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Anti-inflammatory activity of Rhodiola rosea - "A second-generation adaptogen"

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Abstract

Rhodiola rosea (golden root), a unique phytoadaptogen grown in high-altitude regions has gained attention for its various therapeutic properties. In India, this plant is found in the Himalayan belt and has not been completely explored for its beneficial health effects. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the tincture extract of Rhodiola rosea roots (RTE). The anti-inflammatory activity was determined through carrageenan-induced paw oedema, formaldehyde-induced arthritis and nystatin-induced paw oedema in rat model. The tincture extract exhibited inhibitory effect against acute and subacute inflammation at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight. Inhibition of nystatin-induced oedema was also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro inhibitory effects of the tincture extract from R. rosea roots was evaluated against the enzymes relating to inflammation. The enzymes include cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Phospholipase A2 (PLA2). The extract showed varying inhibitory activities against these enzymes depending on the concentrations. A potent inhibition was observed against Cox-2 and PLA2. Inhibition of nystatin induced oedema and phospholipase A2 suggested that membrane stabilization could be the most probable mechanism of action of RTE in anti-inflammation. The findings in this study may provide the use of R. rosea root extract in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

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... The genus Rhodiola (Hong Jing Tian; Crassulaceae) consists of more than 200 species, of which approximately 20, including Rhodiola rosea, Rhodiola alterna, Rhodiola brevipetiolata, Rhodiola crenulata, Rhodiola kirilowi, Rhodiola quadrifida, Rhodiola sachalinensis, and Rhodiola sacra, are used as traditional medicines in Asia [1]. These plants grow mainly in the Himalayan belt, Tibet, China, and Mongolia, but are also cultivated in Europe and North America and are available on the market as dietary supplements [2,3]. ...
... The most widely known is Rhodiola rosea, which is also called the "golden root" or "roseroot." The pharmacological effects of Rhodiola rosea, including its role in increasing longevity, stimulating the central nervous system, and elevating work performance as well as its cardio-, neuro-, and hepatoprotective effects and immunotropic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities, have been studied extensively [1,5]. Rhodiola rosea has been used for a long time in Eastern Europe and Asia to enhance physical and mental performance. ...
... In the plethysmometer test, orally administering Rhodiola rosea extract (50 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar rats [48]. The extract (250 mg/kg body weight) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, formaldehyde-induced arthritis, and nystatin-induced paw edema in a rat model in a dose-dependent manner [1]. ...
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Rhodiola is a genus of medicinal plants that originated in Asia and Europe and are used traditionally as adaptogens, antidepressants, and anti-inflammatory remedies. Rhodiola plants are rich in polyphenols, and salidroside and tyrosol are the primary bioactive marker compounds in the standardized extracts of Rhodiola rosea. This review article summarizes the bioactivities, including adaptogenic, antifatigue, antidepressant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinoception, and anticancer activities, and the modulation of immune function of Rhodiola plants and its two constituents, as well as their potential to prevent cardiovascular, neuronal, liver, and skin disorders.
... Extracts of Rhodiola rosea have been pharmacologically tested for various effects. Among others, they show protection against oxidative agents in human erythrocytes in vitro [5,6], anti-fatigue effects during and after physical exercise in rats [7], improved resistance to restraint stress in rabbits [8], increased resistance of rats to mild stressors over an extended period of time [9], monoamino oxidase A and B inhibition in vitro [10], anti-inflammatory effects in rats [11], and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities [12]. ...
... Subsequently, rosarin (9), rosavin (11), rosin (12) and compound (13), cinnamyl-(6'-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl)-O-β-glucopyranoside, were found to be glycosides of (15). Their sugar moieties consist of arabinopyranosyl-glucopyranoside for (9), arabinofuranosyl-glucopyranoside for (11), glucopyranoside for (12) and xylopyranosyl-glucopyranoside for (13). ...
... Structures of proposed phenylpropanoids(9,(11)(12)(13)15) ...
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Rhodiola rosea has been used in folk medicine as ethanolic macerates for a long time. This study aims to provide a quantitative and qualitative analysis and comparison of different ethanolic Rhodiola rosea rhizome macerates (35%, 70%, and 96% v/v) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) extracts prepared with 85% methanol, in order to shed light on the effectivity of different extraction methods. Extract samples were analyzed by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn on a ZORBAX SB-C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of water + 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. Qualitative analysis lead to the tentative identification of 18 compounds: Two cyanogenic glycosides (rhodiocyanoside A, lotaustralin), three phenylethanoids (salidroside, viridoside, 2-phenylethyl-vicianoside), two procyanidin and catechin derivatives (epigallocatechin-epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate), five phenylpropanoids (cinnamyl alcohol, rosarin, rosavin, rosin, cinnamyl-(6’-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl)-O-β-glucopyranoside), two monoterpene alcohols (rhodioloside E, rosiridin) and four flavonols (rhodionidin, rhodiosin, rhodionin, kaempferol). Quantity was determined for salidroside, cinnamyl alcohol and its three major glycosides (rosarin, rosavin, rosin), as well as three flavonols (rhodionidin, rhodiosin, rhodionin). Methanolic ASE proved to be the superior extraction method for different substance groups. For macerates, high ethanol content increased yield and lowered hydrolysis of glycosides during extraction, but ethanolic macerates still showed low reproducibility and high fluctuations in quantity of marker compounds salidroside and rosavins, as well as flavonols. Rhodiola rosea rhizomes of wild origins seemed to underly great variability in chemical composition dependent on grow site.
... It is abundantly and widely distributed in China. According to traditional Chinese folk medicine, Rhodiola crenulata can improve endurance, resist altitude sickness (Chiu et al., 2013), and treat fatigue, depression, insomnia and impotence (Pooja et al., 2009). A recent study found that Rhodiola crenulata supplement strikingly improves aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training (Chen et al., 2014). ...
... Accumulating evidence indicates that Rhodiola crenulata protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat brain (Song et al., 2006a, b). Pharmacological studies suggest that Rhodiola crenulata promotes cognitive function and relieves brain fatigue (Darbinyan et al., 2000;Spasov et al., 2000), clears reactive oxygen species and reduces oxidative stress (Abidov et al., 2003;Wing et al., 2003;De Sanctis et al., 2004;Battistelli et al., 2005;Kanupriya et al., 2005;Yu et al., 2007;Pooja et al., 2009), enhances physical endurance (Spasov et al., 2000;De Bock et al., 2004), ameliorates metabolic dysfunction Tian et al., 2013;Wang et al., 2013), bolsters immunity (Zhu et al., 2014) and exerts anti-tumor effects (Tu et al., 2008). In recent years, Rhodiola crenulata has attracted increasing attention because of its cognitive protective effects, antioxidant effects, and ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (Chen et al., 2012;. ...
... We found that 0.1 mL RCE significantly improved learning and memory functions in rats, while the 0.02 and 1.0 mL doses had no significant effect. High doses of RCE failed to improve the functions, perhaps because of other components within the extract (Pooja et al., 2009). As mentioned above, RCE contains more than 40 different compounds, and it is possible that other compounds have effects that antagonize those of salidroside. ...
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In our previous study, we found that the edible alcohol extract of the root of the medicinal plant Rhodiola crenulata (RCE) improved spatial cognition in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Another study from our laboratory showed that RCE enhanced neural cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and prevented damage to hippocampal neurons in a rat model of chronic stress-induced depression. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of RCE are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of RCE and its neuroprotective mechanism of action in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease established by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats were pre-administered RCE at doses of 1.5, 3.0 or 6.0 g/kg for 21 days before model establishment. ATP and cytochrome c oxidase levels were significantly decreased in rats with Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, neuronal injury was obvious in the hippocampus, with the presence of a large number of apoptotic neurons. In comparison, in rats given RCE pretreatment, ATP and cytochrome c oxidase levels were markedly increased, the number of apoptotic neurons was reduced, and mitochondrial injury was mitigated. The 3.0 g/kg dose of RCE had the optimal effect. These findings suggest that pretreatment with RCE prevents mitochondrial dysfunction and protects hippocampal neurons from apoptosis in rats with Alzheimer's disease.
... Plant-derived therapeutics such as cinnamon and curcumin extracts have been shown to have potential anti-diabetic properties, although their efficacy has not been evaluated in randomized clinical trials 29,30 . The adaptogenic plant Rhodiola rosea is used as a medicinal in traditional medical practices worldwide and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and gut microbiome-modulating properties [31][32][33] . As an adaptogen, R. rosea represents an important category of pharmacological substances that are known to aid the body in resisting a wide variety of stressors (i.e. ...
