Article

Study of Ice Cream Freezing Process after Treatment with Ultrasound

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Abstract

Application of power ultrasound to Food freezing is a relatively new subject, cavitations is the most significant power which can not only lead to the production of gas bubbles in ice ream but also the occurrence of micro streaming, also it can promote ice nucleation to accelerate the heat and mass transfer process accompanying the freeze process. In this work ice cream freezing process time after treatment with ultrasound (20 KHZ) was studied. Results were shown that ultrasound is beneficial power to ice cream freezing process and it can be shorten the Freezing process time. Also be lead to product of better quality of ice cream e.g. reducing crystal size and preventing incrustation of freezing surface.

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... In yoghurt technology, HIU applications are used to improve homogenization efficiency by reducing milk fat globule size (Riener et al., 2009;Sfakianakis, Topakas, & Tzia, 2015;Wu, Hulbert, & Mount, 2001), to increase viscosity and water holding capacity by reducing syneresis (Bosiljkov et al., 2012;Riener, Noci, Cronin, Morgan, & Lyng, 2010;Sfakianakis et al., 2015), to improve gel strength and firmness by increasing the coagulation properties of whey proteins (Riener et al., 2009;Zhao et al., 2014), to reduce fermentation time by improving lactose hydrolysis, and to stimulate probiotic bacteria (Nguyen, Lee, & Zhou, 2009;Ojha et al., 2017). In ice cream technology, HIU is used to reduce ice crystal size, decrease freezing time, and prevent incrustation on cold surfaces (Mortazavi & Tabatabaie, 2008). ...
... The amount of small ice crystals is very important for the cooling effect, as well as the smooth and creamy mouthfeel of ice cream. Therefore, control of the crystallization process and the amount, size, and distribution of ice crystals are important factors for both a desirable product and improved shelf life (Hartel et al., 2017;Mortazavi & Tabatabaie, 2008). Ice crystallization occurs in two steps: nucleation and crystal growth. ...
... The violent collapse of these bubbles can generate high super-cooling degrees which initiate ice nucleation by creating local zones of high pressure (≥5 GPa) in a very short time, such as nanoseconds Hu et al., 2013;Kiani et al., 2011;Tao & Sun, 2015). Additionally, the force generated by collapse of cavitation bubbles is so strong that it results in fragmentation of existing ice crystals, creating smaller ones (Chow, Blindt, Chivers, & Povey, 2005;Hu et al., 2013;Mortazavi & Tabatabaie, 2008). ...
Article
Background: The use of alternative technologies has recently gained significant importance in the food industry due to the new consumer trends for the novel food processing methods that minimize processing, increase quality, improve processing effectiveness and efficiency, and provide food safety while extending shelf life. Ultrasound has emerged as an innovative technology in the food industry because it is relatively cheap, simple, fast, non-toxic, environmentally friendly, and energy saving. High-intensity ultrasound (HIU) causes physical, mechanical, and chemical changes in the material because of the acoustic cavitation, which provides high temperature and pressure by collapsing the microbubbles. Scope and approach: This study summarizes the major applications and important advantages of HIU in yoghurt and ice cream production, including research findings. Key findings and conclusions: In yoghurt technology, HIU can be utilized to improve homogenization and emulsification by reducing milk fat globule size, to increase viscosity and water holding capacity by reducing syneresis, to enhance gel strength and firmness by increasing coagulation properties of whey proteins, to reduce fermentation time by improving lactose hydrolysis, and to stimulate probiotic bacteria. In ice cream technology, certain benefits can be achieved by HIU application during the freezing process, such as reducing ice crystal size, decreasing freezing time, and preventing incrustation on the freezing surface.
... Recent publications using power ultrasound applied in icecream [21], apple [16,22], potato [23,24], dough [19], mushroom [25], broccoli [26,27], strawberries [28], lotus root [29] and radish [16,30] samples mentioned that cavitation bubbles by sonication application had an impact on ice nucleation and enhanced the food freezing. It is clear from the literature that cavitation generated by ultrasound (US) can accelerate the nucleation process during freezing. ...
... Comparable observations on improvements of the freezing process were made with previous works where direct sonication treatments during freezing were done. The enhancement was observed due to decreasing mass and heat transfer resistance at the solidliquid boundary [6,7,21,49]. Similarly, a previous study performed on ice-cream freezing with an application of US (20 kHz) for 20 min reported that there was a reduction of freezing time about 35% [21]. ...
... The enhancement was observed due to decreasing mass and heat transfer resistance at the solidliquid boundary [6,7,21,49]. Similarly, a previous study performed on ice-cream freezing with an application of US (20 kHz) for 20 min reported that there was a reduction of freezing time about 35% [21]. The current method of indirect US treatment offers no direct contact of the US in the product. ...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of in-situ CO2 nano-bubbles generation on the freezing properties of soft serve, milk, and apple juice was investigated. Carbonated (0, 1000, and 2000 ppm) liquid foods contained in a tube were submerged and cooled for 90 min in a pre-set ethylene glycol bath (−15 °C). Before the enclosed liquid reached 0 °C, the vibration was discharged through ultrasound in the bath to create nano-bubbles within the carbonated food samples, and the changes in temperature for 90 min of each food were recorded as a freezing curve. The time for onset of nucleation of control soft serve mix was halved in samples with 2000-ppm CO2 due to the presence of nano-bubbles. Likewise, the nucleation time for milk with and without nano-bubbles at the same CO2 concentration of 2000 ppm was 7.9 ± 0.1 and 2.8 ± 0.8 min, respectively. The generation of CO2 nano-bubbles from 2000-ppm CO2 level in 10 oBx apple juice displayed −9.3 ± 0.3 °C nucleation temperature while the control one had −11.7 ± 0.9 °C.
... Generally, the improvement of ice crystallization by the means of sonication is based on the following phenomena (Chow et al., 2005;Islam et al., 2017;Mortazavi & Tabatabaei, 2008;Zhu et al., 2020;Zhu, Chen, et al., 2018;: ...
... It is therefore ambiguous whether or not cavitation (stable or transient) is a prerequisite for the sonocrystallization of ice. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that cavitation bubbles can become ice crystal nuclei and collapsing bobbles increase the nucleation temperature during freezing comparing with freezing without the use of ultrasound (Chow et al., 2005;Mortazavi & Tabatabaei, 2008). With an increase in nucleation temperature, the supercooling becomes lower . ...
... As was explained above, cavitation bubbles that oscillate around their stable sizes cause motion of fluid (microstreaming) that increases heat and mass transport and thus enhances the nucleation stage. Both of these phenomena (the shock wave produced by collapsing cavitation bubbles and acoustic microstreaming) increase the freezing rate (Mortazavi & Tabatabaei, 2008;Zhu et al., 2020) and influence both primary and secondary nucleation. Moreover, ultrasound may fragment ice crystals, limiting their size and unifying their distribution, which improves the secondary nucleation (Chow et al., 2005). ...
Chapter
This chapter presents the mechanism of the enhancement of freezing by means of ultrasound (US). It has been demonstrated that the effects of US are a rather complex issue. In theory, ultrasound creates cavitation bubbles throughout the volume of the product, which promotes nucleation of the ice and crushes the crystals already present in food. They can also enhance convective heat transfer to the cooling media, thereby accelerating freezing. Moreover, it has been shown that ultrasound reduces the degree of supercooling before nucleation in frozen food. Additionally, numerous experimental studies indicate that ultrasound assisted freezing is a good method to achieve homogenous crystallizations, reduce the deteriorating effect of freezing on food, and thus improve quality after thawing.
... Generally, the improvement of ice crystallization by the means of sonication is based on the following phenomena (Chow et al., 2005;Islam et al., 2017;Mortazavi & Tabatabaei, 2008;Zhu et al., 2020;Zhu, Chen, et al., 2018;: ...
