kale, which has been traditionally produced. ...
... Seventy five garlic accessions with three standard checks and three promising genotypes were evaluated in two locations. Significant differences were observed (P<0.05) between the tested genotypes for garlic bulb yield [7]. The variability between accessions is statistically significant for the morphological characters, which indicated the presence of wide spectrum of variability among the local garlic accessions. ...
Article
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Seventy five germplasm collections of garlic (Allium sativum L.), three standard checks and three promising genotypes were evaluated for six quantitative characters using simple lattice square design at Chefe Donsa and Debre Zeit, Central part of Ethiopia. The main objective of the study was to asses and select better genotypes with high yield, quality and pest tolerance to next steps. Analysis of variance showed significant difference among the tested accessions for most of the quantitative traits considered in the study except weight of clove. The better performed accessions than best check were GOG-018/18 and GOG-067/18 found to be superior bulb yield followed by GOG-073/18, GOG-069/18, GOG-058/18, GOG-057/18, GOG-072/18, GOG-074/18, GOG-075/18, GOG-061/18, GOG-064/18, GOG-059/18, GOG-047/18, GOG-056/18, GOG-055/18, GOG-001/18, GOG-063/18, GOG-045/18, GOG-049/18, GOG-068/18, GOG-011/18, GOG-051/18, GOG-070/18, GOG-025/18 and GOG-046/18. So, these accessions will be promoted to the next breeding step. Cluster-IV and V were constituted by the most important garlic accessions that are characterized by the best bulb yield than the other clusters. All morphological characters were positively and significantly correlated with bulb yield.
... February 15 th transplanting in year 1 and February 1 st Uarrota (2010) also related the lesser fruit set with climatic factors including high temperature and lower humidity as well on genetic variation. According to Mariame and Gelmesa (2006), wide variations in fruit yield at different transplanting dates can be attributed to differences in genetic variability of the cultivars and their agro-ecological adaptations. Erickson and Markhart, (2001) also reported that fruit yield was reduced at higher average temperature due to lesser fruit set. ...
... In Ethiopia, the Alliums group (garlic, onion and shallot) are important bulb crops produced by small and commercial growers for both local use and export markets. Production of cash crops like garlic and other spices is proved to be income generating activity for farmers, especially for those who have limited cultivated land or small holder farmers [8]. However, its cultivation decreased from 16,411.19 ha in 2013/14 to 15,381 ha in 2016/17 with a total production of 159, 093.58 and 138,664.3 ...
Article
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Garlic is one of the most important crops widely cultivated throughout the world including Ethiopia. It is the second most widely cultivated Allium species next to onion. The production of the crop is majorly threatened by fungal diseases. White rot of garlic caused by Sclerotium cepivorum, is the most devastating constraint in Ethiopia. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fungicide types on incidence and severity of garlic white rot, yield and yield components of garlic and to identify the effective method of fungicides application under rain fed supplemented with irrigation at Debre Berhan University Research site in 2017/18 .The experiment was consisted of three types of fungicides (Apron star, MORE 720 WP and Mancozeb) with three methods of application (clove, clove plus foliar and foliar). The experiment was laid out as RCBD in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Fungicide types and methods of application significantly affected disease incidence, percentage of disease severity, area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), yield and yield components. Clove and clove plus foliar applied Apron star was the most effective in reducing the disease epidemics and gave better yield advantage. Clove applied Apron star has reduced the initial severity, final severity and incidence by 64.7%, 70.9% and 80.6% respectively, as compared to the untreated plots. About 63.6% and 51.9% increment of average bulb weight and yield were recorded in clove applied Apron star respectively, as compared to the untreated plots. The highest net return (35,350 birr) was obtained from clove applied Apron star plots, while the lowest net return (2350 birr) was obtained from foliar applied Apron star plots. Hence, it could be concluded that clove applied with Apron star needs to use for the disease management in the study area. Keywords: Garlic; Fungicides; White rot; Sclerotium cepivorum
... In Ethiopia, the Alliums group (garlic, onion and shallot) are important bulb crops produced by small and commercial growers for both local use and export markets. Production of cash crops like garlic and other spices is proved to be income generating activity for farmers, especially for those who have limited cultivated land or small holder farmers [8]. However, its cultivation decreased from 16,411.19 ha in 2013/14 to 15,381 ha in 2016/17 with a total production of 159, 093.58 and 138,664.3 ...