... As an adaptogen, R. rosea represents an important category of pharmacological substances that are known to aid the body in resisting a wide variety of stressors (i.e. biological, chemical, physical, etc.) to maintain homeostasis and stabilize physiological processes that may be disrupted 32 . Rhodiola rosea extract appears to be safe in human studies [34][35][36] , which makes it an attractive candidate for the treatment of T2D. ...
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Type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent endocrine disease in the world, and recently the gut microbiota have become a potential target for its management. Recent studies have illustrated that this disease may predispose individuals to certain microbiome compositions, and treatments like metformin have been shown to change gut microbiota and their associated metabolic pathways. However, given the limitations and side effects associated with pharmaceuticals currently being used for therapy of diabetes, there is a significant need for alternative treatments. In this study, we investigated the effects of a root extract from Rhodiola rosea in a Leptin receptor knockout (db/db) mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Our previous work showed that Rhodiola rosea had anti-inflammatory and gut microbiome-modulating properties, while extending lifespan in several animal models. In this study, treatment with Rhodiola rosea improved fasting blood glucose levels, altered the response to exogenous insulin, and decreased circulating lipopolysaccharide and hepatic C-reactive protein transcript levels. We hypothesize that these changes may in part reflect the modulation of the microbiota, resulting in improved gut barrier integrity and decreasing the translocation of inflammatory biomolecules into the bloodstream. These findings indicate that Rhodiola rosea is an attractive candidate for further research in the management of type 2 diabetes.
... These synthetic drugs reported to be used for the treatments of inflammatory disorders are of least interest nowadays due to their potential side effects and serious adverse effects in humans and animals (Freidman and Kaiser, 2007; Rocca et al., 2005; Green et al., 2004; Abatan et al., 2006). In the last few decades, alternative anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents have regained their popularity in the treatment against several human ailments such as inflammation (Bawa and Khanum, 2009; Tripathy et al., 2010 ). These anti-inflammatory agents contain various classes of phytoconstituents including flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids and polyphenolic compounds which act singly or synergistically in relieving inflammation (Gupta et al.,2006; Mohammad et al., 2012 ). ...
... Plant materials have been reported to be present in or have provided the models for about 50 % of Western drugs, with herbal remedies demonstrating encouraging results in the cure of many diseases (Ndip et al., 2007). These plants include Acanthopanax senticosus, Albizia chinensis, Croton zambesicus, Cussonia paniculata, Kalopanax pictus, Khaya grandifoliola, Kigelia africana, Securidaca longipedunculata, Uncaria tomentosa, Zizyplus rugosa, Mallotus oppositifolius, Sterculia tragacantha, (Yuen et al., 2008; Suryakumar and Shukla, 2011; Bawa and Khanum, 2009; Schriner et al., 2009; Nwaehujor et al., 2012). Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) ...
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Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 4 (06), pp. 068-073, June, 2014 Available online at http://www.japsonline.com DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2014.40610 ISSN 2231-3354 Anti-I nflammatory Activities of Methanol Leaf Extract of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) I n Wistar Rats Nwaehujor Chinaka O1*, Igile Godwin O1, Ode Julius O2 and Udegbunam Rita I3 1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115 Calabar, Nigeria, 2Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja, Nigeria, 3Department of Veterinary Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT Aerial parts of Bridelia micrantha, a semi-deciduous tree are widely used in African traditional medical practice in the treatment of painful inflammatory conditions of the joints. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol leaf extract of Bridelia micrantha using acute, sub-acute and chronic models of inflammation in Wistar rats. In the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation model, 400 mg/kg of extract produced 71.79 % edema inhibition while 200 mg/kg of the extract produced 55.13 % inhibition relative to 56.41% inhibition of the rat paw edema with 200 mg/kg of Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA) within 5 h. In the histamineinduced rat paw edema model, the extract exhibited 72.97 % protection at 400 mg/kg compared to 83.33 % edema inhibition with phenylbutazone (100 mg/kg) after 6 h. In the sub-acute model using formaldehyde-induced paw edema, 400 mg/kg of extract showed 59.77 % (0.35±0.03) inhibition after 24 h, while 54.02 % inhibition was produced by 200 mg/kg of extract and 200 mg/kg of ASA produced 56.32 % (0.38±0.04) inhibition when compared with the negative control group (0.87±0.05). In the cotton pellet-induced granuloma test, 400 mg/kg of extract gave 52.55 % (40.57±1.3) protection, while 200 mg/kg extract gave 47.25 % protection and 200 mg/kg ASA gave 49.38 % (43.25±1.8) when compared with normal saline treated group (85.5±3.2) after 7 days. The results obtained in this study showed that Bridelia micrantha leaf extract exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities thus authenticating its acclaimed anti-inflammatory efficacy. It was concluded that the extract of Bridelia micrantha may be a potential anti-inflammatory agent in alleviating edema associated with arthritis and musculo-skeletal pains in humans. Key words: Edema, Inflammation, Bridelia Micrantha, Acetylsalicylic Acid, Phenylbutazone Article history: Received on: 24/04/2014 Revised on: 09/05/2014 Accepted on: 19/05/2014 Available online: 28/06/2014
... Phytomedicine 68 (2020) 153143 constituent ginsenoside Rb1, has been studied (Ahmed et al., 2016). The anti-inflammatory activity of R. rosea has been reported in vivo (Bawa and Khanum, 2009) and the neuroprotective effect of a crude extract of R. rosea and its main constituents against iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production and has been studied in vitro in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells (Bawa and Khanum, 2009;Lee et al., 2013). Moreover, R. rosea derivatives were also found to possess neuroprotective activity (Xian et al., 2014). ...
... Phytomedicine 68 (2020) 153143 constituent ginsenoside Rb1, has been studied (Ahmed et al., 2016). The anti-inflammatory activity of R. rosea has been reported in vivo (Bawa and Khanum, 2009) and the neuroprotective effect of a crude extract of R. rosea and its main constituents against iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production and has been studied in vitro in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells (Bawa and Khanum, 2009;Lee et al., 2013). Moreover, R. rosea derivatives were also found to possess neuroprotective activity (Xian et al., 2014). ...
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Stress is a typical body’s natural defense to a generic physical or psychic change. A specific linking mechanism between ulcer onset and psycho-physical stress prolonged exposure has been reported. We decided to investigate the possible effects of Borago officinalis L. (Borago) in preventing physical (stress)-induced gastric ulcers in a rat model. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 16 groups, pre-treated with a control solution, omeprazole (20 mg/kg), Borago methanolic extract (25, 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg), Borago organic extract (50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg), Borago aqueous extract (5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg) and D(-)-2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) (25 mg/kg), kept in stressful conditions such as water immersion and restraint-induced stress ulcers. The animals were sacrificed and their stomach scored for the severity and the number of gastric ulcers. Methanolic extract (500 mg/kg) significantly reduced both ulcer parameters (***p < 0.001 and **p < 0.01, respectively). Aqueous and organic extract significant decreased severity score at 5 and 10 mg/kg to (**p < 0.01 and ***p < 0.001, respectively), and at 250 and 500 mg/kg (***p < 0.001), respectively; while gastric ulcers’ number resulted significantly reduced only at 10 and mg/kg (*p < 0.05), and at 500 mg/kg (**p < 0.01), respectively. On the other hand, aqueous extract significantly increased the mucosal gastric content of cAMP (*p < 0.05) and NR2A and NR2B subunits (*p < 0.05 and **P < 0.01, respectively) at 5 mg/kg. Organic extract showed also a significant cytotoxic effect at 500 and 1000 mg/kg with a 3T3 cell viability reduction of 43.6 % (**P < 0.01) and 92.1% (***P < 0.001), respectively. Borago aqueous extract at 10 mg/kg could be considered as a potential protective agent against stress-induced ulcers and it is reasonable to possibly ascribe such protective activity to a modulation of the NR2A and NR2B subunits expression.
... The adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola root water-acloholic extracts have been confirmed in many preclinical studies (Saratikov, 1976;Saratikov et al., 1968;Aksenova et al., 1968;Panossian and Wagner, 2005;Jafari et al., 2007;Perfumi and Mattioli, 2007;Mattioli et al., 2008;van Diermen et al., 2009;Abidov et al., 2003;Iaremiȋ and Grigor'eva, 2002;Qin et al., 2008;Siwicki et al., 2007;Wang et al., 2009;Pooja et al., 2009;Zdanowska et al., 2009) and several controlled clinical trials (Aksenova et al., 1968a,b;Dieamantet al., 2008;Bystritsky et al., 2008;Earnest et al., 2004;Xu et al., 2003;Ha et al., 2002;Zhang et al., 1999;Fintelmann and Gruenwald, 2007;Spasov et al., 2000;Bocharova et al., 1995). ...