... It is therefore ambiguous whether or not cavitation (stable or transient) is a prerequisite for the sonocrystallization of ice. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that cavitation bubbles can become ice crystal nuclei and collapsing bobbles increase the nucleation temperature during freezing comparing with freezing without the use of ultrasound (Chow et al., 2005;Mortazavi & Tabatabaei, 2008). With an increase in nucleation temperature, the supercooling becomes lower . ...
... As was explained above, cavitation bubbles that oscillate around their stable sizes cause motion of fluid (microstreaming) that increases heat and mass transport and thus enhances the nucleation stage. Both of these phenomena (the shock wave produced by collapsing cavitation bubbles and acoustic microstreaming) increase the freezing rate (Mortazavi & Tabatabaei, 2008;Zhu et al., 2020) and influence both primary and secondary nucleation. Moreover, ultrasound may fragment ice crystals, limiting their size and unifying their distribution, which improves the secondary nucleation (Chow et al., 2005). ...
Chapter
Ultrasound is one of the most often investigated nonconventional technologies applied to enhance drying progress. The existing literature proves that ultrasound can be used to accelerate the process, reducing drying time and decreasing energy consumption. Shorter exposure to elevated temperature during water removal provides a better quality of product, expressed as both physical and chemical properties. Moreover, ultrasound treatment itself can participate in the modification of some quality parameters, due to the mechanisms that it provokes during pretreatment. On the other hand, the complexity of the phenomena and processes that can be induced in the food matrix by sonication is one of the biggest challenges for food scientists and engineers. Based on the results presented and discussed in this chapter, it seems that ultrasound application, when it aims towards drying improvement, requires optimization not only for each individual raw material but also for each specific process. This situation can be considered as a drawback and benefit alike since it opens multiple ways of ultrasound utilization for water removal enhancement.
... Generally, the improvement of ice crystallization by the means of sonication is based on the following phenomena (Chow et al., 2005;Islam et al., 2017;Mortazavi & Tabatabaei, 2008;Zhu et al., 2020;Zhu, Chen, et al., 2018;: ...
... It is therefore ambiguous whether or not cavitation (stable or transient) is a prerequisite for the sonocrystallization of ice. Nonetheless, it is widely assumed that cavitation bubbles can become ice crystal nuclei and collapsing bobbles increase the nucleation temperature during freezing comparing with freezing without the use of ultrasound (Chow et al., 2005;Mortazavi & Tabatabaei, 2008). With an increase in nucleation temperature, the supercooling becomes lower . ...
... As was explained above, cavitation bubbles that oscillate around their stable sizes cause motion of fluid (microstreaming) that increases heat and mass transport and thus enhances the nucleation stage. Both of these phenomena (the shock wave produced by collapsing cavitation bubbles and acoustic microstreaming) increase the freezing rate (Mortazavi & Tabatabaei, 2008;Zhu et al., 2020) and influence both primary and secondary nucleation. Moreover, ultrasound may fragment ice crystals, limiting their size and unifying their distribution, which improves the secondary nucleation (Chow et al., 2005). ...
Chapter
For many years, conventional methods, most importantly pasteurization, have been essential tools for beverage processing in order to eradicate food spoilage microorganisms, reduce enzymatic activity, and extend shelf life; however, these conventional methods also cause unfavorable changes in product quality, particularly deterioration of bioactive components. Nowadays, with advances in technology, researchers are investigating novel ways to preserve the nutritional, sensory, and other health-related qualities of beverages. Particularly in processed beverages, consumers search for additive-free and minimally processed products. Alternative methods of pasteurization have gained relevance in the food industry, with the challenge being their design and process optimization. Ultrasound is a novel and viable technique that has potential, due to flexibility in its design and ease to optimize according to the food product, to replace conventional thermal processing. This mild temperature treatment does not denature the vitamins, polyphenols, antioxidants, and phytochemicals; as a result, the new product is wholesome, healthy, safer, and nutritious, with improved shelf life and increased nutritional content.
... This clearly indicates that the UP is effective in lowering the salt concentration of product water for treating low to high feed concentrations. The trend of product quality results was found to be in agreement with the previous experimental investigations conducted by Li et al. [62] and Mortazavi and Tabatabaie [63]. Throughout the tests, the crystal layer was not formed on the bottom heat transfer surface of the crystallizer, when compared with the previous experiments with other experimental setups. ...
... This clearly indicates that the water recovery ratio was inversely proportional to the amplitude. This trend observation has been presented in earlier studies conducted by Li et al. [62] and Mortazavi and Tabatabaie [63]. A noticeable decrease in water recovery ratio was also observed as the salt concentration increased. ...
Article
The separation performance of solid layer freeze crystallization (SLFC) processes for desalting saline waters under the influences of end-point temperature, cooling rate, feed concentration, and agitation rate was investigated. The investigated SLFC processes are static freeze crystallization (SFC) and three different types of dynamic freeze crystallization (DFC) systems agitated by bubbling process (BP), a mechanically stirred system (MSS), and an ultrasonic process (UP). The NaCl feed solution concentrations used were 0.5, 3.5 and 7 wt%. The SFC system was able to achieve the maximum salt rejection of 3.12%, 14.10%, and 14.26% for feed salinities of 0.5, 3.5, and 7 wt%, respectively. The DFC system agitated by BP achieved 50.34%, 30.70%, and 19.90% maximum salt rejection for feed salinities of 0.5, 3.5, and 7 wt%, respectively. The DFC system agitated by MSS achieved 70.20%, 37.30%, and 14% maximum salt rejection for feed salinities of 0.5, 3.5, and 7 wt%, respectively. The DFC system agitated by UP was able to achieve the maximum salt rejection of 84%, 34%, and 28% for feed salinities of 0.5, 3.5, and 7 wt%, respectively. The experimental results were encouraging and may be used to develop a hybrid system combining the membrane based process (such as reverse osmosis or forward osmosis technology) with the most suitable SLFC system, on a pilot scale, for further research and development.
... One of the main quality characteristics of ice cream is texture and taste directly influenced by ice crystal size. Mortazavi and Tabatabai (2008) managed to obtain sonicated ice cream with flavor and texture better than the control sample. More literature data also present a positive influence of sonication on sensorial and textural qualities of ice cream (Chow, Blindt, Chivers, & Povey, 2003;Mortazavi & Tabatabai, 2008). ...
... Mortazavi and Tabatabai (2008) managed to obtain sonicated ice cream with flavor and texture better than the control sample. More literature data also present a positive influence of sonication on sensorial and textural qualities of ice cream (Chow, Blindt, Chivers, & Povey, 2003;Mortazavi & Tabatabai, 2008). ...
Book
This text comprehensively covers novel, innovative technologies used in the food and beverage industries in order to provide safe and healthy foods for consumers. The research provided in these chapters aims to show that the traditional pasteurization and commercial sterilization of foods result in unacceptable quality and nutrient retention, creating an important need for alternative methods used to minimize undesirable reactions such as thermal decomposition or degradation. Emerging processing methods to minimize heat induced alterations in foods and their applications are covered in-depth, demonstrating that these methods are useful not only for the inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes but also for improving the yield and development of ingredients and marketable foods with higher quality and better nutritional characteristics. Effect of Emerging Processing Methods on the Food Quality: Advantages and Challenges not only covers the advantages of using innovative processing methods, but also the disadvantages and challenges of using these techniques on food quality. Each chapter focuses on a different emerging processing technique, breaking down the sensory, textural and nutritional aspects for different food products in addition to the advantages and challenges for each method. New technologies and advanced theories are a major focus, pointing to innovative new paths for the quality and safety assurance in food products. From pulsed electric fields to ultrasounds, this work covers all aspects of emerging processing techniques for fruits and vegetables, foods and dairy products.