Article
Full-text available
Garlic is one of the most important crops widely cultivated throughout the world including Ethiopia. It is the second most widely cultivated Allium species next to onion. The production of the crop is majorly threatened by fungal diseases. White rot of garlic caused by Sclerotium cepivorum, is the most devastating constraint in Ethiopia. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fungicide types on incidence and severity of garlic white rot, yield and yield components of garlic and to identify the effective method of fungicides application under rain fed supplemented with irrigation at Debre Berhan University Research site in 2017/18 .The experiment was consisted of three types of fungicides (Apron star, MORE 720 WP and Mancozeb) with three methods of application (clove, clove plus foliar and foliar). The experiment was laid out as RCBD in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Fungicide types and methods of application significantly affected disease incidence, percentage of disease severity, area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), yield and yield components. Clove and clove plus foliar applied Apron star was the most effective in reducing the disease epidemics and gave better yield advantage. Clove applied Apron star has reduced the initial severity, final severity and incidence by 64.7%, 70.9% and 80.6% respectively, as compared to the untreated plots. About 63.6% and 51.9% increment of average bulb weight and yield were recorded in clove applied Apron star respectively, as compared to the untreated plots. The highest net return (35,350 birr) was obtained from clove applied Apron star plots, while the lowest net return (2350 birr) was obtained from foliar applied Apron star plots. Hence, it could be concluded that clove applied with Apron star needs to use for the disease management in the study area.
... It is grown for the purpose of spice and also used to give flavoring to various local dishes. It also contributes to government wealth as an export commodity (Dandena and Fekadu, 2006). Cash crops production like garlic and various other spices had been proved that the income-producing activity for farmers, predominately for those whose like smallholder farmers and have limited cultivated land (FAO, 2016). ...
Article
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In Ethiopia, onion is the most habitually cultivated vegetable and the next widely cultivated vegetable is Garlic(Allium sativum L.). It is mainly produced for the purpose of medical and nutritional treatments. Soil-borne fungus(Sclerotium cepivorum Berk.) spreads the white rot. It is very dangerous for garlic production and it totally destroys its production rate. Therefore, this research work mainly focuses to examine the effectiveness of fungicides involved in garlic production and improve the various varieties of garlic production in terms of its cultivation and also safeguard from the white-rot disease in west Shewa disease in West Shewa, Ethiopia. This field demonstration was done during the 2018/2019 cropping season at Ambo University Gudar Campus. It is arranged on the basis of 5 x 3 factorial treatment along with untreated control plots in an randomized complete block design with 3 replications and also combining five varieties namely Holeta, Chefe, Tseday (G-493), kuriftu and local cultiver (as check) and two fungicides namely Pro-seed plus 63 WS and Tebuconazole (Natura 250 EW). Before planting the Garlic cloves its was treated using fungicies. An entire of fifteen treatments had been examined per replication. On the basis of reducing disease epidemics and intensifying the garlic production over untreated plots, two fungicides had been very effective. These fungicide treated plots pro-seed plus was major effective while reducing the disease epidemics and also provide better production benefits. When compared to untreated plots, pro-seed plus treated plots reduces initial, final incidence and soverity as 57.12%, 35% and 64.25% and also recorded successfully. Then the results showed sufficiently great production rate and it was recorded from Tseday varieties treated with Pro-seed plus 63 WS (3.047t ha-1) followed by Kuriftu varieties treated with the same fungicides (2.973t ha-1) compared to the untreated control plots. Significantly, higher net profit was obtained from Pro-seed plus 63WS treated varieties compared to Tebuconazole and untreated control plots. Among various garlic varieties, Tseday (G-493) was the favourable in terms of reducing the disease epidemics also provide better production rate in terms of cultivation. However, for wider applications or recommendation of these management options, further research should be conducted with the same varieties combinations with fungicides against white rot under multi locations and in different seasons.
... Onion bulb is also becoming an important commercial crop for small holder farmers in Ethiopia (Fekadu M and Dandena G., 2006). In Ethiopia onion bulbs are stored using different naturally ventilated storage structure or simply heaping the onion bulbs directly on the floor at room temperature (Endalew, W., et.al, 2015). ...
