Cell block technique and cytological smears for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms after endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration
Cytological smear is widely employed to analyse specimens obtained from endosonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), but false-negative or inconclusive results may occur. A better diagnostic yield can be obtained from processing cell blocks. We compared the effectiveness of the cell block technique and cytological smear in the diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms. From January 1997 to December 2006, 611 patients with pancreatic tumors were evaluated by EUS-FNA. Surgery was performed in 356 cases, and the other 255 patients were followed clinically for an average of 12.8 months. In total, 282 (46.2%) patients were evaluated with cytological smears, and 329 (53.8%) were evaluated using only cell blocks. Malignant disease was detected in 352 (57.6%) cases, in which adenocarcinoma accounted for 236 (67%) cases. A benign disease was found in the other 259 cases, including 35.1% focal chronic pancreatitis and 32.4% pseudocysts. Aspiration samples were satisfactory in 595 (97.4%) patients after an average of 2.2 (1-4) passes of the needle. Regardless of the cytopathological examination technique, EUS-FNA confirmed malignancy in 269 of 352 (76.4%) cases, and a benign disease in 257 of 259 (99.2%) cases. For patients who received surgery with histologically confirmed lesions, the sensitivity specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of the smears versus cell blocks in diagnosing pancreatic tumors were 61% versus 85.2% (P<0.001), 100% versus 93.1%, 100% versus 98.4%, 36% versus 55.1% (P=0.046) and 68% versus 86.5% (P<0.001), respectively The cell block technique demonstrated a hig her sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy than cytological smears.
Available from: José Sebastião dos Santos
- "As an on-site cytopathologist was not available in our routine, the specimens were considered satisfactory in the presence of non-hemorrhagic small tissue filaments or tissue core samples. The specimens were sent to a pathologist (FV), and prepared according to a previously described cell block technique . "
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Metastases to the pancreas are rare, and usually mistaken for primary pancreatic cancers. This study aimed to describe the histology results of solid pancreatic tumours obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for diagnosis of metastases to the pancreas.
In a retrospective review, patients with pancreatic solid tumours and history of previous extrapancreatic cancer underwent EUS-FNA from January/1997 to December/2010. Most patients were followed-up until death and some of them were still alive at the end of the study. The performance of EUS-FNA for diagnosis of pancreatic metastases was analyzed. Symptoms, time frame between primary tumour diagnosis and the finding of metastases, and survival after diagnosis were also analyzed.
37 patients underwent EUS-FNA for probable pancreas metastases. Most cases (65%) presented with symptoms, especially upper abdominal pain (46%). Median time between detection of the first tumour and the finding of pancreatic metastases was 36 months. Metastases were confirmed in 32 (1.6%) cases, 30 of them by EUS-FNA, and 2 by surgery. Other 5 cases were non-metastatic. Most metastases were from lymphoma, colon, lung, and kidney. Twelve (32%) patients were submitted to surgery. Median survival after diagnosis of pancreatic metastases was 9 months, with no difference of survival between surgical and non-surgical cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of EUS-FNA with histology analysis of the specimens for diagnosis of pancreatic metastases were, respectively, 93.8%, 60%, 93.8%, 60% and 89%.
EUS-FNA with histology of the specimens is a sensitive and accurate method for definitive diagnosis of metastatic disease in patients with a previous history of extrapancreatic malignancies.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the use of the cell block technique as a safe, accurate and quick tool for the cytodiagnosis of mycetoma. The study included 240 patients with suspected mycetoma. The suspected lesion was aspirated and the aspirated material was processed to form cell blocks. The cell blocks were processed as described for routine tissue histopathological examination. Haematoxylin/eosin-stained sections were reviewed to identify the morphological features of the mycetoma grains and the different inflammatory tissue reactions. The findings were compared with those seen in histopathological sections. The different mycetoma grains showed distinct morphological features on the cell block that were identical to those seen in histopathological sections. Distinction between eumycetoma and actinomycetoma and their classification according to the causative agent were possible. The cell block technique had sensitivities of 87.5% and 85.7% for eumycetoma and actinomycetoma, respectively, and there were no statistical differences in the findings obtained by the cell block and histopathological techniques. The technique is simple, rapid, specific, sensitive and inexpensive. It can be used in the routine diagnosis of mycetoma and to obtain grains for culture identification. The cell blocks can be preserved for a long period for future studies.
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ABSTRACT: The diagnostic efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology may vary greatly depending on the treatment of the samples obtained and the level of proficiency of the cytopathologist or cytoscreener.
We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of the cell block (CB) method and that of smear cytology using tissue samples obtained in the same needle pass at EUS-FNA in 33 patients with pancreatic tumors, abdominal tumors or swollen lymph nodes. An average of 3.1 passes were applied during the procedure without affirmation by rapid cytology. About half of the material obtained by each single pass was subjected to smear cytology, while the other half was evaluated by the CB method. Four to 12 glass slides were prepared for both Papanicolaou stain and Giemsa stain. The CB sections were prepared using the sodium alginate method and subjected to HE, PAS-AB and immunohistochemical stains. Two pathologists independently made cytological and histological diagnoses. The final diagnosis was based on integration of cytohistological findings, diagnostic imaging, and clinical course.
The diagnostic accuracy of the CB method and that of smear cytology were 93.9 and 60.6%, respectively (p = 0.003), and their respective sensitivities were 92.0 and 60.0% (p = 0.02). It was easier to make a definite diagnosis of not only malignancies but also benign conditions by the CB method than by the smear method.
The CB method with immunostaining showed a higher diagnostic yield than smear cytology in patients who had undergone EUS-FNA without rapid on-site cytology.
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