... This clearly indicates that the UP is effective in lowering the salt concentration of product water for treating low to high feed concentrations. The trend of product quality results was found to be in agreement with the previous experimental investigations conducted by Li et al. [62] and Mortazavi and Tabatabaie [63]. Throughout the tests, the crystal layer was not formed on the bottom heat transfer surface of the crystallizer, when compared with the previous experiments with other experimental setups. ...
... This clearly indicates that the water recovery ratio was inversely proportional to the amplitude. This trend observation has been presented in earlier studies conducted by Li et al. [62] and Mortazavi and Tabatabaie [63]. A noticeable decrease in water recovery ratio was also observed as the salt concentration increased. ...
Article
The separation performance of solid layer freeze crystallization (SLFC) processes for desalting saline waters under the influences of end-point temperature, cooling rate, feed concentration, and agitation rate was investigated. The investigated SLFC processes are static freeze crystallization (SFC) and three different types of dynamic freeze crystallization (DFC) systems agitated by bubbling process (BP), a mechanically stirred system (MSS), and an ultrasonic process (UP). The NaCl feed solution concentrations used were 0.5, 3.5 and 7 wt%. The SFC system was able to achieve the maximum salt rejection of 3.12%, 14.10%, and 14.26% for feed salinities of 0.5, 3.5, and 7 wt%, respectively. The DFC system agitated by BP achieved 50.34%, 30.70%, and 19.90% maximum salt rejection for feed salin-ities of 0.5, 3.5, and 7 wt%, respectively. The DFC system agitated by MSS achieved 70.20%, 37.30%, and 14% maximum salt rejection for feed salinities of 0.5, 3.5, and 7 wt%, respectively. The DFC system agitated by UP was able to achieve the maximum salt rejection of 84%, 34%, and 28% for feed salinities of 0.5, 3.5, and 7 wt%, respectively. The experimental results were encouraging and may be used to develop a hybrid system combining the membrane based process (such as reverse osmosis or forward osmosis technology) with the most suitable SLFC system, on a pilot scale, for further research and development.
... The same authors highlighted that the reduction of the overrun occurred due to the degassing effect of ultrasound cavitation can be surpassed by either increasing the percentage of the incorporated air or the operating freezer pressure. Mortazavi and Tabatabaie (2008) reported that the exposure of ice cream mixes to acoustic treatment (up to 60 min at 20 kHz) prior to ageing was accompanied by a significant reduction of the ice cream freezing time from 20 to 12 min. A 20 min ultrasonication of the ice cream mixes was found to minimize the formation of off-flavors, maximize consumer acceptability and overrun values of the finished frozen products. ...
... A 20 min ultrasonication of the ice cream mixes was found to minimize the formation of off-flavors, maximize consumer acceptability and overrun values of the finished frozen products. The enhanced air incorporation observed in the case of sonicated ice cream systems was attributed to occurrence of compression-rarefaction cycles leading to the formation of cavitation air cells (Mortazavi & Tabatabaie, 2008). Similarly, Jambrak et al. (2012) while investigating the colligative properties and whipping ability of ultrasound treated ice cream mixes reported that the prolonged sonication of ice cream results in improved air incorporation and induces a significant depression of the freezing point temperature. ...
... Ultrasound (US) treatment of the supercooled medium is believed to enhance crystallisation in the system. Mortazavi and Tabatabaie (2008) reported producing a better quality product, reducing ice crystal size, and preventing ice coating during the ice cream freezing process with 20 kHz US treatment. Besides this, no literature to date has been found on the US treatment during ice cream manufacture. ...
... The lower score for sonicated ice cream also suggests that low power US is also able to produce desirable ice cream characteristics. The results obtained in this study are comparable with the findings of Mortazavi and Tabatabaie (2008). Due to the icy sensation of the control sample, they were the hardest to chew while carbonated soft-serve was softer to bite and quick to melt in the mouth. ...
Article
The effect of CO2 dissolution (2000 ppm) on the churning, melting, textural, and sensory properties of soft-serve ice cream was investigated. Ultrasound vibration was applied before churning through a transducer flanged beneath the ice cream mix vessel (at 5 oC) to create CO2 micro/nanobubbles in the carbonated samples. The ice cream mix (28.5% total solids) with 2000 ppm CO2 and 60 s ultrasound treatment displayed significantly higher overrun values (∼88%) than the controls (no treatments ∼26%; sonicated only ∼46%). The churning time for the carbonated samples (∼52 min) was much lower than the non-carbonated samples (∼65 min). The melting rate of carbonated soft-serve (∼1.5 g min⁻¹) was lower than that of the untreated ice cream (2.43 g min⁻¹). The carbonated and sonicated soft-serve was the softest among all. Evaluation by a consumer panel showed that soft-serve churned with dissolved CO2 and ultrasound treatment significantly improved the overall sensory properties.
... i and others 2013). By applying ultrasound to the process of ice cream manufacture , nucleation can be induced and heat and mass transfer can be enhanced. Thus, ultrasound-assisted freezing could be one of the most efficient methods to achieve small and uniform ice crystals in ice cream production (Donhowe and Hartel 1996; Russell and others 1999). Mortazavi and Tabatabaie (2008) investigated the process of preparing ice cream using power ultrasound of 20 kHz. Results showed that ultrasound facilitated the freezing process of ice cream and shortened the freezing time and, consequently, increased efficiency . The freezing time was the shortest when applying power ultrasound for 20 min, with a 65% reduction in com ...
... Results showed that ultrasound facilitated the freezing process of ice cream and shortened the freezing time and, consequently, increased efficiency . The freezing time was the shortest when applying power ultrasound for 20 min, with a 65% reduction in comparison to conventional freezing method (Mortazavi and Tabatabaie 2008). As air and fat content are responsible for the flavor of the ice cream, an increase in the number of air bubbles that are introduced by power ultrasound enhances the organoleptic perception of flavor, texture and mouth-feel. ...
Article
Power ultrasound-assisted crystallization, which is also called sonocrystallization, is a novel and effective method for enhancing crystallization processes compared to conventional processes. In both supercooled and supersaturated crystallization, power ultrasound can accelerate the nucleation rate and better control the formation and growth of crystals. Due to its high efficiency, power ultrasound has been applied in many fields. In this review, studies published in recent years on effects of power ultrasound in both supercooled and supersaturated crystallization processes are discussed, with focus on the widely accepted crystallization mechanism and modeling. The applications of power ultrasound in liquid ice crystallization, ice cream manufacture, fruit and vegetable preservation and sugar and food supersaturated crystallization are summarized, and challenges and trends for further development of the technology are presented.
... The earliest use of power ultrasound in processing was in emulsification where more stable products are produced through the resultant shock wave produced when a bubble collapses near the phase boundary of two immiscible liquids during a more efficient mixing (Mason et al., 1996). In food processing, power ultrasound was used to reduce total fermentation time of yoghurt by 0.5 h after inoculation (Wu et al., 2001), to reduce the crystal size in ice cream and to prevent incrustation on freezing surface (Zheng and Sun, 2006), to shorten the ice cream freezing process time (Mortazavi and Tabatabaie, 2008), to reduce the drying time of orange peel over 45% and with energy saving close to 30% (Ortuño et al., 2010), to minimize the flavour loss, induce greater homogeneity, and significant energy savings in heat pasteurization of sweet juices (Crosby, 1982;Piyasena et al., 2003). In biochemistry, power ultrasound was used to inactivate micro-organism by disrupting or damaging its biological cell walls (Valero et al., 2007;Butz and Tauscher, 2002;Earnshaw et al., 1995), to reduce the activation energy in inactivation of a-amylase from 109 kJ/mol K to 19.27 kJ/mol K (Kadkhodaee and Povey, 2008), to improve the extraction of organic compounds contained within the body of plants (Sun and Tomkinson, 2002;Cao et al., 2009;Pan et al., 2010) and seeds (Sharma and Gupta, 2006;Karki et al., 2010), extraction of aluminium in juices and soft drink (Jalbani et al., 2006), and extraction of collagen from bovine tendon (Li et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
A high power ultrasound bath system has been used as a processing aid during sponge cake batter mixing in enhancing the mixing process to produce better quality of cake texture. The formulation for loading of 3 sponge cakes was mixed for 9min at 90rpm under different combinations of ultrasound power exposure ranging from 1 to 2.5kW, and for duration ranging from 3 to 9min. The ultrasound was able to enhance the mixing process by resulting in lower batter density and flow behavior index, higher overrun and viscosity compared to the non-aided mixing. With the 2.5kW ultrasound assisted mixing for entire batter mixing of 9min, a better cake quality was produced in terms of lower cake hardness, and higher cake springiness, cohesiveness and resilience. The aided ultrasound power and duration during cake batter mixing showed more significant effects on cake properties than its batter properties.