Preprint
Onion (Allium cepal L.) is a major commercial vegetable crop grown in almost all parts of the world. In Ethiopian the postharvest loss of onion bulb crop was estimated to be 50% during the production season. So to reduce this postharvest loss of onion bulb determining and employing appropriate storage conditions play an important role. Appropriate storage condition reduces the physiological quality which intern reduces the physicochemical and phytochemical properties of onion. In this study physicochemical and phytochemical properties of onion bulb were investigated under different storage temperature. Onion bulbs were stored at three different temperatures the following quality attributes of onion bulb like glucosidase content, pyruvic acid, flavonoid, dry matter and sugar content were determined for storage period of six months. Quality deterioration of onion bulb was higher at storage temperature of 25 °C while storage temperature 5 °C was found an ideal condition with keeping the quality of onion bulb acceptable. In all the three storage temperatures sugar content show pyruvic acid, glucosidase and sugar content show irregular pattern. Bombay red onion bulb was stored for six months without significant change of quality attributes of onion bulb at storage temperature of 5 °C.
... According to Fekadu and Dandena (2006), one of the major constraints of the vegetable sector in the country include: Lack of proper post harvest handling, suitable marketing and transportation systems, sufficient quantity of seed supply and good orientation of people to make them aware of the nutritive and economic advantages of these crops. ...
... This leads to sensitive to price and production fluctuation which is an implication that it demands effective, efficient storage, transportation and distribution systems (Alemayehu, Hoekstra, Berhe, & Jaleta, 2010;Faris, Shumeta, & Muche, 2018). Onion also have a vital role in human nutrition, health, farm income generation, poverty alleviation and foreign currency earnings through export and foreign direct investment (Fekadu & Dandena, 2006) and sell the surplus, the commercial state and private farms produce solely for the market (Nigatu, 2016). ...
Article
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Fruit and Vegetables are growing both rain fed and irrigation in Ethiopia and important for food security and income generation to a large proportion of the rural household. Enhancing onion farmers to reach markets and actively engage in the markets key challenges influencing onion production in Ethiopia. So the study aimed to analyze determinates of onion market supply. The study specifically aimed to address determinates that affecting onion production and market supply of rural households. A total of 275 households were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique followed by a probability proportional to sample size. The result indicated that in the study area 79.27% of onions producing households were male-headed whereas, the remaining 20.73% were female-headed household heads. On the other hand model results show that sex, age, household size, land size, motor pump, marketing contract, post-harvest value addition and market information positively and significantly affected the volume of onion supplied to the market. The findings imply that policymakers as well as policies designed at national level should consider on promoting the market contract, dissemination of improved onion varieties and input of production, intensification of land, expanding of post-harvest value addition activities and expanding the existence of irrigating equipments.
... Onion (Allium cepa L. var. cepa) production is an important economic activity in Ethiopia ranging from smallholder farmer to large-scale commercial farms (Dessalegn, Assefa, Derso, & Haileslassie, 2016),while smallholders usually use the largest part of their vegetable produce for home consumption like local stew "wot" (Fekadu & Dandena, 2006) and sell the surplus, the commercial state and private farms produce solely for market (Nigatu, 2016). Onion use in the daily diet of most Ethiopians and the average daily consumption was estimated 15 g, which is higher than tomatoes and the most other vegetables (Kitata & Chandravanshi, 2012). ...
Article
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Onion is an important vegetable product for food security and income generation to a large proportion of the rural household of Ethiopia. Enhancing onion farmers to reach markets and actively engage in the markets a key challenges influencing onion production in Ethiopia. The perishability nature of onion necessitates effective marketing channel choice decision. So the objective of this study was analysis of factors affecting market outlet choice decision of farmers. Multi stage sampling procedure was used to select the sample kebeles and households, whereby 275 farm household using a stratified random sampling method for this study. Both primary and secondary data were collected to address the objectives. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and an econometric model by using SPPS and STATA software. Multivariate probit model was used to analyze factors affecting market outlet choices of small holder onion producers. Multivariate probit model result showed that the probability of choose wholesales, retailer, rural collectors, and consumers market outlet was significantly affected by post-harvest value addition, amount of onion production, land size allocated for onion production, ownership of motor pump, educational status of the household head and the total livestock owned. Based on the finding the government and the concerned stakeholders should focus on promoting the dissemination of improved onion varieties and input of production, intensification of land for onion, expanding of post-harvest value addition activities, strengthening of the existence of formal and informal education and promote and encourage onion farmers on investment onion production.
... Among the reasons for the low production of fruit and vegetables in the country are the concern associated with the perishable nature of fruit and vegetables, food security concerns, and a lack of storage facilities, making rural farmers prefer cereals and pulses (19). A lack of awareness, economic reasons, and a lack of nutrition programs, except for those targeting young children and mothers, are also among the reasons for the low consumption of fruit and vegetables (31). Thus, it is of paramount importance to formulate policies to improve the availability and accessibility of fruit and vegetables, such as promotion of home, community and school gardening, as well as urban agriculture initiatives (32). ...