... In numerous in vitro and in vivo studies on animals, CNS stimulating (Saratikov, 1976;Sokolov et al., 1985Sokolov et al., , 1990Barnaulov et al., 1986;Saratikov et al., 1968;1978a, b;Aksenova et al., 1968a, b;Kurkin et al., 2003;Panossian and Wagner, 2005;Perfumi and Mattioli, 2007 ;Mattioli et al., 2008;Qin et al., 2008), neuro-,cardio-and hepato-protective effects Iaremiȋ and Grigor'eva, 2002;Saratikov and Krasnov, 2004), lifespan increasing (Jafari et al., 2007;Wiegant et al., 2009), MOA inhibitory (van Diermen et al., 2009, immunotropic (Siwicki et al., 2007), antiviral , anti-inflammatory (Pooja et al., 2009) and antibacterial activity (Zdanowska et al., 2009) has been demonstrated. ...
... Phytomedicine 68 (2020) 153143 constituent ginsenoside Rb1, has been studied (Ahmed et al., 2016). The anti-inflammatory activity of R. rosea has been reported in vivo (Bawa and Khanum, 2009) and the neuroprotective effect of a crude extract of R. rosea and its main constituents against iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production and has been studied in vitro in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells (Bawa and Khanum, 2009;Lee et al., 2013). Moreover, R. rosea derivatives were also found to possess neuroprotective activity (Xian et al., 2014). ...
... Phytomedicine 68 (2020) 153143 constituent ginsenoside Rb1, has been studied (Ahmed et al., 2016). The anti-inflammatory activity of R. rosea has been reported in vivo (Bawa and Khanum, 2009) and the neuroprotective effect of a crude extract of R. rosea and its main constituents against iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production and has been studied in vitro in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells (Bawa and Khanum, 2009;Lee et al., 2013). Moreover, R. rosea derivatives were also found to possess neuroprotective activity (Xian et al., 2014). ...
Article
Background: Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) has been used for years in the traditional medicine of several countries as an adaptogen drug, able to preserve homeostasis in response to stress stimuli. Currently R. rosea roots and rhizome are classified as a traditional herbal medicinal product for temporary relief of symptoms of stress, such as fatigue and sensation of weakness by the European Medicines Agency. Hypothesis/Purpose: Increasing evidences suggest the involvement of neuroinflammation in response to stress. However, whether the modulation of neuroinflammatory parameters could be involved in the anti-stress effect of R. rosea has been barely studied. Thus, the aim of this work is to investigate the possible modulation of molecular inflammatory processes elicited by a R. rosea roots and rhizome ethanolic extract in an in vitro model of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Methods: BV2 cells were stimulated with CRH 100 nM and changes in cell viability, cytokines production and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) levels were evaluated. Intracellular pathways related to inflammation, such as nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activation were also analyzed. Results: We found that R. rosea extract (2.7% m/m rosavin and 1% m/m salidroside) 20 µg/ml was able to counteract the neuroinflammatory effect of CRH by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation with a mechanism of action involving the modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MKK2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and c-Jun n-terminal kinase (JNK), resulting in a reduction of HSP70 expression. Conclusion: This work expands the knowledge of the intracellular mechanisms involved in R. rosea anti-stress activity and may be useful for the study of other adaptogen drugs.
... Rhodiola rosea extracts first demonstrated its antiinflammation activity in formaldehyde-induced arthritis and carrageenan-and nystatin-induced paw oedema at a concentration of 250 mg/kg body weight in rat model [49]. Rhodiola rosea extracts more effectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Phospholipase A2 activity than COX1 activity [49]. ...
... Rhodiola rosea extracts first demonstrated its antiinflammation activity in formaldehyde-induced arthritis and carrageenan-and nystatin-induced paw oedema at a concentration of 250 mg/kg body weight in rat model [49]. Rhodiola rosea extracts more effectively inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Phospholipase A2 activity than COX1 activity [49]. Salidroside also exerted its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) through the blocking of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways both in vitro in RAW 264.7 macrophages and in vivo in mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide [132,133]. ...
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Purpose of review: Rhodiola rosea extracts have been used as a dietary supplement in healthy populations, including athletes, to non-specifically enhance the natural resistance of the body to both physical and behavior stresses for fighting fatigue and depression. We summarize the information with respect to the new pharmacological activities of Rhodiola rosea extracts and its underlying molecular mechanisms in this review article. Recent findings: In addition to its multiplex stress-protective activity, Rhodiola rosea extracts have recently demonstrated its anti-aging, anti-inflammation, immunostimulating, DNA repair and anti-cancer effects in different model systems. Molecular mechanisms of Rhodiola rosea extracts's action have been studied mainly along with one of its bioactive compounds, salidroside. Both Rhodiola rosea extracts and salidroside have contrast molecular mechanisms on cancer and normal physiological functions. For cancer, Rhodiola rosea extracts and salidroside inhibit the mTOR pathway and reduce angiogenesis through down-regulation of the expression of HIF-1α/HIF-2α. For normal physiological functions, Rhodiola rosea extracts and salidroside activate the mTOR pathway, stimulate paracrine function and promote neovascularization by inhibiting PHD3 and stabilizing HIF-1α proteins in skeletal muscles. In contrast to many natural compounds, salidroside is water-soluble and highly bioavailable via oral administration and concentrated in urine by kidney excretion. Summary: Rhodiola rosea extracts and salidroside can impose cellular and systemic benefits similar to the effect of positive lifestyle interventions to normal physiological functions and for anti-cancer. The unique pharmacological properties of Rhodiola rosea extracts or salidroside deserve further investigation for cancer chemoprevention, in particular for human urinary bladder cancer.
... Rhodiola sachalinensis A. BOR belongs to the family Crassulaceae, and the root of the plant (Gao-shanhong-jing-tian in Chinese), Rhodiolae Radix, have been widely used as a hemostatic, antibechic, tonic, and endermic liniment for burns and contusions in traditional Chinese medicine (Khanum et al., 2006;Ming et al., 2005). Many studies have reported that Rhodiolae Radix has many important biological activities, including adaptogenic, antihypoxia, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antivirus, antidiabetic, anticancer, immune enhancing and sexually stimulating properties (Bawa and Khanum, 2009;Kim et al., 2007;Li et al., 2011). Rhodiolae Radix is reported to contain a range of biologically active substance including phenylpropanoids (rosavins, rosin); phenylethanol derivatives (salidroside, tyrosol), organic acids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, tannins and phenolic glycosides (Gupta et al., 2008). ...
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The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of polysaccharide from Rhodiolae Radix (PRR) on physical fatigue using a forced swimming test in male mice. 96 mice were divided randomly into four groups based on body weight (n = 24). One of the groups was the control group; the others were PRR supplemented groups (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight). Forced swimming test of mice were carried out after 28 days of PRR administration, and the blood lactic acid (BLA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), liver glycogen and muscle glycogen contents were determined. The data suggest that PRR can extend the exhaustive swimming time of the mice, as well as increase the tissue glycogen contents, and decrease the BLA and BUN contents. These results indicated that PRR had significant anti-fatigue effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/icpj.v2i3.13579 International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, February 2013, 2(3): 49-52
... Approaches designed to retard the aging process are expected to have therapeutic value with respect to AS prevention and treatment. Salidroside is a major active ingredient from the medicinal plant Rhodiola rosea L. and is commonly used as an antioxidant (21), anti-inflammatory (22) and an anti-lipid agent (23). Although salidroside has been shown to be useful in treating various types of diseases, its effects on vascular endothelial cell senescence-related AS development are still unclear. ...
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Aging is the major risk factor for diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, but little is known about the relationship between atherosclerosis (AS) and age‑related declines in vascular structure and function. Here, we used histological analyses in combination with molecular biology techniques to show that lipid deposition in endothelial cell was accompanied by aging and growth arrest. Endothelial cell senescence is sufficient to cause AS; however, we found that salidroside reduced intracellular lipid deposition, slowed the progression of endothelial cell senescence and inhibited the expression of the senescence‑related molecules and phosphorylated the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Further study confirmed that salidroside increased the percent of S phase cells in oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (ox‑LDL)‑treated endothelial cells. Collectively, vascular endothelial cell function declined with age and AS, and our data suggested that salidroside prevented ox‑LDL‑treated endothelial cell senescence by promoting cell cycle progression from G0/G1 phase to S phase via Rb phosphorylation. We demonstrated for the first time the complex interactions between AS and endothelial cell senescence, and we believe that salidroside represents a promising therapy for senescence‑related AS.