... The use of a 30-minute sound wave with a frequency of 21 kHz, had significant effect on the process of carrot juices freezing. Also Mortazavi and Tabatabaie (2008) found that during the cream sonication (for 20 min.) the freezing time decreased from 20 to 13 minutes. Similarly Zheng and Sun (2006), found that the power of US at 15.85 W influenced the efficiency of potato freezing time. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ultrasound is a relatively new method that has been used in the food industry for enhancing unit operations such as drying, extraction and freezing. Sonication, despite a small invasiveness, has an effect on various physical, chemical and biochemical changes in the treated materials. Freezing is a widely used process in the food industry for extending the shelf-life of the products due to decreasing the food temperature. The aim of this study was to investigate a 30-minute ultrasound treatment on the freezing process of carrot juices (9, 12 and 21°Bx) from two producers. Freezing was conducted by immersion and air chilling method at -30°C medium temperature. The study examined how ultrasound effects the ex-tract, density of juices, the specific freezing time, freezing point, Moreover, the freezing curves were evaluated. It was observed that 30-minute ultrasonic treatment did not affect physical properties of tested juices, only in the case of higher concentrated juices, the in-crease of tested parameters was seen. There was no difference in the shape of freezing curves, regardless of the freezing method, concentration of the juice and its producer and the application of sonication either. Regardless the concentration or the US pre-treatment, it has been observed that the specific time required to freeze the product in the immersion method was shorter than in the shock freezing. Along with the increase of concentrations of carrot juice the freezing point decreased, regardless of the producer. The freezing point of carrot juices, after the application of the US, slightly decreased. Research in this study confirms the reports of the reduced freezing time after the application of ultrasound in case of carrot juices.
... It was concluded that the average freezing rate was signifi cantly improved by up to 8% when ultrasound was applied from 0°C or -1°C for 120 s. A similar study was also conducted by Li and Sun [72] Mortazavi and Tabatabaie [73] also reported that ultrasound (20 kHz) was benefi cial to ice cream freezing since it reduced process time and led to a product of better quality, reducing crystal size and preventing incrustation of the freezing surface. In another work, Deng and Zhao [74] [77]. ...
... US techniques used in ice-cream products resulted in reducing the size of borates snow and increases the rate of heat transfer [67], thereby reducing the time of freezing process. It also yields a better quality ice cream products when used in ice cream manufacturing [42]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discusses principles and applications of innovative and eco-friendly ultrasonic technology for treatment of milk and milk products.
... Control of crystallization processes is one of the most important factors affecting the properties of stability and organoleptic properties of frozen products [51], and ice crystals are considered an important component of the last freeze system [52]. Table 2 & Table 3 shows the changes in the speed of melting, shrinking, and sanding, the formation of crystals ices, and the changes that occur in dates added during the measurement of thermal shock, as well as illustrates these qualities after a period of storage temperature (−18˚C) for a period of (60 days). ...
Article
Full-text available
Some of the chemical composition, pH values and Titratable acidity and sensory properties of ice cream made from camel milk and fortified with different kinds of dates were investigated. It was noted that there is an increase in the ash content, protein content / dry matter, percentage of the Titratable acidity and low values of the PH in samples with added dates compared to the control sample of ice cream. Samples with added dates Debs 5% and control sample recorded the best degrees in taste, color, appearance, and overall acceptability during storage periods, and did not score any significant change in the properties of melting during storage, except when adding date paste AL- khalas of 10% and 10% Debs. The control sample and sample with added dates molasses 5% recorded the highest general acceptance than the other treatments, Meanwhile, their storage for 60 days did nt have any effect on their acceptability. Ice cream made from camel milk either with or without the addition of dates was acceptable, acclaimed by the arbitrators and didn’t score any defects.
... The technology has been applied to the crystallization of materials such as milk fat, 60 triglyceride oils such as a vegetable oil 61 and ice cream. 62,63 It should also be noted that when ultrasound is used to enhance crystallization of any kind, there is an additional benefit from using ultrasound because it helps to prevent encrustation of crystals on the cooling elements. This ensures efficient heat transfer throughout the cooling process. ...
... For example, if nucleation in a fluid is commenced by applying ultrasound, it is recommended that the power of ultrasound must be greater than 2 W/L of fluid with frequency between 20 to 40 kHz for duration of maximum 5 seconds (Vo et al., 2011;Zheng & Sun, 2006). However, when the ultrasound is applied in fragmentation of crystals, ultrasonic power must be more than 1 W/cm 2 of fluid surface and it should be applied for at least 10 seconds (Mortazavi & Tabatabaie, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
The utility of power ultrasound is remarkably increased and its usefulness, particularly in the industrial applications, has been profoundly investigated by the scientists in the last two decades. The energy input via ultrasound is known to considerably improve the yield and the product quality as well as it can facilitate the recovery and purification process of a number of products of different industries. Ultrasound technology is generally used in processing, chilling and preservation of food products because it is a clean and efficient technique. It is also applied for the prediction of the useful lifetime of industrial processes and machine parts as well as in the treatment of waste from different industries like textile, agriculture and tanneries etc. In this review article, the techniques of power ultrasound generation through different methods are highlighted and the developments in the implementation of ultrasound in several industrial procedures are delineated.
... Likewise, power ultrasound treatment applied to an anhydrous milk and palm kernel oil modified their microstructure, texture, and melting behavior (Suzuki et al., 2010). Based on these results, sonocrystallization is considered an important technology for the large-scale production of many foods such as milk fat (Martini et al., 2008), triglyceride oils (Arends et al., 2003), and ice cream (Cox et al., 2002;Mortazavi and Tabatabaie, 2008), among others, and is cost-effective and easy to operate. ...
Chapter
One of the current trends in research and development in the food industry is related to the evaluation of new technologies to generate products that are of higher quality, safer, and more stable, as well as more economic processes with minor environmental impact. One such technology is based on using ultrasound for different purposes: to stabilize quality products or to generate products with new functional properties. In this chapter, the current and future status of the use of ultrasound at the industry level is reviewed. Applications of high- and low-frequency ultrasound are reviewed, and the use of this technology for extraction processes and nutraceutical compound biosynthesis is discussed, proposing this application as an area of opportunity for ultrasound in the development of functional foods.
... HPU treatment of ice cream inside the scraped surface freezer induces crystal fragmentation by cavitation bubbles, and also prevents incrustation on the cold surface due to the high heat transfer rate (Mason, 1998;Zheng & Sun, 2006). Mortazavi and Tabatabaie have shown that increasing the ultrasound pulse time significantly decreased the freezing process time of ice cream, and improved sensory flavor, texture and mouth feel (Mortazavi & Tabatabaie, 2008). ...