Article
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Introduction: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Over 80% of NCD deaths occur in developing countries. Four modifiable behaviors, namely tobacco use, consumption of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and the harmful use of alcohol, contribute to 80% of the NCD burden. Studies show that the vast majority of NCDs can be prevented through behavioral risk-reduction interventions. Properly executed, the interventions could lead to a decrease in the burden of NCDs, ranging from a 30% drop in the prevalence of cancer to a 75% reduction in cardiovascular diseases. This study examined the policy and strategy gaps in the reduction of the modifiable NCD behavioral risk factors in Ethiopia to inform and guide policy-makers and other stakeholders. Methodology: This study used a data triangulation methodology with a sequential, explanatory, mixed-method design conducted in two stages. The authors carried out quantitative analysis on the prevalence and distribution of behavioral risk factors from the Ethiopia NCD STEPwise approach to surveillance (STEPS) survey. Qualitative data on national policies and strategies complemented the analysis of the progress made so far and the existing gaps. Results and Discussion: Ethiopia has made substantial progress in responding to the NCD epidemic by developing a health sector NCD strategic action plan, generating evidence, and setting time-bound national targets on NCD behavioral risk factors. Activities mainly aimed at reducing tobacco use, such as implementation of the ratified WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), using evidence of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), and the articulation of legislative measures are ongoing. On this paper our analysis reveals policy and strategy gaps, status in law enforcement, social mobilization, and awareness creation to reduce the major behavioral risk factors. Conclusions: NCDs share common risk factors and risk reduction strategies creates an opportunity for an effective response. However, the national response still needs more effort to have a sufficient impact on the prevention of NCDs in Ethiopia. Thus, there is an urgent need for the country to develop and implement targeted strategies for each behavioral risk factor and design functional, multisectoral coordination. There is also a need for establishing sustainable financial mechanisms, such as increasing program budgets and levying 'sin taxes,' to support the NCD prevention and control program. Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2019; 33(4):259-268]
... Among the reasons for the low production of fruit and vegetables in the country are the concern associated with the perishable nature of fruit and vegetables, food security concerns, and a lack of storage facilities, making rural farmers prefer cereals and pulses (19). A lack of awareness, economic reasons, and a lack of nutrition programs, except for those targeting young children and mothers, are also among the reasons for the low consumption of fruit and vegetables (31). Thus, it is of paramount importance to formulate policies to improve the availability and accessibility of fruit and vegetables, such as promotion of home, community and school gardening, as well as urban agriculture initiatives (32). ...
Article
Introduction: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Over 80% of NCD deaths occur in developing countries. Four modifiable behaviors, namely tobacco use, consumption of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and the harmful use of alcohol, contribute to 80% of the NCD burden. Studies show that the vast majority of NCDs can be prevented through behavioral risk-reduction interventions. Properly executed, the interventions could lead to a decrease in the burden of NCDs, ranging from a 30% drop in the prevalence of cancer to a 75% reduction in cardiovascular diseases. This study examined the policy and strategy gaps in the reduction of the modifiable NCD behavioral risk factors in Ethiopia to inform and guide policy-makers and other stakeholders. Methodology: This study used a data triangulation methodology with a sequential, explanatory, mixed-method design conducted in two stages. The authors carried out quantitative analysis on the prevalence and distribution of behavioral risk factors from the Ethiopia NCD STEPwise approach to surveillance (STEPS) survey. Qualitative data on national policies and strategies complemented the analysis of the progress made so far and the existing gaps. Results and Discussion: Ethiopia has made substantial progress in responding to the NCD epidemic by developing a health sector NCD strategic action plan, generating evidence, and setting time-bound national targets on NCD behavioral risk factors. Activities mainly aimed at reducing tobacco use, such as implementation of the ratified WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), using evidence of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), and the articulation of legislative measures are ongoing. On this paper our analysis reveals policy and strategy gaps, status in law enforcement, social mobilization, and awareness creation to reduce the major behavioral risk factors. Conclusions: NCDs share common risk factors and risk reduction strategies creates an opportunity for an effective response. However, the national response still needs more effort to have a sufficient impact on the prevention of NCDs in Ethiopia. Thus, there is an urgent need for the country to develop and implement targeted strategies for each behavioral risk factor and design functional, multisectoral coordination. There is also a need for establishing sustainable financial mechanisms, such as increasing program budgets and levying 'sin taxes,' to support the NCD prevention and control program. Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2019; 33(4):259-268]
... Regardless of its importance, hot pepper production for green and dry pod has a low yield (national average yield of 7.6 t/ha for green pod) whereas for dry pod, the yield was 1.6 t/ha (CSA, 2006) also considering the below average quality of varieties, lack of good cultivation practices and prevalence of microbial disease [4]. ...