... Phytocomponents reported byWong et al. (2008) 2007;Perfumi and Mattioli 2007;Mattioli et al. 2008;Diermen et al. 2009;Qin et al. 2008;Siwicki et al. 2007;Wang et al. 2009;Pooja et al. 2009;Bany et al. 2009). ...
Chapter
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Rhodiola is one of the important plants studied for its medicinal properties in ancient time. Some of the well-known and mostly evaluated species of genus Rhodiola are Rhodiola rosea, Rhodiola imbricata, Rhodiola heterodonta, Rhodiola quadrifida, etc. These species are known to possess potent biological/pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, leprosy, anti-inflammatory, antistress, etc. These plants grow at a height of around 4000–5000 m above the sea level with a low temperature of around −10 °C, thus surviving in very harsh conditions. Their survival in such harsh conditions is due to their adaptation in that environment as well as the kind of compounds these plants produce in their biological mechanism. The present chapter deals with the phytochemical composition, bioactivity, and in vitro analysis of some important Rhodiola species.
... The genus Rhodiola L. (Crassulaceae) consists of nearly 200 species, where approximately 20 are used in traditional medicine in Asia [1]. One of them is Rhodiola rosea L., known as golden root or arctic root. ...
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The aim of the study was to compare the chemical composition of the water and hydromethanolic extracts of R. rosea commercial samples in relation to their biological activity. For this purpose, the HPLC method was used for the determination of eleven phenolic compounds and AAS/AES was used for determination of five essential elements. Moreover, the contents of total phenolic, total flavonoid, total phenolic acids, and L(+)-ascorbic acid were determined. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), and cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays, while the inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE enzymes was determined using Ellman’s method. The results showed that the hydromethanolic extracts of R. rosea were richer in phenolic compounds and showed higher antioxidant and neurobiological activity than the water extracts. However, the water extracts gave higher contents of determined elements. Among the individual phenolic compounds gallic acid (2.33 mg/g DW) and sinapic acid (386.44 µg/g DW) had the highest concentrations in the hydromethanolic and water extracts, respectively. Moreover, the most extracts were observed to be more efficient on BChE. Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated a high positive relationship between chemical composition and biological activity in both extracts of R. rosea.
... G. uralensis or 'licorice' is used as an anti-ulcer agent that is claimed to function by detoxifying the digestive system and liver [8,9]; its use is reported in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases [10]. R. rosea or 'rose root' is reportedly a stimulant or adaptogen for the immune system, reducing stress and haematotoxicity [11][12][13]. The use of these herbs is broad, however many of these uses are linked to inflammation. ...
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There is global demand for better quality control (QC) of medicinal herbs including standardisation of bio-active chemical components and pharmacological testing. The quantitative variability of key chemical markers in A. sinensis, G. uralensis and R. rosea from several sources and the pharmacological activity was determined to confirm that the chemical markers’ variability is linked to the biological activity. To quantify the chemical variation, three novel, simple and rapid UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS methods were developed and validated. The qualitative chemical variability of the bio-actives was further studied using 1H NMR metabolomics and principal component analysis (PCA). The pharmacological anti-inflammatory activity of the commercials extracts and marker compounds was assessed using the Griess reagent NO scavenging assay. The A. sinensis samples exhibited the greatest chemical fold-variation while G. uralensis showed the least chemical variability. R. rosea samples indicate the presence of other Rhodiola sub-species. The PCA clustering was consistent with observed trends and identified adulteration. The bioactivity of the selected marker compounds was linked to the extracts activity. The use of PCA analysis and in vitro anti-inflammatory testing improve and provide rationale for better QC of herbal extracts.
... 167 Another pharmacological research using 40% ethanol extract of R. rosea (Extract 54) revealed its anti-inflammatory activities against acute and subacute inflammation at the dosage of 250 mg/kg. Meanwhile, it also exhibited an inhibitory effect on nystatin-induced edema under a dose-dependent manner (50,150, and 250 mg/kg), which might be associated with its inhibitory activities over cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), COX-2, and phospholipase A2. 21 In combination with B-vitamins, a R. rosea 70% ethanol extract (Extract 55) presented an antinociceptive effect in a synergistic manner through targeting nitric oxide/cGMP/K(+) channel pathway dose-dependently (10-177 mg/kg). 168 In earlier research of R. sachalinensis water extract (Extract 56), the Extract 56 was found to increase NO synthesis in IFN-γ-primed RAW 264.7 cells, 22 providing a possible mechanism. ...
Article
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Rhodiola species, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, have long been used as an adaptogen, tonic, antidepressant, and antistress medicine or functional food in Asia and Europe. Due to the valuable application, the growing demand of Rhodiola species has led to a rapid decrease in resource content. This review aims to summarize the integrated research progress of seven mainstream Rhodiola species. We first outline both traditional and current use of Rhodiola for the treatment of various diseases. A detailed summary and comparison of chemical, pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical studies of various Rhodiola species highlight recent scientific advances and gaps, which gives insights into the understanding of Rhodiola application and would be helpful to improve the situation of biological resources and diversities of Rhodiola plants.
... The paw thickness was recorded from the ventral to the dorsal surfaces using a digital caliper (Mitutoyo, Sakado, Japan) immediately before carrageenan injection and again at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after that. The data were expressed as the variation in the paw thickness (mm) and were compared to pre-injection values 19 . Then, under ether anesthesia, blood samples were collected from the heart of the animal and serum was separated for malondialdehyde (MDA) assessment. ...
Article
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Pramipexole is a dopamine (DA) agonist (D2 subfamily receptors) that widely use in the treatment of Parkinson's diseases. Some epidemiological and genetic studies propose a role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. To our knowledge, there is no study regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of pramipexol. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate anti-inflammatory effect of pramipexol. Anti-inflammatory effects of pramipexole were studied in three well-characterized animal models of inflammation, including carrageenan- or formalin-induced paw inflammation in rats, and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema in mice. The animals received pramipexol (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg, I.P.) 30 min before subplantar injection of carrageenan or formalin. Pramipexol (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) was also injected 30 min before topical application of TPA on the ear mice. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated in the carrageenan test. Finally, pathological examination of the inflamed tissues was carried out. Pramipexole significantly inhibited paw inflammation 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after carrageenan challenge compared with the control group (p < .001). Pramipexol also showed considerable anti-inflammatory activity against formalin-evoked paw edema over a period of 24 h (p < .001). TPA-induced ear edema was markedly decreased by pramipexol (p < .001). The pathological evaluation of the paws and ears revealed that pramipexole reduced tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, and subcutaneous edema. Pramipexole did not alter the increased serum levels of MDA due to carrageenan injection. These data clearly indicate that pramipexol possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity. It seems that its antioxidants do not play an important role in these effects.
... Utilizing the Drosophila model system provides an integrative approach to study the relationship between an herbal extract supplementation and the impact it may have on the gut microbial composition. Another species of the Rhodiola family, Rhodiola crenulata, also exhibits multiple pharmacological traits like that of R. rosea, such as stress protection, neuroprotection, high altitude sickness mitigation, and anti-inflammatory activity [16][17][18][19]. Moreover, R. crenulata has been demonstrated to treat metabolic disorders in rats [20] and increase intracellular antimicrobial peptide expression while improving gut morphology in fruit flies [21]. ...