... Compared to other freezing methods, ultrasoundassisted immersion freezing (UIF) has several advantages: the technique is chemically non-invasive and does not require direct contact with the product, and the use of UIF does not present legislative difficulties [12]. Although the effect of UIF on the quality of foodstuff has been studied by several researchers, the reports mainly focus on vegetables [13], fruits [12] and ice cream [14]. Moreover, most studies were carried out on the freezing process and freezing rate, while studies on the effect of ...
Article
This study investigated the impact of ultrasound-assisted immersion freezing (UIF), air freezing (AF), and immersion freezing (IF) on the ice crystal size, protein thermal stability, and physicochemical properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle during frozen storage. UIF samples had smaller ice crystals throughout the storage period than AF and IF samples did, which led to less damage to the muscle tissue. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that UIF reduced the mobility and loss of immobilized and free water. The thawing and cooking losses in the UIF samples were significantly lower than those in the IF and AF samples (P < 0.05). The AF samples had a higher shear force (P < 0.05) than UIF and IF samples did at the beginning of storage, and then the shear force reduced rapidly. During the 90–180 days, the shear force of the UIF samples was higher than that of the AF and IF samples (P < 0.05). Decreases in the Tmax and enthalpies were observed for all of the treatments during storage, and the UIF samples had a higher protein thermal stability than AF and IF samples did. The UIF samples showed lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and total volatile basic nitrogen values during storage than the AF and IF samples did (P < 0.05). Principal component analysis showed that there were significant correlations between the freezing methods and the ice crystal size, protein thermal stability and physicochemical characteristics of frozen muscles. Overall, UIF was an effective way to inhibit the deterioration of frozen fish during frozen storage.
... Studies have published on the application of ultrasonicassisted freezing of a range of foods (Table 3). Pretreatment of ice cream prior to manufacture has been shown to decrease the freezing time, increase overrun (degree of aeration), and improve sensory properties (Mortazavi and Tabatabaie 2008). Zheng and Sun (2006) cite the work by Gareth (1992) that experimental investigation showed that during the production of ice lollipops the application of power ultrasound resulted in product that had much smaller ice crystals and uniform crystal size distribution. ...
Article
Freezing is a very well-established food preservation process that produces high quality nutritious foods with a long storage life. However, freezing is not suitable for all foods, and freezing can cause physical and chemical changes in some foods that are perceived as reducing the quality of either the thawed material or the final product. This paper reviews the many innovative freezing processes that are cur- rently being researched and developed throughout the world to improve freezing conditions and product quality. Some innovative freezing processes (impingement and hydrofluidisation) are essentially improvements of existing methods (air blast and immersion, respectively) to produce far higher surface heat transfer rates than previous systems and thus improve product quality through rapid freezing. In these cases, the advantages may depend on the size of the product, since the poor thermal conductivity of many foods limits the rate of cooling in large objects rather than the heat transfer between the heat transfer medium and the product. Other processes (pressure shift, magnetic resonance, electro- static, microwave, radiofrequency, and ultrasound) are adjuncts to existing freezing systems that aim to improve product quality through controlling the way that ice is formed in the food during freezing. Another alternative is to change the properties of the food itself to control how ice is formed during freezing (such as in dehydrofreezing and the use of antifreeze and ice-nucleation proteins).
... The application of ultrasound presented both acceleration and inhibition effects on proliferation and viability of probiotic cells [15], as a result of pore formation and cellular damage in the cell membrane [39]. Three types of micro-damage, namely micro-cracks, micro-voids and ruptures, have been identified in cell membranes [40], which are related to the impact on the probiotic growth. ...
Article
High-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) can be used as a mild-preservation technology in dairy products, due to its ability to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms and enzymes. In addition, it can result in physical and chemical alterations in the products and has impact on the probiotic viability and metabolic activity. This review provides an overview of the effects of HIUS on dairy products manufactured with probiotics and prebiotics. Furthermore, it presents perspectives of HIUS application on paraprobiotics and postbiotics products. HIUS has been proven to be a potential technology and its application to fermented dairy products can result in shorter processing time, increased probiotic viability, and products with low lactose content, higher oligosaccharides concentration, less undesirable taste (lower propionic and acetic acids content) and reduced ingredients (no need of prebiotic addition or β-galactosidase inclusion). In cheeses, HIUS can reduce the ripening time and accelerate proteolysis, resulting in products with better sensory, textural and nutritional (bioactive peptides) characteristics. Furthermore, it can change the prebiotic structure, facilitating the access for the probiotics. The impact of the HIUS is highly dependent on the process parameters (frequency, power, processing time, pulse mode and duration), type of probiotic culture and food composition. Therefore, HIUS process parameters must be precisely quantified and controlled. The HIUS can also be applied to the inactivation of probiotic cultures and development of paraprobiotic products or to the improvement in the production of soluble factors (postbiotics) with health effects. Further researches should be conducted to evaluate the efficiency of this methodology in the cases of paraprobiotic and postbiotic products.
... Processing at high frequencies (>1,000 kHz), a nondestructive range of US, has been shown to separate milk fat into fractions containing different-sized droplets (Leong et al., 2014(Leong et al., , 2016 and improve the creaming properties of recombined milk (Juliano et al., 2011). Studies using low frequencies (20 to 40 kHz) have reported that US improved the degassing of skim milk (Villamiel et al., 2000), the heat stability of whey proteins , the solubility of concentrated milk (Zisu et al., 2013;Yanjun et al., 2014), and ice cream production and quality (Mortazavi and Tabatabaie, 2008). Ultrasonication was also reported to be effective in reducing bacterial populations (Feng et al., 2008;Drakopoulou et al., 2009), including pathogens and spoilage bacteria in milk (Villamiel and De Jong, 2000b;Cameron et al., 2009;Chouliara et al., 2010). ...
Article
Innovative processing technologies, such as ultrasonication, can change the properties of milk, allowing for the improvement or development of dairy foods. Yet taking bench-scale equipment to pilot plant scale has been challenging. Raw milk, standardized to 3% fat and warmed to inlet temperatures of 42 or 54°C, was exposed to continuous, high-intensity, low-frequency ultrasonication (16/20 kHz, 1.36 kW/pass) at flow rates of 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 L/min that resulted in resident times within the reaction cell of 6, 3, and 2 min per pass, respectively. Multiple passes (3, 5, and 7, respectively) were required to obtain a total exposure time of 14 to 18 min. Evaluation of fat droplet sizes, enzyme coagulation properties, and microstructure of milk and milk gels, as well as determining compositional and lipid properties, were conducted to determine the potential of the ultrasound system to effectively modify milk. Laser scanning particle sizing and confocal microscopy showed that the largest droplets (2.26 ± 0.13 µm) found in raw milk were selectively reduced in size with a concomitant increase in the number of submicron droplets (0.37 ± 0.06 µm), which occurred sooner when exposed to shorter bursts of ultrasonication (0.45 L/min flow rates) and at an inlet temperature of 54°C. Ultrasound processing with milk entering at 42°C resulted in faster gelling times and firmer curds at 30 min; however, extended processing at inlet temperature of 54°C reduced curd firmness and lengthened coagulation time. This showed that ultrasonication altered protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions, thus the strength of the enzyme-set curds. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a denser curd matrix with less continuous and more irregular shaped and clustered strands, whereas transmission electron microscopy showed submicron lipid droplets embedded within the protein strands of the curd matrix. Processing at inlet temperature of 54°C with flow rates of 0.30 and 0.45 L/min also reduced the total aerobic bacterial count by more than 1 log cfu/mL, and the number of psychrophiles below the limit of detection (10 cfu/mL) for this study. Ultrasonication exposures of 14 to 18 min had minimal effect on the milk composition, fatty acid profiles, and lipid heat capacity and enthalpy. The findings show that this continuous ultrasound system, which is conducive to commercial scale-up, modifies the physical and functional properties of milk under the parameters used in this study and has potential use in dairy processing.
