Article

Elements of Morphology: Standard terminology for the ear

Department of Genetics, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Canada.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A (Impact Factor: 2.16). 01/2009; 149A(1):40-60. DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32599
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

An international group of clinicians working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions of the human phenotype and facilitate reliable comparisons of findings among patients. Discussions with other workers in dysmorphology and related fields, such as developmental biology and molecular genetics, will become more precise. Here we introduce the anatomy of the ear and define and illustrate the terms that describe the major characteristics of the ear.

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Available from: Gabriele Gillessen-Kaesbach
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    • "Ear morphology exhibits strong variation amongst real humans to the extent that it has been used to identify individuals and in forensic work for over a century (Bertillon, 1893; Pflug and Busch, 2012; Abaza et al., 2013). Ear biometrics are also of great interest to human geneticists (Hunter et al., 2009). "
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