Article
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Background The root extract of Rhodiola rosea has historically been used in Europe and Asia as an adaptogen, and similar to ginseng and Shisandra, shown to display numerous health benefits in humans, such as decreasing fatigue and anxiety while improving mood, memory, and stamina. A similar extract in the Rhodiola family, Rhodiola crenulata, has previously been shown to confer positive effects on the gut homeostasis of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Although, R. rosea has been shown to extend lifespan of many organisms such as fruit flies, worms and yeast, its anti-aging mechanism remains uncertain. Using D. melanogaster as our model system, the purpose of this work was to examine whether the anti-aging properties of R. rosea are due to its impact on the microbial composition of the fly gut. Results Rhodiola rosea treatment significantly increased the abundance of Acetobacter, while subsequently decreasing the abundance of Lactobacillales of the fly gut at 10 and 40 days of age. Additionally, supplementation of the extract decreased the total culturable bacterial load of the fly gut, while increasing the overall quantifiable bacterial load. The extract did not display any antimicrobial activity when disk diffusion tests were performed on bacteria belonging to Microbacterium, Bacillus, and Lactococcus. Conclusions Under standard and conventional rearing conditions, supplementation of R. rosea significantly alters the microbial community of the fly gut, but without any general antibacterial activity. Further studies should investigate whether R. rosea impacts the gut immunity across multiple animal models and ages. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13099-018-0239-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... The genus Rhodiola (Crassulaceae) consists of more than 200 species, of which about 20 species (including Rhodiola rosea, Rhodiola alterna, Rhodiola brevipetiolata, Rhodiola crenulata, Rhodiola sachalinensis, and Rhodiola sacra) have been used as traditional medicines in Asia and Eastern Europe (Chiang, Chen, Wu, Wu, & Wen, 2015;Pooja, Bawa, & Khanum, 2009). Among them, R. rosea is the most well-known and the research of pharmacological effect has been widely studied. ...
Article
Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata) has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine in Eastern Europe and Asia. R. crenulata has been used as an antiacute mountain sickness herbal medicine in Tibet since ancient times and, which is included in the Pharmacopoeia of China. However, although it has been used for a long time in traditional medicine, research on the various effects of R. crenulata is still insufficient. The present study was aimed to investigate anti-inflammatory effect of R. crenulata water extract (RCW) on two macrophages (RAW 264.7 cell and mice peritoneal macrophage cells). We found that RCW inhibit expression levels of iNOS, MAPK, NF-κB proteins and induced autophagy related molecules. Also, RCW reduced inflammatory mediator, NO, IL-6 and IL-1β on both LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. These results suggest that RCW down-regulates inflammation via MyD88 dependent pathway and induces autophagy.
... Supernatants fluids were stored at -80 °C until measurements. Histamine and serotonin concentration in tissue was assayed using fluorometric methods and measured at 400 nm excitation and 510 nm emission wave-lengths [17]. The quantity of PGE2 and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) in supernatants was determined by ELISA standard kits (RayBiotech, Inc., USA) [18]. ...
Article
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Original Research Article Background: Standardized extracts of Boswellia serrata (BSE) exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties with including the molecular targets different from action of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). The hypothesis that prevention of activation of NF-kB and TNF-α hyperproduction and disturbances in vasoconstrictors and vasodilators prostaglandins ratio could be critical in the treatment of acute inflammation was tested throughout using the carrageenan-induced paw edema (CIPE) model in rats. Methods and findings: Immediately after carrageenan injection (1.0 mg subcatenously in paw) 36 Wistar male rats were randomly assigned control I-rats with CIPE without treatment (receive placebo (gel base) and 2 main groups: I-receive 200 mg/paw of BSE based Emulgel; and main II-receive 100 mg/paw of diclofenac-based Emulgel. The negative control (normal) group was injected with 50 μl of saline in the right paw. The pharmacological screening revealed that the reduction of edema in early phase and in late phase of inflammation produced both gels in carrageenan-induced inflammation. Treatment with BSE-based Emulgel leads to markedly decreases of histamine and TNF-kB (p65) in paw tissues. Treatment with diclofenac-based Emulgel, decreased the level of prostaglandin (PG) E2 by 50% and content of PGF2α by 60%. Action of BSE-based Emulgel leads to the decrease the level of PGE2 by 25% and content of PGF2α by 33%. As results, PGE2/ PGF2α ratio under treatment with BSE-based Emulgel increased up to normal level and significantly did not changed under diclofenac-based Emulgel. Conclusions: Obtained results suggested promising prospect of BSE-based topical formulations as an anti-inflammatory alternative or combined therapy with NSAID in inflammatory disease.
... For arctic root (Rhodiolae rosea) different clinical [24,25] and non-clinical [26,27] effects have been described over the last centuries. Rhodiolae is referred to as a well-distributed adaptogen [28] and is generally used for reduction of stress-related syndromes, such as fatigue and burnout [29]. ...
Article
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Background: This study evaluated the definition, the prevalence of use and the governmental regulations of phytotherapy and four examples of herbal medicine are discussed in more detail. Results: This research group evaluated 4 topics: St. John's wort for treating (mild to moderate) depression, tomato extract as a platelet inhibitor, Rhodiola against stress-related fatigue and cranberries for the treatment of urinary tract infections. Conclusion: The findings were diverse and must be individually taken into account. Evidence for efficacy varies within and between the four examples. An explanation for the lack of reproducibility of findings from preclinical and clinical experiments might be the insufficient standardization of herbal medicines. There is no scientific reason why phytotherapy should not be investigated with the same rigor as conventional drugs to establish the efficacy and potential risks. Meanwhile, it is concluded that care is essential when using herbal medicine in the daily routine and informing patients about potential shortcomings and dangers of herbal medicines should be considered a duty of pharmacists and physicians.
... Watercress is considered an important food supplementation for preventing cancer and related diseases, especially breast cancer risk (3). Other health benefits of watercress can be mentioned including asthma, hypertension, renal colic, and diabetes (4). Several studies have confirmed the antioxidant effects of watercress in vivo and in vitro conditions (5,6). ...
Article
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Background and purpose: Previously, we reported the anti-inflammatory properties of Nasturtium officinale (watercress) in several models of acute inflammation. This study was designed to explore the effects of topical and systemic administrations of N. officinale in the two chronic inflammatory models and to evaluate the role of TNF-α and IL-1β in these effects. Experimental approach: Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods were used to estimate the extract’s total phenol and flavonoid content, respectively. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was carried out and TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations in the carrageenan-treated paw tissue were determined. Formalin injection into rat hind paws (7 days) and the application of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on mouse ears (9 days) were used to simulate chronic inflammation. Furthermore, a histological assessment of the inflamed tissues was carried out. Findings/Results: The extract’s flavonoid and phenolic contents were 90.26 ± 4.81 mg rutin equivalents/g and 68 ± 8.16 gallic acid equivalents/g gallic acid, respectively. N. officinale pretreatment in all doses administered considerably decreased carrageenan-induced edema. The extract also reduced IL-1β levels in carrageenan- treated paws while did not affect TNF-α levels. Oral and topical administrations of N. officinale considerably reserved the paw and ear edema. The extract also ameliorated the tissue injuries due to formalin and TPA challenges. Conclusion and implications: The data confirmed the topical and systemic anti-inflammatory effects of watercress against two chronic models of inflammation. They suggested that these properties are not related to TNF-α but could be attributed to inhibition of IL-1β and inhibition of leukocyte infiltration.
... Furthermore, methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide have been reported to be valid in PQ poisoning [9]. Some studies also demonstrated that Rhodiola rosea exerts anti-inflammatory [10] and relieves pulmonary edema in rats [11]. Salidroside (SDS), a glucoside of tyrosol isolated from the plant Rhodiola rosea, is thought to be responsible for the antidepressant and anx-iolytic actions [12]. ...
Article
This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of salidroside (SDS) via suppressing the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in rat acute lung injury (ALI) induced by paraquat (PQ) and to explore the potential molecular mechanisms. A total of 90 male rats (190-210 g) were randomly and evenly divided into 9 groups: control group, PQ groups (4 groups), and PQ + SDS groups (4 groups). The rats in control group were treated with equal volume of saline intraperitoneally. The rats in PQ groups were exposed to PQ solution (20 mg/kg) by gastric gavage for 1, 6, 24, and 72 hours, respectively. The rats in PQ + SDS groups were intraperitoneally injected once with SDS (10 mg/kg) every 12 hours after PQ perfusion. Pulmonary pathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The expression of TGF-β1 and the mRNA were evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) scoring and real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR), respectively. SDS alleviated the symptoms of PQ induced ALI. Moreover, SDS reduced the expression of the inflammatory cytokine TGF-β1 including TGF-β1 IHC scores (at each time point from 6 to 72 hours after PQ perfusion) and mRNA level (at each time point from 1 to 72 hours after PQ perfusion) compared with PQ groups (P < 0.05). SDS alleviated the pulmonary symptoms of PQ-induced ALI, at least partially, by repressing inflammatory cell infiltration and the expression of TGF-β1 resulting in delayed lung fibrosis.
... The adaptogenic plant Rhodiola rosea is used as a medicinal in traditional medical practices worldwide and has been shown to have anti-in ammatory and gut microbiome-modulating properties [31][32][33] . As an adaptogen, R. rosea represents an important category of pharmacological substances that are known to aid the body in resisting a wide variety of stressors (i.e. ...