... On the other hand, state-led market orientation strategies are aimed at creating enabling conditions to facilitate smallholder market orientation in areas where private firms are virtually absent. In recent decades, these efforts in the drought-prone lowland areas have been in the form of investing in large-scale irrigation projects, thus modernizing the agricultural sector and incentivizing smallholder farmers to enter the cash crop business [7][8][9][10]. As a result, areas that received irrigation infrastructures have become centres for market-oriented vegetable development [11]. ...
Article
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In Ethiopia, there have been increased efforts to promote market-oriented vegetable production. Given that food security is a crucial issue in Ethiopia, the question is whether market-oriented vegetable production will actually help farmers to become more food secure. Using a mixed methods approach, the present research gathered empirical evidence on the determinants of participation in the vegetable business and its food security impacts in the Raya Azebo district. The Heckman two-stage selection model was used to identify factors affecting participation in the vegetable business and its effects on several food security outcomes. A thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. The results show that a farmer’s participation in the vegetable business increased significantly with adequate household productive resources (e.g., land size and access to irrigation), cooperative memberships and access to extension services. On the other hand, the age of the head of household, the market distance and risk perceptions significantly decreased participation. Additionally, the results indicate participation in the vegetable business results not only in higher food availability and access but also in lower food variety and diet diversity scores. Participation has less of an impact on per capita kilocalorie consumption and child anthropometric measures of food security. The policy implication is that, while Ethiopia is going ahead with inclusive market-driven approaches to food security, alternative mechanisms must be put in place to address the negative impacts and to empower those living in the most vulnerable conditions.
... On the other hand, state-led market orientation strategies are aimed at creating enabling conditions to facilitate smallholder market orientation in areas where private firms are virtually absent. In recent decades, these efforts in the drought-prone lowland areas have been in the form of investing in large-scale irrigation projects, thus modernizing the agricultural sector and incentivizing smallholder farmers to enter the cash crop business [7][8][9][10]. As a result, areas that received irrigation infrastructures have become centres for market-oriented vegetable development [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Ethiopia, there have been increased efforts to promote market-oriented vegetable production. Given that food security is a crucial issue in Ethiopia, the question is whether market-oriented vegetable production will actually help farmers to become more food secure. Using a mixed methods approach, the present research gathered empirical evidence on the determinants of participation in the vegetable business and its food security impacts in the Raya Azebo district. The Heckman two-stage selection model was used to identify factors affecting participation in the vegetable business and its effects on several food security outcomes. A thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. The results show that a farmer’s participation in the vegetable business increased significantly with adequate household productive resources (e.g., land size and access to irrigation), cooperative memberships and access to extension services. On the other hand, the age of the head of household, the market distance and risk perceptions significantly decreased participation. Additionally, the results indicate participation in the vegetable business results not only in higher food availability and access but also in lower food variety and diet diversity scores. Participation has less of an impact on per capita kilocalorie consumption and child anthropometric measures of food security. The policy implication is that, while Ethiopia is going ahead with inclusive market-driven approaches to food security, alternative mechanisms must be put in place to address the negative impacts and to empower those living in the most vulnerable conditions.