... Ice cream is an aerated water and suspension of crystallized fat in highly concentrated sugar solution containing hydrocolloids, casein micelles and proteins. The importance of the fat structure and colloidal aspects of ice cream are widely recognized today, as fat structure is the underlying explanation for dryness of ice cream at extrusion from the barrel freezer, malleability, and shape retention during meltdown, and smooth-eating texture [11]. The basic steps in the manufacturing of ice cream are generally as follows: blending, pasteurization, homogenization, aging the mix, freezing, packaging and hardening [12]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high power ultrasound on functional properties of ice-cream model mixtures. Mixture composed of sucrose, glucose, whole milk powder, whey protein concentrates (WPC) and distilled water was ultrasonically treated according to different parameters. Amplitude of ultrasounds, percentage of WPC in the sample and time of treatment are the three variables considered. Effect of ultrasound parameters on rheological properties (measurement of coefficient of consistency), thermal properties (measurement of initial freezing point) and foaming properties (measurement of maximal foam capacity) was observed. Experiment was designed using model called Central Composite Design (CCD) permitting to consider the significant factors for each property, and results were analyzed and process was optimized through response surface methodology-RSM. Through study, optimal conditions of ultrasound treatment (amplitude, treatment time and percentage of WPC) by which experiment should be performed were obtained. The factor “percentage of WPC” is significant from a rheological and thermal point of view. Regarding foaming properties, the significant factor that is to say affecting most the value of the maximum foam capacity is the duration of ultrasound treatment.
... There are numerous reports in the literature on the benefits of ultrasound in frozen foods such as potatoes (Comandini et al., 2013), mushrooms (Islam et al., 2015), strawberries (Cheng et al., 2014) and ice-creams (Mortazavi and Tabatabaie, 2008). In all these applications, low frequency ultrasonic (20 and 35 kHz) application resulted in a decrease in freezing time (e.g., by 35% for ice creams, 50% for mushrooms, 80% for strawberries and 85% for potatoes). ...
Chapter
Membrane processing and crystallization are common separation technologies that are widely used to recover, extract and purify food materials. A literature review is provided in this chapter, to highlight the role of ultrasound in mitigating fouling in membrane processing, as well as improving product quality, separation efficiency and repeatability in crystallization processes. Typical examples of ultrasound-assisted membrane processes include microfiltration and ultrafiltration of fruit juices, whey and milk. Sonocrystallization has been mainly studied for the formation of ice, salts, sugars, and lipids in food processing. To minimize energy consumption, ultrasound at low frequency with optimal intensity should be selected to avoid membrane damage and changes to physicochemical properties of food materials.
... US induced cavitation can help enhance ice-nucleation by minimizing ice encrustation on the ice-cream freezer wall, and microstreaming can improve heat and mass transfer. Mortazavi and Tabatabaie (2008) investigated the effect of ultrasound (20 kHz) on ice-cream freezing process time. Results were shown that ultrasound can shorten the freezing process time for ice-cream by about 65% compared to conventional freezing method. ...
Chapter
Freezing is one of the oldest and most widely used methods for food preservation. The growing trend of the frozen food industry has fueled the need for new technologies for improving freezing process efficiency and its cost, incorporation of new technologies to assist with improved freezing for better quality retention and improvement of microbial quality. In this chapter we have tried to provide a comprehensive review on the developments in emerging technologies for food freezing.
... For high-value food products as well as pharmaceuticals, ultrasonic freezing is suitable. Ultrasound has been applicable in the crystallization of food products such as triglyceride oilsvegetable oils [29], ice cream [30], and milk fat [31]. Ultrasound also provides an additional benefit as it enables the prevention of encrustation of the crystals on elements of cooling, thus, ensuring proper transfer of heat throughout the process of cooling [32]. ...
Article
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Food processing plays a crucial role in coping up with the challenges against food security by reducing wastage and preventing spoilage. The ultrasound technology has revolutionized the food processing industry with its wide application in various processes, serving as a sustainable and low-cost alternative. This non-destructive technology offers several advantages such as rapid processes, enhanced process efficiency, elimination of process steps, better quality product and retention of product characteristics (texture, nutrition value, organoleptic properties), improved shelf life. This review paper summarizes the various applications of ultrasound in different unit operations (filtration, freezing, thawing, brining, sterilization/pasteurization, cutting, etc.) and specific food divisions (meat, fruits and vegetables, cereals, dairy, etc.) along with, the advantages and drawbacks of the technology. The further scope of industrial implementation of ultrasound has also been discussed.
... A study by Mortazavi and Tabatabai [226] showed that 20-min pulsed ultrasonication of ice creams resulted in the best sensory flavor, texture, and mouthfeel evaluations. Similarly, Chandrapala and Leong [196] emphasized that one possible concern when using HIU to separate milkfat is the potential for fat oxidation (i.e., lipolysis). ...
Article
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Alternative methods for improving traditional food processing have increased in the last decades. Additionally, the development of novel dairy products is gaining importance due to an increased consumer demand for palatable, healthy, and minimally processed products. Ultrasonic processing or sonication is a promising alternative technology in the food industry as it has potential to improve the technological and functional properties of milk and dairy products. This review presents a detailed summary of the latest research on the impact of high-intensity ultrasound techniques in dairy processing. It explores the ways in which ultrasound has been employed to enhance milk properties and processes of interest to the dairy industry, such as homogenization, emulsification, yogurt and fermented beverages production, and food safety. Special emphasis has been given to ultrasonic effects on milk components; fermentation and spoilage by microorganisms; and the technological, functional, and sensory properties of dairy foods. Several current and potential applications of ultrasound as a processing technique in milk applications are also discussed in this review.
... It is suitable for pharmaceuticals as well as high-value food products. Ultrasound is being used to crystallize food products such as triglyceride oils [90], milk fat [111], ice cream [117]. The additional advantage of ultrasound is that it allows for the prevention of crystal encrustation on cooling elements and ensuring the heat process during cooling [194]. ...
Article
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The use of non-thermal processing technologies has been on the surge due to ever increasing demand for highest quality convenient foods containing the natural taste & flavor and being free of chemical additives and preservatives. Among the various non-thermal processing methods, ultrasound technology has proven to be very valuable. Ultrasound processing, being used alone or in combination with other processing methods, yields significant positive results on the quality of foods, thus has been considered efficacious. Food processes performed under the action of ultrasound are believed to be affected in part by cavitation phenomenon and mass transfer enhancement. It is considered to be an emerging and promising technology and has been applied efficiently in food processing industry for several processes such as freezing, filtration, drying, separation, emulsion, sterilization, and extraction. Various researches have opined that ultrasound leads to an increase in the performance of the process and improves the quality factors of the food. The present paper will discuss the mechanical, chemical and biochemical effects produced by the propagation of high intensity ultrasonic waves through the medium. This review outlines the current knowledge about application of ultrasound in food technology including processing, preservation and extraction. In addition, the several advantages of ultrasound processing, which when combined with other different technologies (such as microwave, supercritical CO2, high pressure processing, enzymatic extraction, etc.) are being examined. These include an array of effects such as effective mixing, retention of food characteristics, faster energy and mass transfer, reduced thermal and concentration gradients, effective extraction, increased production, and efficient alternative to conventional techniques. Furthermore, the paper presents the necessary theoretical background and details of the technology, technique, and safety precautions about ultrasound.
... This has been attributed to the high freezing rates obtained under high ultrasonic levels and thus the domination of small intracellular ice crystals [71]. It has also been shown that ultrasound is beneficial to ice-cream freezing by shortening the process time [52]. Under the influence of power ultrasound, a more rapid and even seeding occurs which leads to shorter times between the initiation of crystallisation and the complete formation of ice, ultimately reducing cellular damage [71]. ...