Preprint
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Type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent endocrine disease in the world, and recently the gut microbiota have become a potential target for its management. Recent studies have illustrated that this disease may predispose individuals to certain microbiome compositions, and treatments like metformin have been shown to change gut microbiota and their associated metabolic pathways. However, given the limitations and side effects associated with pharmaceuticals currently being used for therapy of diabetes, there is a significant need for alternative treatments. In this study, we investigated the effects of a root extract from Rhodiola rosea in a Leptin receptor knockout ( db/db ) mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Our previous work showed that Rhodiola rosea had anti-inflammatory and gut microbiome-modulating properties, while extending lifespan in several animal models. In this study, treatment with Rhodiola rosea improved the insulin response, and significantly decreased serum lipopolysaccharide and C-reactive protein levels. We hypothesize that these changes may in part reflect the modulation of the microbiota, resulting in improved gut barrier integrity and decreasing the translocation of inflammatory biomolecules into the bloodstream. These findings indicate that Rhodiola rosea is an attractive candidate for further research in the management of type 2 diabetes.
... Rhodiola rosea L., a golden root is included in folk and officinal medicine due to its powerful adaptogenic effect [1]. It is applied also as substitute of tea and additive in tonics. ...
Conference Paper
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The composition of Rhodiola rosea L. lipophylic substances was studied. Acidic and neutral components were identified by gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry. With methyl-tert-butyl ether as an extractant instead of the volatile solvent diethyl ether, lipophylic extract was obtained. Methyl-tert-butyl ether used as an extraction solvent for raw materials has all the advantages of diethyl ether, being free of its disadvantages. It does not form peroxides or produce elevated partial gas pressure due to its higher boiling point. As a result, comparison with databases identified some triterpene and aliphatic acids with chain lengths 12 to 30 carbon atoms, including saturated, unsaturated, and dibasic acids. In addition to the components known from the literature, more than 50 triterpene and aliphatic compounds were detected in the unsaponifiable residue for the first time.
... Under these conditions, we can indicate that the capsaicin effect could be an adaptogen. We can then define an adaptogen as a class of molecule that enabled an organism to resist adverse stressors of any type, including physical, chemical, or biological [43,44]. ...
Article
Although acute stress generally exerts positive effects on the immune system, chronic stress typically causes immunosuppression via the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. In this study, the effects of capsaicin (1.28 mg/kg intraperitoneally [i.p.] for 7 days) on immune parameters were evaluated under conditions of chronic stress. Capsaicin treatment significantly increased the immune response as evaluated by the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and splenocyte proliferation assays- It also is able to rescue the splenocytes of the apoptosis induced by stress. The capsaicin treatment increased the production of Th1 cytokines and decreased the production of Th2 cytokines and TGF-β1 in the plasma and culture supernatants of immunosuppressed mice, which is associated with the modulation of Th2 induced by stress cells. Moreover, the production of corticosterone significantly decreased in capsaicin-treated animals as compared to control groups. The capsaicin treatment further attenuated the immunosuppression induced by the corticosterone treatment (40 mg/kg i.p. for 7 days), albeit less potently, as exhibited in the DTH response. Intriguingly, the capsaicin treatment decreased the induction of IL-10, IL-4, and TGF-β1 through high doses of corticosterone, indicating direct cellular immunomodulation. These results show, that capsaicin is able to modulate chronic stress-induced immunosuppression, mediating corticosterone released inhibition, but also, that capsaicin significantly modulates the pharmacological action of corticosterone in vivo.
... Salidroside is a natural phenolic compound widely existed in the plants from Rhodiola and Ligustrum species. It has been reported with various activities and broad pharmacological application prospect, such as anti-age [9], anti-fatigue [10], anti-cancer [11], anti-myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury [12], anti-inflammatory [13], improving glucose and lipid metabolism [14,15], anti-arrhythmia [16] and enhancing angiogenesis [17]. Recently, we found that salidroside ameliorated atherosclerosis-induced disturbances on glyerolipid and glycerophospholipid metabolism in liver [18]. ...
Article
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Salidroside is a kind of phenylethanoid glycoside and widespread in the plants from Rhodiola and Ligustrum species. Our previous study has reported that salidroside can prevent atherosclerosis progression by ameliorating glyerolipid and glycerophospholipid metabolism in apoE-deficient (apoE−/−) mice. However, its effect on neutral lipids and underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism of salidroside action from the perspective of metabolic regulation by integrating metabonomics and transcriptomics pattern. The results showed that salidroside significantly reduced cholesterols, esterified cholesterols, fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids and triacylclycerols biosynthesis in liver through down-regulating the genes expressions of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (Srebf1 and Srebf2). The expressions of SREBPs targeted and downstream genes, such as the encoding genes of fatty acid synthase (Fasn), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (Gpam), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr), and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (Pcsk9), were also inhibited after salidroside administration. ATP citrate lyase gene (Acly) that encodes an important enzyme producing acetyl-CoA for cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis significantly decreased after treatment as well. Moreover, one of ketone body products, 3-hydroxybutyrate, was significantly up-regulated in drug-treated group, indicating that fatty acid degradation was accelerated by salidroside at the same time. Our findings identify salidroside as a regulator of lipid homeostasis in atherosclerotic mice, suggesting its potential to be an alternative medicine for lowering the risks of atherosclerosis-related diseases.
... The main chemical constituents of R. crenulata are phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, phenolic acids and so on [5][6][7][8][9][10]. Modern pharmacological investigations have revealed that Rhodiola preparations exhibit antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-aging, anti-fatigue [11,12], neuroprotective [13], anti-inflammatory [14], antidepressive, anxiolytic, nootropic, life-span increasing and central nervous system (CNS) stimulating activities [15]. Due to the diverse biological activities of R. crenulata, the chemical constituents of R. crenulata and the bioactivities of the isolates were investigated by our research group. ...
... The main chemical constituents of R. crenulata are phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, phenolic acids and so on5678910. Modern pharmacological investigations have revealed that Rhodiola preparations exhibit antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-aging, anti-fatigue [11,12], neuroprotective [13], anti-inflammatory [14], antidepressive, anxiolytic, nootropic, life-span increasing and central nervous system (CNS) stimulating activities [15]. Due to the diverse biological activities of R. crenulata, the chemical constituents of R. crenulata and the bioactivities of the isolates were investigated by our research group. ...
Article
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In the present study, two new phenolic compounds 1 and 11, a pair of lignan isomers 12 and 13 with their absolute configurations established for the first time, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the roots of Rhodiola crenulata, together with 13 known phenolic compounds, and their structures were elucidated via NMR, HRESIMS, UV, IR and CD analyses. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant activities using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. Ten of them exhibited significant antioxidant activities compared to ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the inducibilities of the isolated compounds to IFN-γ production were also assessed. Compounds 1, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14 and 15 could moderately stimulate IFN-γ expression.
... Юсупова [26] указывают, что родиола розовая оказывает общетонизирующий, противовоспалительный, иммуностимулирующий, ДНК-репарационный, противоопухолевый, гипогликемический [27], антиоксидантный, органопротективный эффекты, улучшает когнитивные функции. Экстракт родиолы розовой ингибирует циклооксигеназу-1 и -2, фосфолипазу А 2 [28]. Y. Li et al. [29], M.W. Liu et al. [30] обнаружили, что вещество салидрозид, содержащееся в этом растении, активирует протеинкиназу mTOR, стимулирует паракринную функцию, способствует неоваскуляризации путем ингибирования PHD3 и стабилизации белков HIF-1α в скелетных мышцах, предотвращает апоптоз Т-лимфоцитов, тем самым оказывая противоопухолевое действие. ...
Article
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In present medical practice adaptogens and antihypoxants are a promising, but still insufficiently studied group of medicines. The largest evidence base among plant adaptogens was developed for ginseng, aralia, eleutherococcus, lemongrass, rhodiola, leuzea, sterculia. Antihypoxants, like trimetazidine, meldonium, succinic and -aminobutyric acid medications are included in the clinical guidelines. They have the most pronounced antihypoxic effects in a variety of diseases and pathological conditions, accompanied by impaired energy metabolism in the tissues. But their effect is not always high due to the variety of etiological factors causing hypoxia. Tetrahydropyrido[2,1-b][1,3,5]thiadiazine derivatives characterized by various pharmacodynamic effects with low toxicity which opens up prospects for a detailed further study. In animal experiments, the most pronounced adaptogenic and antidepressant effects is exerted by compounds TD-0348 and TD-0479, superior in strength to the antihypoxants used in modern clinical practice, the classic plant adaptogen ginseng.