... Ethiopia's Ministry of Agriculture is striving to minimize post-harvest losses, which is causing up to 20-40% losses in sub-Saharan Africa [3] and 20-30% production loss even as the country's grain output continues to increase. The post-harvest losses of perishable (vegetable and fruits) food crops amounted to be about 30% [4] due to the presence of high moisture content (65-95%), insect infestation and damage during post-harvest handling techniques (packaging, storage and transportation). However, use of appropriate packaging materials, proper storage facilities and transportation can help to minimize these losses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Horticultural crops are sources of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber, but their cultivation is not widely practiced in developing countries, like Ethiopia due to small-scale farming systems and poor pre- and post-harvest handling techniques. In Ethiopia, particularly in northern region, the production of horticultural crops usually practiced in very few pocket areas, such as at river and lakesides. Thus, the production of fruits and vegetables is just at the beginning stage and getting momentum by governmental and non-governmental organizations. To assess the production potential and post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables, a survey research was conducted in Tigray Regional State, northern Ethiopia. From the study area, Atsbiwenberta district was selected with its four purposely selected Kebeles (Kebelle is the lowest administrative division of Ethiopia next to districts in each administrative region) (Ruwafeleg, Felegewoni, Golgolnaele and Hayelom) in which 120 respondents (30 households from each Kebele) were participated. Data were collected from both primary and secondary data and analyzed using simple descriptive statistics like frequency, mean and percentage. Results: From this survey research it was found that the region has the potential to produce both temperate and subtropical fruits and vegetable crops. However, their production potential was limited by different constraints starting from cultivation to consumption. Focus group discussion reveals that farmers obtained high production of potato and apple with average yield of 300–400 and 25–130 qt/ha, respectively. Conversely, post-harvest loss was significantly affected in the study area due to lack of awareness, market access, inadequate water supply and poor post-harvest handling practices. As a result, the loss of potato and other vegetable crops was ranged from 30 to 50 and 0.25 to 5 qt/ha, respectively. Conclusions: Therefore, designing further research projects is recommended on production and post-harvest handling of fruits and vegetables. In addition, all stakeholders should be designed market linkage and involvement of female farmers in production of horticultural crops.
... It is a popular vegetable in Ethiopia and produced in many home gardens and commercially in different parts of the country. Its production is rapidly increasing both under rain-fed and irrigation conditions (Fekadu and Dandena, 2006). The mature bulb contains some starch, appreciable quantities of sugars, some protein, and vitamins A, B and C (Jilani et al., 2010). ...
... Ethiopia's Ministry of Agriculture is striving to minimize post-harvest losses, which is causing up to 20-40% losses in sub-Saharan Africa [3] and 20-30% production loss even as the country's grain output continues to increase. The post-harvest losses of perishable (vegetable and fruits) food crops amounted to be about 30% [4] due to the presence of high moisture content (65-95%), insect infestation and damage during post-harvest handling techniques (packaging, storage and transportation). However, use of appropriate packaging materials, proper storage facilities and transportation can help to minimize these losses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Horticultural crops are sources of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber, but their cultivation is not widely practiced in developing countries, like Ethiopia due to small-scale farming systems and poor pre- and post-harvest handling techniques. In Ethiopia, particularly in northern region, the production of horticultural crops usually practiced in very few pocket areas, such as at river and lake sides. Thus, the production of fruits and vegetables is just at the beginning stage and getting momentum by governmental and non-governmental organizations. To assess the production potential and post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables, a survey research was conducted in Tigray Regional State, northern Ethiopia. From the study area, Atsbiwenberta district was selected with its four purposely selected Kebeles (Kebelle is the lowest administrative division of Ethiopia next to districts in each administrative region) (Ruwafeleg, Felegewoni, Golgolnaele and Hayelom) in which 120 respondents (30 households from each Kebele) were participated. Data were collected from both primary and secondary data and analyzed using simple descriptive statistics like frequency, mean and percentage. From this survey research it was found that the region has the potential to produce both temperate and subtropical fruits and vegetable crops. However, their production potential was limited by different constraints starting from cultivation to consumption. Focus group discussion reveals that farmers obtained high production of potato and apple with average yield of 300–400 and 25–130 qt/ha, respectively. Conversely, post-harvest loss was significantly affected in the study area due to lack of awareness, market access, inadequate water supply and poor post-harvest handling practices. As a result, the loss of potato and other vegetable crops was ranged from 30 to 50 and 0.25 to 5 qt/ha, respectively. Therefore, designing further research projects is recommended on production and post-harvest handling of fruits and vegetables. In addition, all stakeholders should be designed market linkage and involvement of female farmers in production of horticultural crops. Keywords: Fruits and vegetables; production potential; post-harvest losses; Tigray; Ethiopia
... Appropriate crop management gives significant contributions to increasing crop yields. Many reports indicate that, in Ethiopia the low productivity of vegetables including onions is attributed to depleted soil fertility and poor agronomic practices such as unbalanced fertilizer application 9,10 . Poor technical knowledge and skill of farmers and development agents in vegetable production are the main problems for the low productivity 11 . ...