Article
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Within the food industry, controlling crystallisation is a key factor governing food structure, texture and consumer appeal, with some foods requiring the promotion of crystallisation in a controlled manner (e.g. chocolate) and others a check (e.g. honey). Sonocrystallisation is the application of ultrasound energy to control the nucleation of a crystallisation process. The use of power ultrasound provides a useful approach to producing crystals with desired properties. Sonocrystallisation facilitates process control by modulating crystal size distribution and morphology. This paper details the governing mechanisms of sonocrystallisation. Proven and potential applications of the process in foods are reviewed including chocolate, honey, fats and frozen foods. Challenges of process adoption such as scale-up are discussed.
Article
The extent of honey-coating retention on the surface of sonicated peanuts was studied to evaluate the efficacy of sonication to improve adhesion of honey on peanuts. Samples (150 g each) were sonicated in 450 ml petroleum ether for 5, 10, and 15 min. Following sonication, 25 ml of honey was poured and stirred over the peanuts then roasted in an oven at 177 °C for 10 min. Honey adhesion was determined by measuring the weight of 50 g peanuts before and after coating. The effect of honey and sonication on oxidative stability was measured every 7 days by oxidative stability instrument. The results showed that the weight of honey coating was 7, 16, 19, 21, and 21 g on the control, dipped, 5-, 10-, and 15-min sonicated sample, respectively. Sonication improved adhesion of honey on peanuts by 64%, 68%, and 67% after 5, 10, and 15 min of sonication, respectively, relative to the control. Oxidative stability of dipped, 5-, 10-, and 15-min sonicated samples was improved by 22%, 36%, 46%, and 32%, respectively, in relative to the control. Therefore, removing lipids from peanut surface by high-power ultrasound improved adhesion of honey coating and the oxidative stability.
Article
The use of ultrasound to enhance the transport phenomena in food processes has been well recognised in recent times. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sonication on hydration rate and pasting profile of navy beans. The hydration kinetics for control and ultrasound assisted soaking was mathematically described using mechanistic (Fickian diffusion) and empirical (Peleg's equation, Weibull model and First Order equation) models. Ultrasound enhanced the rate of hydration which was evident from the plot of kinetic data and model parameters. The effective diffusivities for water transport without and with ultrasound application were estimated to be 1.36×10(-10)m(2)/s and 2.19×10(-10)m(2)/s respectively, considering Fickian diffusion. The Weibull model was concluded to best predict the hydration kinetics of navy beans in an ultrasonic field. Significant increase in peak viscosity of sonicated bean powder was observed compared to control.
Article
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This paper is intended to mainly review the application of ultrasound in the field of pharmaceutics, as drug dispensation, formulation, its delivery and consumption etc. and will also identify various related factors encompassing their diverse processes or methods; various areas have been identified for their great potential for future development e.g., crystallization, evaporation, extraction, homogenization, oxidation, synthesis etc. Application of ultrasound affects many factors akin to increasing skin permeability to a variety of drug molecules (sonophoresis); ultrasounic microfeeding and solid free forming in pharmaceutical dosing; destroy the contaminants; production of nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers by the emulsion-solvent extraction/evaporation methods and uses of sonocrystallisation in pharmaceutics. INTRODUCTION identified for their great potential for future development
Article
The application of ultrasound to conventional dairy processes has the potential to provide significant benefits for the dairy industry such as energy savings and improved product properties. In recent years, the physical and chemical effects of high-intensity ultrasound in liquid and solid media have been extensively studied. Specific dairy processing applications such as emulsification, crystallisation, inactivation of microbes, functionality modifications and fat separation that harness the physical forces of ultrasound are highlighted in the present review.
Article
There is an increasing demand of the food industries and research institutes to have means of measurement allowing the characterization of foods. Ice cream, as a complex food system, consists of a frozen matrix containing air bubbles, fat globules, ice crystals, and an unfrozen serum phase. Some deficiencies in conventional methods for testing this product encourage the use of alternative techniques such as rheometry, spectroscopy, X-ray, electro-analytical techniques, ultrasound, and laser. Despite the development of novel instrumental applications in food science, use of some of them in ice cream testing is few, but has shown promising results. Developing the novel methods should increase our understanding of characteristics of ice cream and may allow online testing of the product. This review article discusses the potential of destructive and non-destructive methodologies in determining the quality and characteristics of ice cream and similar products. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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Ultrasound (US) treatment of milk is one of several emerging technologies, often promoted as non-thermal, although a combination with heat appears to show greater potential. Bacteriocidal effects have been studied, as well as certain interesting chemical and physical changes occurring as a result of this treatment. Comparison of published results is confounded by the lack of standardised treatment parameters. US does not appear to offer advantages regarding microbiological quality, in comparison with conventional HTST pasteurisation (72 °C for 15 s). Most publications do not address possible sensory changes caused by US treatment but, according to some authors, some definitive changes do occur. To obtain knowledge that ensures that quality products are produced, research on US is needed that combines the aspects of the effect on microorganisms, product functionality and quality and the influence on flavour and sensory aspects of the milk or milk product.
Chapter
A number of food engineering operations, in which heat is not used as a preserving factor, have been employed and are applied for preparation (cleaning, sorting, etc.), conversion (milling, agglomeration, etc.) or preservation (irradiation, high pressure processing, pulsed electric fields, etc.) purposes in the food industry. This book presents a comprehensive treatise of all normally used food engineering operations that are carried out at room (or ambient) conditions, whether they are aimed at producing microbiologically safe foods with minimum alteration to sensory and nutritive properties, or they constitute routine preparative or transformation operations. The book is written for both undergraduate and graduate students, as well as for educators and practicing food process engineers. It reviews theoretical concepts, analyzes their use in operating variables of equipment, and discusses in detail different applications in diverse food processes. Enrique Ortega-Rivas is professor of food process engineering in the Graduate Program of Food Technology at the Autonomous University of Chihuahua. He is on the editorial board of Food and Bioprocess Technology, Food Engineering Reviews, and The Open Food Science Journal, and is an Associate Editor of The Food Science and Technology Letters. A National Researcher of Mexico, Dr. Ortega-Rivas was a Fulbright scholar and has held positions at Food Science Australia, Monash University, and Washington State University. His research interests include alternative food processing technologies, particle technology, and solid-fluid separation techniques.
Article
The use of ultrasounds has recently gained significant interest in the food industry mainly due to the new consumers' trend towards functional foods. Offering several advantages, this form of energy can be applied for the improvement of the qualitative characteristics of high-quality foods as well as for assuring the food safety of a vast variety of foodstuffs, minimizing at the same time any negative effects on the sensory characteristics of foods. Furthermore, the non-destructive nature of the technology offers several opportunities in compositional analysis of foods. However, further research is required for the improvement of the related techniques and the reduction of application costs in order to render the technology efficient for industrial use. This review article covers the main applications of ultrasounds as well as the several advantages of the use of the technology in combination with conventional techniques. The effects of ultrasounds on the characteristics, microbial safety and quality of several foods are also detailed.
Article
Nanoparticles mediated cryosurgery was recently established as an efficient way to significantly improve the output of a conventional freezing therapy. To further improve this newly emerging nanomedicine way for ablating target tumor, here the ultrasound preprocessing was proposed for the first time to enhance the freezing strength to a better level on the tissues. In vitro experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of a single ultrasound preprocessing, a single nanoparticle loading or their combination in enhancing the cryosurgery. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of the ultrasound preprocessing to improve nanoparticles' mediated freezing capability were also theoretically interpreted. Experimental measurements demonstrate that, the ultrasound preprocessing on the target tissue site injected with nanoparticles not only evidently expended the freezing area, but also helps realize a much lower temperature scale and offers higher freezing rate during the nanocryosurgical process. Two main reasons to contribute to such effects were identified as the enhanced convective heat transfer in micro scale and the varied cellular impermeability caused by the ultrasound. The combined effect of ultrasound preprocessing and nanoparticles would be greater than the sum of their individual effects in mediating the nanocryosurgery. As a convinced approach, the present method opens a new way for the improved freezing ablation on tumor which can possibly be used in future clinics.