... The genus Rhodiola (Hong Jing Tian; Crassulaceae) consists of more than 200 species, of which approximately 20, including Rhodiola rosea, Rhodiola alterna, Rhodiola crenulata, Rhodiola kirilowi, and Rhodiola sacra, are used as traditional medicines in Asia [9]. Rhodiola plant extracts are traditionally used in tonics and adaptogen, antidepressant, and anti-inflammatory drugs [10,11]. ...
Article
Some medicinal plants have been known as immunostimulants, and the medicinal plants extract has been used to control the outbreak of the disease in aquaculture for many years. In this study, a total of 270 crucian carp (30 ± 5 g) were randomly distributed in 9 aquaria (55 cm l × 40 cm w × 50 cm h) and divided into three feeding groups including 0 (Control), 50 mg kg⁻¹ (Diet A) and 100 mg kg⁻¹ (Diet B) of salidroside. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β, TNFα, MYD88, CXCL-8, TGF-β, and IL-11) in the kidney had a significant increase when the crucian carp fed with Diet B for 4 weeks (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the expression of IL-1β, TNFα, and CXCL-8 in the spleen was significantly up-regulated when the fish fed with Diet B (P < 0.05). Higher serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and complement C3 content were found in the fish which fed with salidroside-supplemented diet. Our results also proved that fish fed with salidroside-supplemented diet for four weeks, especially at a concentration of 100 mg kg⁻¹ diet, improved the protection of crucian carp against A. hydrophila. The amount of A. hydrophila in the kidney and spleen was significantly decreased in salidroside-supplemented diet groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that the addition of salidroside for four weeks can improve the immune response of crucian carp and increase the protection against the pathogen, especially at the concentration of 100 mg kg⁻¹ diet. The protective effect of the salidroside to the crucian carp could be used as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling fish diseases in aquaculture.
... Rhodiola rosea contains more than 20 chemical compounds, including essential oils, phenylpropanoids, phenylpropanoid glycosides, phenolic acids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, proanthocyanidins, and cyanogenic glycosides (14,43). Among these compounds, proanthocyanidins have been reported to considerably engage in bioactivities by inducing antioxidative (48) and anti-inflammatory effects (3). However, the effect of proanthocyanidins on vision has yet to be reported. ...
Article
Several retinal degenerative diseases cause vision loss and retinal cell death. Currently, people face prolonged exposure to digital screens, rendering vision protection from light exposure a critical topic. In this study, we designed a complex lutein formula (CLF) by combining several natural compounds: Calendula officinalis, Lycium barbarum, Vaccinium myrtillus, Cassia obtusifolia, and Rhodiola rosea. In addition, we evaluated the protective effects of the formula on retinal functions in an animal model for light-induced retinal degeneration. We employed electroretinography to analyse retinal function, and conducted a histological examination of the morphological changes in the retina treated under various conditions. We revealed that the retinal function in animals exposed to light for 7 days decreased significantly; however, the retinal function of animals that had received the CLF exhibited superior performance, despite light exposure. In addition, a greater portion of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) (i.e. the nuclei of photoreceptors) in these animals was preserved compared with the animals that had not received the formula after 7 days of light exposure. These results revealed that our dietary CLF supplement attenuated retinal function loss resulting from long-term light exposure.
Article
Preclinical Research Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is used for enhancing physical and mental performance. Recent studies demonstrated that R. rosea had anti-inflammatory activity in animal models, for example, carrageenan- and nystatin-induced edema in rats, possibly by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenases-1 and -2. In addition, R. rosea had antinociceptive activity in thermal and chemical pain tests as well as mechanical hyperalgesia. The purpose of the present study was to assess the antihyperalgesic effect of an ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) in a diabetic rat model. Rats were administered a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg, i.p.) and hyperalgesia was evaluated four weeks later. Formalin-evoked (0.5%) flinching was increased in diabetic rats compared with nondiabetic controls Systemic (1-100 mg/kg, i.p.) and local (0.1-10 mg/paw into the dorsal surface of the right hind paw) administration of R. rosea ethanol extract dose-dependently reduced formalin-induced hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. The antihyperalgesic effect of R. rosea was compared with gabapentin. These results suggest that R. rosea ethanol extract may have potential as a treatment for diabetic hyperalgesia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside extracted from Rhodiola rosea L., has antiproliferative effects on tumour cells in mice. However it’s antitumor mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, 4 groups of mice bearing hepatocarcinoma cells were given treatment with vehicle alone, cyclophosphamide (25 mg/kg, i.p.) and salidroside, either 100 or 200 mg/kg (p.o.) for 14 days. The morphology of tumour specimens was analysed by transmission electron microscopy. Apoptotic cells in sections of mouse tumour tissue were analysed using an in situ apoptosis kit. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase 3 mRNA were examined with RT-PCR. The results showed that the tumour weights in groups 100 or 200 mg/kg/day of salidroside were reduced significantly (45.34 and 52.48% respectively), compared to vehicle groups. Salidroside increased apoptotic cells index, e.g. in 200 mg/kg group, it was four times higher compared to the control group. Even more, treatment with salidroside decreased Bcl-2 mRNA expression and increased Bax and caspase 3 mRNA expressions. These indicated that the antitumor mechanism of salidroside may induce tumour cell apoptosis in mice by triggering the mitochondrial-dependent pathway and activation of caspase 3. © 2015, Colegio de Farmaceuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. All rights reserved.
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Adaptogens are the plant-derived biologically active substances that appear to induce a state of non-specific increase of resistance of the organism to diverse assaults that threaten internal homeostasis and improve physical endurance. The pharmacological assessment of adaptogens typically includes evaluation of their stimulating, tonic and stress protective effects in different screening models in which animals are challenged to acute and chronic stress conditions. Another clue to the identity of plant adaptogens are the chemical compounds found in them that may be responsible for the adaptogenic properties. Adaptogenic activity was seen in withania and rhodiola herbs. Mechanisms of action to improve adaptation to stress were as follows: W. somnifera demonstrated activity on the HPA axis, on the CNS and also had an antioxidant action Rhodiola species demonstrated possible CNS activity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.
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Background: Misuse of synthetic antibiotics in livestock leads to the transfer of antibiotic resistant pathogens into humans and deposits toxic residues in meat and milk. There is therefore an urgent need for safe and viable alternative approaches to improve the nutrition and wellbeing of farm animals. An alternative source that has been widely exploited is Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM). These herbs contain several but less toxic bioactive compounds which are generally regarded as biodegradable. Recently, advances in the knowledge of the importance of TCHM have led to a rapid increase in its production and hence, increasing the amount of by-products generated. Such by-products have become a serious environmental challenge because producers regard them as industrial waste and discard them directly. This review summarizes scientific findings on the bioactive compounds in TCHM and TCHM by-products, discusses functional dietary patterns and outlines challenges that may hinder full utilization of TCHM by-products in animal production. Methods: Information for this review was obtained through scientific databases and websites such as Pubmed and Google scholar from 2004 to 2017 using experimental studies on bioactive compounds in TCHM and their effects in animal production. Results: Studies have shown that TCHM by-products contain high amounts of bioactive compounds which confer several nutritional and health benefits to animals and thus could be incorporated as feed additives. Conclusion: The findings for this review indicate that TCHM by-products apart from being a good alternative for synthetic antibiotics could also minimize the current environmental challenges associated with its disposal.
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To investigate the effect of salidroside (Sal) on the inflammatory activation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage cell line J774.1 and its possible mechanism, the cells were treated with PBS, LPS (0.5 µg/mL) or different doses of Sal (5, 25, 125 µg/mL) + LPS (0.5 µg/mL). CCK-8 colorimetric method was used to detect the cell activity. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the contents of TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-2 in the supernatant, and the content of NO in the supernatant was determined by nitrate reductase method. The expression levels of iNOS mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of iNOS protein in cytoplasm and NF-kappaB/p65 (NF-κB/p65) protein in both cytoplasm and nucleus, and DNA binding activity of NF-κB/p65 was detected by using TransAMTM NF-κB/p65 activity assay kit. The results showed that the treatment with 0.5 µg/mL LPS and different doses of Sal (5, 25, 125 µg/mL) for 12 h had no effect on cell viability. Compared with LPS stimulation group, pretreatment with Sal significantly reduced the contents of TNF-α, MCP-1, MIP-2 and NO in culture supernatant induced by LPS in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05), downregulated the expression levels of iNOS mRNA and protein (P < 0.05), decreased the expression level of NF-κB/p65 protein in nucleus (P < 0.05) while accordingly increased that in cytoplasm (P < 0.05), and decreased DNA binding activity of NF-κB/p65 in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). The results suggested that Sal pretreatment can reduce macrophage inflammatory activation induced by LPS, and the mechanism may be through the LPS/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby reducing the excessive expression and secretion of inflammatory mediators and cytokines.