Article
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Onion is important in the daily Ethiopian diet though the average yield obtained by farmers is very low. This is attributed to a number of constraints among which are poor agronomic practices. Therefore, field experiment was conducted at Tahtay Koraro district to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and intra-row spacing on growth and yield of onion. The treatments consisted of a factorial combination of four rates of nitrogen (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1) and four intra- row spacings (4, 6, 8, and 10 cm). Bombay Red was the variety of onion used in the experiment. The experiment was laid out as RCBD with three replications. The analysis of variance revealed that N and intra-row spacing were significant. Both N and intra-row spacing significantly affected percentage of Bolting plants, leaf length, bulb diameter, and marketable yield. 100 kg N ha-1 and a population of 833,300 plants ha-1 was found to be the optimum rate to obtain higher marketable bulb yield of 26.72 t ha-1 and economically attractive benefits. Therefore, Bombay red variety could be planted at an optimum spacing of 6 cm × 20 cm or 833,300 plant population density ha-1 in Tahtay koraro district of northern Ethiopia.
... Ethiopia's Ministry of Agriculture is striving to minimize post-harvest losses, which is causing up to 20-40% losses in sub-Saharan Africa [3] and 20-30% production loss even as the country's grain output continues to increase. The post-harvest losses of perishable (vegetable and fruits) food crops amounted to be about 30% [4] due to the presence of high moisture content (65-95%), insect infestation and damage during post-harvest handling techniques (packaging, storage and transportation). However, use of appropriate packaging materials, proper storage facilities and transportation can help to minimize these losses. ...
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Background Horticultural crops are sources of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber, but their cultivation is not widely practiced in developing countries, like Ethiopia due to small-scale farming systems and poor pre- and post-harvest handling techniques. In Ethiopia, particularly in northern region, the production of horticultural crops usually practiced in very few pocket areas, such as at river and lakesides. Thus, the production of fruits and vegetables is just at the beginning stage and getting momentum by governmental and non-governmental organizations. To assess the production potential and post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables, a survey research was conducted in Tigray Regional State, northern Ethiopia. From the study area, Atsbiwenberta district was selected with its four purposely selected Kebeles (Kebelle is the lowest administrative division of Ethiopia next to districts in each administrative region) (Ruwafeleg, Felegewoni, Golgolnaele and Hayelom) in which 120 respondents (30 households from each Kebele) were participated. Data were collected from both primary and secondary data and analyzed using simple descriptive statistics like frequency, mean and percentage. Results From this survey research it was found that the region has the potential to produce both temperate and subtropical fruits and vegetable crops. However, their production potential was limited by different constraints starting from cultivation to consumption. Focus group discussion reveals that farmers obtained high production of potato and apple with average yield of 300–400 and 25–130 qt/ha, respectively. Conversely, post-harvest loss was significantly affected in the study area due to lack of awareness, market access, inadequate water supply and poor post-harvest handling practices. As a result, the loss of potato and other vegetable crops was ranged from 30 to 50 and 0.25 to 5 qt/ha, respectively. Conclusions Therefore, designing further research projects is recommended on production and post-harvest handling of fruits and vegetables. In addition, all stakeholders should be designed market linkage and involvement of female farmers in production of horticultural crops.
... extremely sensitive to hot and wet growing conditions (Ahmad, 2002). Increasing temperature, viral diseases and salinity are the major limiting factors in sustaining and increasing tomato productivity (Fekadu and Dandena, 2006). There are generally various constraints resulting in low production of vegetables including tomato which includes poor soil fertility, water scarcity, poor cultivation skills, attack of pest and disease, poor availability of inputs and harsh climate (Baliyan and Kgathi, 2009). ...
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... The weight of the fruits per plant on the interaction effect of two varieties of hot pepper with the application of banana pseudostem + wedelia is significantly higher than the plant fertilized with combination of all FPJ materials. This conforms to the study of Fekadu and Dandena (2006) which indicated that the influence of genetic variability and heritability are necessary in systematic improvement of hot pepper varieties for fruit yield and related traits. ...
... All the plant parts are edible, but the bulbs and the lower stem sections are the most popular as seasonings or as vegetables in stews [1]. In Ethiopia, up to 40% of vegetable harvests are reported to be lost due to poor postharvest handling techniques [2]. During peak harvesting seasons, the loss is high and the products are sold at low price because of lack of means to preserve and store fresh onion bulb products. ...
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Onion is one of the most cultivated and consumed vegetable in Ethiopia. It is widely grown in several parts of the country especially in irrigated areas. In Amhara region, Fogera woreda is one of the place at which onion is cultivated extensively using irrigation. Although there is high onion blub production in this area, about 40% post-harvest losses observed in the district. Consequentially Onion bulb had extreme variable market price during production and off season. To reduce these post-harvest losses and stabilize market fluctuation during the production and off season, onion drying technology was evaluated. At the time of use the onion flake would be rehydrated using warm water. Physicochemical properties of fresh and dried onion were analyzed by sensory analysis. Panel results confirmed onion flake had similar sensory attributes as compared to that of fresh onion. Finally, this onion processing technology was demonstrated in selected potential farmers and small-scale entrepreneurs in food processing at Fogera district and promising feed-backs were obtained.
