Characterization of PKD Protein-Positive Exosome-Like Vesicles

Division of Nephrology & Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (Impact Factor: 9.34). 02/2009; 20(2):278-88. DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2008060564
Source: PubMed


Proteins associated with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (polycystin-1, polycystin-2, and fibrocystin) localize to various subcellular compartments, but their functional site is thought to be on primary cilia. PC1+ vesicles surround cilia in Pkhd1(del2/del2) mice, which led us to analyze these structures in detail. We subfractionated urinary exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) and isolated a subpopulation abundant in polycystin-1, fibrocystin (in their cleaved forms), and polycystin-2. This removed Tamm-Horsfall protein, the major contaminant, and subfractionated ELVs into at least three different populations, demarcated by the presence of aquaporin-2, polycystin-1, and podocin. Proteomic analysis of PKD ELVs identified 552 proteins (232 not yet in urinary proteomic databases), many of which have been implicated in signaling, including the molecule Smoothened. We also detected two other protein products of genes involved in cystic disease: Cystin, the product of the mouse cpk locus, and ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6, the product of the human Bardet-Biedl syndrome gene (BBS3). Our proteomic analysis confirmed that cleavage of polycystin-1 and fibrocystin occurs in vivo, in manners consistent with cleavage at the GPS site in polycystin-1 and the proprotein convertase site in fibrocystin. In vitro, these PKD ELVs preferentially interacted with primary cilia of kidney and biliary epithelial cells in a rapid and highly specific manner. These data suggest that PKD proteins are shed in membrane particles in the urine, and these particles interact with primary cilia.

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Available from: Bing Q Huang
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    • "Since then the number of publications exploring urinary exosomes and/or other MV have rapidly and exponentially increased. Furthermore, in addition to focus strictly on exosomes, other types of vesicles have been described in urine including, among others, exosome-like vesicles (52) and shedding vesicles (53). Notably, all the UEV subsets have their distinct intracellular secretory pathways. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes represents a major threat to public health and the number of patients is increasing alarmingly in the global scale. Particularly, the diabetic kidney disease (nephropathy, DN) together with its cardiovascular complications cause immense human suffering, highly increased risk of premature deaths, and lead to huge societal costs. DN is first detected when protein appears in urine (microalbuminuria). As in other persisting proteinuric diseases (like vasculitis) it heralds irreversible damage of kidney functions up to non-functional (end-stage) kidney and ultimately calls for kidney replacement therapy (dialysis or kidney transplantation). While remarkable progress has been made in understanding the genetic and molecular factors associating with chronic kidney diseases, breakthroughs are still missing to provide comprehensive understanding of events and mechanisms associated. Non-invasive diagnostic tools for early diagnostics of kidney damage are badly needed. Exosomes - small vesicular structures present in urine are released by all cell types along kidney structures to present with distinct surface assembly. Furthermore, exosomes carry a load of special proteins and nucleic acids. This "cargo" faithfully reflects the physiological state of their respective cells of origin and appears to serve as a new pathway for downstream signaling to target cells. Accordingly, exosome vesicles are emerging as a valuable source for disease stage-specific information and as fingerprints of disease progression. Unfortunately, technical issues of exosome isolation are challenging and, thus, their full potential remains untapped. Here, we review the molecular basis of exosome secretion as well as their use to reveal events along the nephron. In addition to novel molecular information, the new methods provide the needed accurate, personalized, non-invasive, and inexpensive future diagnostics.
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    • "The possible function of the CD133+ EVs in renal physiology still remains to be investigated. It could be however speculated that CD133+ EVs may interact with cells of the nephron, as described for CD133+ EVs released in the urine of polycystic kidney disease patients [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) present in the urine are mainly released from cells of the nephron and can therefore provide information on kidney function. We here evaluated the presence of vesicles expressing the progenitor marker CD133 in the urine of normal subjects and of patients undergoing renal transplant. We found that EV expressing CD133 were present in the urine of normal subjects, but not of patients with end stage renal disease. The first day after transplant, urinary CD133+ EVs were present at low levels, to increase thereafter (at day 7). Urinary CD133+ EVs significantly increased in patients with slow graft function in respect to those with early graft function. In patients with a severe pre-transplant vascular damage of the graft, CD133+ EVs did not increase at day 7. At variance, the levels of EVs expressing the renal exosomal marker CD24 did not vary in the urine of patients with end stage renal disease or in transplanted patients in respect to controls. Sorted CD133+ EVs were found to express glomerular and proximal tubular markers. These data indicate that urinary CD133+ EVs are continuously released during the homeostatic turnover of the nephron and may provide information on its function or regenerative potential.
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    • "Briefly, human urine was subjected to ultracentrifugation to generate a crude exocyst preparation, which was subsequently fractionated using a D 2 O sucrose gradient to generate a fraction enriched for a subset of exosomes that carry cilia-specific proteins such as polycystin-2, which we have previously named exosome-like vesicles or ELVs (Hogan et al. 2009). ELV-rich fractions were subjected to mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis to identify ELV cargo as previously described (Hogan et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cilia, organelles that function as cellular antennae, are central to the pathogenesis of “ciliopathies”, including various forms of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). To date, however, the molecular mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and ciliary function remain incompletely understood. A recently proposed model of cell–cell communication, called “urocrine signaling”, hypothesizes that a subset of membrane bound vesicles that are secreted into the urinary stream (termed exosome-like vesicles, or ELVs), carry cilia-specific proteins as cargo, interact with primary cilia, and affect downstream cellular functions. This study was undertaken to determine the role of the exocyst, a highly conserved eight-protein trafficking complex, in the secretion and/or retrieval of ELVs. We used Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells expressing either Sec10-myc (a central component of the exocyst complex) or Smoothened-YFP (a ciliary protein found in ELVs) in experiments utilizing electron gold microscopy and live fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Additionally, human urinary exosomes were isolated via ultracentrifugation and subjected to mass-spectrometry-based proteomics analysis to determine the composition of ELVs. We found, as determined by EM, that the exocyst localizes to primary cilia, and is present in vesicles attached to the cilium. Furthermore, the entire exocyst complex, as well as most of its known regulatory GTPases, are present in human urinary ELVs. Finally, in living MDCK cells, ELVs appear to interact with primary cilia using spinning disc confocal microscopy. These data suggest that the exocyst complex, in addition to its role in ciliogenesis, is centrally involved in the secretion and/or retrieval of urinary ELVs.
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