Chapter
The application of ultrasound to conventional dairy processes has the potential to provide significant benefits to dairy industry such as possible cost savings and improved product properties. Moreover, the appeal of ultrasound as a processing technique has been regarded safe compared to other emerging technologies. During the past decade, the technology has rapidly emerged as a mild nonthermal processing tool capable of replacing or assisting many conventional dairy processing applications such as inactivation of microbes and enzymes, homogenization and emulsification, creaming, crystallization, and functionality modifications within dairy systems. These aspects are highlighted in this chapter.
Chapter
The application of ultrasound to conventional dairy processes has the potential to provide significant benefits to dairy industry such as possible cost savings and improved product properties. Moreover, the appeal of ultrasound as a processing technique has been regarded safe compared to other emerging technologies. During the past decade, the technology has rapidly emerged as a mild nonthermal processing tool capable of replacing or assisting many conventional dairy processing applications such as inactivation of microbes and enzymes, homogenization and emulsification, creaming, crystallization, and functionality modifications within dairy systems. These aspects are highlighted in this chapter.
Article
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A wide variety of by-products are produced by the industry when animals are slaughtered. However, the proteins present in these by-products, are not being fully useable, in the elaboration of value-added products. Staphylococcus xylosus is commonly used as a starter culture in meat products subjected to ripening for a long period, as it produces proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes that improve the sensory quality of the products. Ultrasound (US) has been arousing interest in the meat industry, as it reduces processing time and also improves the technological and sensory quality of meat products. However, the stimulate effect of US on the growth of S. xylosus in by-products from the poultry industry is still unknown. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the stimulate effect of US on the growth of S. xylosus inoculated in by-products from the poultry industry. S. xylosus was inoculated (5.63 log CFU/g) in sterilized by-products from the poultry, which were then sonicated at 37 °C for 0, 15, 30, and 45 min according to the following parameters: frequencies of 130 and 35 kHz, amplitudes of 50% and 80% and normal and degas operating modes. The sonicated samples were incubated at 37 °C for 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Soon after sonication, no stimulate effect of US was observed on the growth of S. xylosus. However, after 24 h of incubation, the samples sonicated for 15 and 30 min in normal mode, at 35 and 130 kHz, and amplitudes of 50 and 80% exhibited better stimulate effect at the growth S. xylosus counts (p < 0.01) when compared to the Control, with values of 8.23 and 7.77 log CFU/g, respectively. These results can be exploited to obtain new added-value products, having as raw material by-products from the poultry industry.
Article
Freezing is an effective way of food preservation. However, traditional freezing methods have the disadvantages of low freezing efficiency and generation of large ice crystals, leading to possible damage of food quality. Power ultrasound assisted freezing as a novel technique can effectively reduce the adverse effects during freezing process. This paper gives an overview on recent researches of power ultrasound technique to accelerate the food freezing processes and illustrates the main principles of power ultrasound assisted freezing. The effects of power ultrasound on liquid food, model solid food as well as fruit and vegetables are discussed, respectively, from the aspects of increasing freezing rate and improving microstructure. It is shown that ultrasound assisted freezing can effectively improve the freezing efficiency and promote the formation of small and evenly distributed ice crystals, resulting in better food quality. Different inherent properties of food samples affect the effectiveness of ultrasound application and optimum ultrasound parameters depend on the nature of the samples. The application of ultrasound to the food industry is more likely on certain types of food products and more efforts are still needed to realize the industrial translation of laboratory results.
Chapter
High-intensity ultrasound technology has been vastly utilized as a processing method in a number of dairy applications in preference to traditional thermal treatments in recent years. Acoustic cavitation generates physical forces such as acoustic streaming, acoustic radiation, shear, micro-jetting and shockwaves. These forces are utilized in specific dairy applications including emulsification, filtration, functionality modifications, microbial inactivation, homogenization, crystallization and the separation of fat. Although some of these applications are adopted by industry for large-scale operations, most are still limited to laboratory scale. Due to its widespread potential, it is becoming increasingly clear that ultrasound technology has huge potential as an energy efficient emerging technology across the dairy sector.
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Abstract: In recent years, there has been emerging trends and gaining popularity of researching, exploring and applying the physical and chemical effects of ultrasonication and cavitation in dairy industry. An overview of ultrasonication and other cavitation techniques is provided here. Effect of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) and high energy low-frequency ultrasonication on milk components such as fat, protein, and other milk constituents have been highlighted here. Detailed summary of various research studies and applications of the HC and ultrasonication in dairy processing area such as homogenization, viscosity reduction, cheese, cream and yogurt making, food safety, microbial inactivation, waste management, and cleaning are provided here. Furthermore, various research and application of lowintensity high-frequency ultrasound for dairy products analysis have been outlined here. While some applications of ultrasound and cavitation are well established in other industry, the ultrasonic and HC processing of dairy ingredients and products are gaining much attention recently and it has a great potential to become a mainstream process in dairy industry in the near future.
Chapter
Ultrasound is one of the non-invasive technologies, which successfully find widespread use in numerous processes in food technology. It represents one of the novel technologies that in a very short time rapidly found evolution and implementation in various food industry processes and commercial products. Some of the mentioned food processes in which ultrasound finds its application include drying, freezing, homogenization, sterilization, extraction, bleaching, crystallization, emulsification, and filtration. Specific equipment required in mentioned food industry applications is constructed to fit ultrasound principles and nowadays successfully applied even at the level of larger capacity and industrial scale. All mentioned prove that ultrasound is successfully implemented and commercialized in the food industry and for the food products such as fruits and vegetables (dried, juices), meat, and dairy products (milk, cheese, chocolate). In this chapter, the impact of ultrasounds on food constituents was reviewed.
Article
Background Probiotic foods containing beneficial microorganisms have been in demand due to improved digestion and gut environment upon consumption. Since thermal sterilization might affect the viability of probiotic strains, numerous researchers focused on the non-thermal processing of probiotic foods. Non-thermal technologies including high-pressure processing, pulsed electric field, ultrasound, irradiation, and cold plasma, offer promising alternatives to thermal treatments by providing sterilization effect at low temperature. Scope and approach A comprehensive summary of non-thermal processing techniques in the manufacturing of probiotic foods has been discussed. Its impact on treatment parameters on the strain viability during processing, intake, and final delivery in the gut are explained in detail. Factors such as selecting probiotic strains, selective inactivation, storage stability, sensory attributes, quality retention, and principal mechanism of non-thermal techniques have also been analyzed. Key findings and conclusions: Some crucial achievements using non-thermal techniques in probiotic foods include improved texture, enhanced sensory attributes, improved acid tolerance, and promoted growth of probiotic microorganisms. Besides dairy-based probiotic foods, other products, including fruit, beverages and dried foods, were also developed using non-thermal techniques. Future strategies should focus on widening their application, process optimization, stability, and delivery enhancement. The extended application and improved benefits prove the excellence of using a non-thermal technique in probiotic food processing.
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El ultrasonido es una de las tecnologías emergentes con más investigación y desarrollo para la conservación de alimentos, utilizada, principlamente para la disminución de la concentracion de microorganismos y la inhibicion de la actividad enzimática, sin alterar las propiedades físicas, químicas y nutricionales de los alimentos. Gracias al análisis de direfentes fuentes bibliográficas, se logró elaborar este documento en el que se destacan las aplicaciones del ultrasonido en los principales procesos de la tecnología de alimentos, incluyendo los beneficios del efecto de la cavitación, la intensidad y las frecuencias aplicadas, en cada una de las investigaciones que se han realizado actualmente.
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