... fiber, 1.1-1.4% ash matter and vitamins, especially B 1 , B 2 , B 6 and C. Garlic also contains antibiotics garlicin and allistatin, a number of enzymes, amino acids, universal substances, including trace elements (Maly et al., 1998). Economic significance of garlic in Ethiopia is quite considerable; it is grown as spice and used for flavouring local dishes, and contributes to the national economy as export commodity (Fekadu and Dandena, 2006). Production of cash crops like garlic and other spices is proved to be income generating activity for farmers, especially for those who have limited cultivated land or small holder farmers (FAO, 2006). ...
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The main aim of this review is to provide an overview of the garlic crop productivity and its production management requirements like soil, climate and fertilization in general and specifically in Ethiopia, comparing them with current research trends and to indicate future benefits of soil nutrient management investigations and their importance for agronomic and cultural practices. This paper reviewed that application of balanced nutrients under optimum moisture availability in different soil types is an important crop management strategy, which may help maximizing crop yield and quality. Also, lack of optimum nutrients and moisture in the soil has been the major bottlenecks of garlic production and productivity; since the crop has a very shallow root system that requires frequent irrigation and fertilization with different types of fertilizers under various soil types. Low soil fertility is one of the principal and pervasive constraints to garlic production in Ethiopia; thus, there are differences among soil types in yielding ability under different nutrients and soil characteristics. Most smallholder farmers in Ethiopia appreciate the value of fertilizers, but they are seldom able to apply them at the recommended rates and at the appropriate time according to the soil characteristics. These are because of high cost, lack of credit, delivery delays, and low and variable returns. In addition, the traditional organic inputs, crop residues and animal manures, identified that it cannot meet crop nutrient demand over large areas because of the limited quantities available, the low nutrient content of the materials, and the high labor demands for processing and application. However, there was felt that could exist an opportunity to increase garlic crop yields through identification/selection of soil type and balanced nutrients application or searching for other nutrients sources beyond Urea and Diammonium phosphate especially in Ethiopian condition. Therefore, the integrated use of both the organic and inorganic fertilizers continuum inputs was felt the best option to increase both yield potential and quality of garlic crop and environment-friendly sustainable farming systems and increase of profit margins for growers.
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Determination of crop water requirement is the primary duty in any irrigation planning. This can be obtained through determining crop coefficient (Kc) which integrates the effect of characteristics that distinguish a typical field crop from the grass reference that has a constant appearance and a complete ground cover. Consequently, different crops will have different Kc coefficients. The changing characteristics of the crop over the growing season also affect the Kc coefficient. Hence crop coefficient (Kc), the ratio of potential crop evapotranspiration to reference evapotranspiration, is an important parameter in irrigation planning and management. However, this information is not available for many important crops for a specific area. A study was carried out at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center of Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, which is located in a semi arid climate of the great central rift valley. A drainage type lysimeters was used to measure the daily evapotranspiration of Onion, Red Bombay variety, on a clay loam soil. Crop coefficient was developed from measured crop evapotranspiration (3.00, 4.58, 6.11 and 4.63) and calculated reference evapotranspiration using weather data (4.92, 5.33, 5.99 and 5.79). The measured values of crop coefficient for the crop were 0.34, 0.70, 1.01 and 0.68 during initial, development, mid-season and late-season growth stages respectively. These locally determined values can be used by irrigation planners and users in the central rift valley and other areas with similar agroecological conditions.
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Increasing temperature, viral diseases and salinity are the major limiting factors in sustaining and increasing tomato productivity. To tackle the different biotic and abiotic stresses in tomato cultivation application growth regulators have been considered as right choice for scientists and farmers. Plant growth regulators (also called plant hormones) are numerous chemical substances that profoundly influence the growth and differentiation of plant cells, tissues and organs. Plant growth regulators function as chemical messengers for intercellular communication. In tomato, different growth regulators play a pivotal role in germination, root development, branching, flower initiation, fruiting, lycopene development, synchronization and early maturation, parthenocarpic fruit development, ripening, TSS, acidity, seed production etcetera. To boost the tomato production in India these versatile resources greatly help the professionals and researchers. Keeping the importance of growth regulator in tomato production in mind this review paper is scripted.
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