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Natural products are of great surge in the identification of chemopreventive agents and biologically active molecules for the development of new promising therapeutic agents. These agents influence the cascade of biochemical and molecular signalling pathways involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes. The natural agents combat the dogma associated with the most dreaded, unconquered health concern and a multigenic disease- cancer. A category of plants known as adaptogens maintain perturbed homoeostasis, augment adaptations to noxious stimuli (exposure to cold, heat, pain, general stress, infectious organisms) and offer endurance to attenuate several disorders in human beings. The well known adaptogens and immunomodulators such as Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Bacopa monnieri, Emblica officinalis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Asparagus racemosus, Ocimum sanctum and Panax notoginseng claimed to have significant antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties due to the presence of various biologically active chemical compounds. Their immunopotentiating activity is mediated through the modulation of T-cell immunity biochemical factors, transcription factors, some genes and factors associated with tumor development and progression. The combinatory formulation of active immunostimulating constituents from these plants may provide better homeostasis. These immunostimulant factors suggest their potential therapeutic significance in adjuvant or supportive therapy in cancer treatment. Full Text link: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1VrBc2hIRJDYgW
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This review is devoted to adaptogens, plant products capable of producing nonspecific responses in the human body, resulting in increasing the resistance against multiple stressors (physical, chemical or biological) and capable of having a normalizing effect to the human body. Adaptogens must be non-toxic, harmless, capable of not influencing normal body functions more than required, and capable of treating depression, a common neuropsychiatric illness, the importance of which is increasing by number of new patients every year. Number of plants are able to produce natural compounds, which meet the criteria of becoming adaptogens. The most known of them are used in traditional medicine for centuries. This review summarizes data from several most important plant sources of adaptogens, however, it does not cover the field of adaptogens in all its variability. Based on the literature search covering the two past decades, it is focused at several most important plant species and their products, and at their proven or potential pharmacological effects in treating several important diseases.
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The antioxidative effects of 30 xanthone derivatives (XDs) (XD‐n, n = 1–30) in HepG2 cells were evaluated by the cellular antioxidant activity assay. Results showed that all XDs were antioxidants and 1,3,5,8‐tetrahydroxy‐9H‐xanthen‐9‐one (XD‐2) was the most active antioxidant. The all‐oxygenated substituted xanthones extended the lifespan of wild‐type N2 nematodes under normal culture conditions and XD‐2 was the best one. XD‐2 eliminated excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species and enhanced the expression levels and activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. XD‐2 inhibited the H2O2‐increased phosphorylation levels of c‐JUN N‐terminal kinase, extracellular signal‐regulated kinase, and p38 in HepG2 cells. In vivo, XD‐2 also extended the lifespan of wild‐type N2 nematodes under oxidative stress induced by paraquat, but failed in extending the lifespan of CF1038 (daf‐16 deletion) and AY102 (pmk‐1 deletion) mutant nematodes. It was revealed by real‐time polymerase chain reaction that the genes daf‐16, sir‐2.1, akt‐1, and age‐1 were all inhibited by paraquat stimuli, while XD‐2 reversed these inhibitions; in contrast, paraquat stimuli upregulated both the skn‐1 and pmk‐1 genes. However, treatment by XD‐2 further increased the levels of both genes. These pieces of evidence implied that XD‐2 promotes longevity through endogenous signaling pathways rather than through the antioxidative activity alone. Taken all together, it may be concluded that XD‐2 is a promising antiageing agent. The antioxidative effects of 30 xanthone derivatives (XD‐n, n = 1–30) were evaluated in HepG2 cells. All derivatives showed antioxidant activity, with 1,3,5,8‐tetrahydroxy‐9H‐xanthen‐9‐one (XD‐2) being the most active. XD‐2 extended the lifespan of wild‐type N2 nematodes under paraquat‐induced oxidative stress and may be a promising antiageing agent.
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Over the past three decades, the knowledge gained about the mechanisms that underpin the potential use of Rhodiola in stress- and ageing-associated disorders has increased, and provided a universal framework for studies that focused on the use of Rhodiola in preventing or curing metabolic diseases. Of particular interest is the emerging role of Rhodiola in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Moreover, over the last two decades, great efforts have been undertaken to unravel the underlying mechanisms of action of Rhodiola in the treatment of metabolic disorders. Extracts of Rhodiola and salidroside, the most abundant active compound in Rhodiola, are suggested to provide a beneficial effect in mental, behavioral, and metabolic disorders. Both in vivo and ex vivo studies, Rhodiola extracts and salidroside ameliorate metabolic disorders when administered acutely or prior to 2 experimental injury. The mechanism involved includes multi-target effects by modulating various synergistic pathways that control oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondria, autophagy, and cell death, as well as AMPK signaling that is associated with possible beneficial effects on metabolic disorders. However, evidence-based data supporting the effectiveness of Rhodiola or salidroside in treating metabolic disorders is limited. Therefore, a comprehensive review of available trials showing putative treatment strategies of metabolic disorders that include both clinical effective perspectives and fundamental molecular mechanisms is warranted. This review highlights studies that focus on the potential role of Rhodiola extracts and salidroside in type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis, the two most common metabolic diseases.
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Background Lung cancer is the most common and mortal cancer worldwide. Rhodiola rosea L. (RR), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been turned out to be effective in anti-lung cancer therapy, but its molecular mechanism of action has not been clearly understood. Purpose In this study, we aimed to elucidate the possible molecular mechanism underlying the effect of RR against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by systems pharmacology. Methods The effects of RR on NSCLC were examined in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor-bearing mice models. The possible molecular mechanism was unraveled by systems pharmacology, which includes pharmacokinetics evaluation, active compounds screening, target prediction and network analysis. Cell proliferation was examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay; cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry; protein and proinflammatory cytokines expression were evaluated by Western blot and qRT-PCR. Results In vivo, RR significantly inhibited the tumor growth and prolonged the survival of the tumor bearing mice. In silico, we identified 19 potential active molecules (e.g., salidroside and rhodiosin), 112 targets (e.g., COX-2 and AKT) and 27 pathways (e.g., PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway) for RR. Additionally, targets analysis and networks construction further revealed that RR exerted anti-cancer effects by regulating apoptosis, angiogenesis and inflammation. In vitro, salidroside could significantly decrease expression of pro-angiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF and eNOS) and proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., COX-2, iNOS and TNF-α). Also, Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein was decreased whereas Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein, was increased. Further flow cytometry analysis showed that salidroside could induce apoptosis in H1975 cells. Conclusions Mechanistically, the antitumor effect of RR on NSCLC was responsible for the synergy among anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic.
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The aim of our review is to demonstrate the potential of herbal preparations, specifically adaptogens for prevention and treatment of respiratory infections, as well as convalescence, specifically through supporting a challenged immune system, increasing resistance to viral infection, inhibiting severe inflammatory progression, and driving effective recovery. The evidence from pre-clinical and clinical studies with Andrographis paniculata, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Glycyrrhiza spp., Panax spp., Rhodiola rosea, Schisandra chinensis, Withania somnifera, their combination products and melatonin suggests that adaptogens can be useful in prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections at all stages of progression of inflammation as well as in aiding recovery of the organism by (i) modulating innate and adaptive immunity, (ii) anti-inflammatory activity, (iii) detoxification and repair of oxidative stress-induced damage in compromised cells, (iv) direct antiviral effects of inhibiting viral docking or replication, and (v) improving quality of life during convalescence.
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Background Chinese Yunnan Province, located in the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, is a famous tourist paradise where acute high-altitude illness common occurs among lowland people visitors due to non-acclimatization to the acute hypobaric hypoxia (AHH) conditions. Traditional Chinese medicine, such as Qi-Long-Tian (QLT) formula, has shown effectiveness and safety in the treatment of acute high-altitude diseases. The aim of this study was to clarify the therapeutic mechanisms of this traditional formula using a rat model in a simulated plateau environment. Methods Following testing, lung tissue samples were evaluated by hematoxylin–eosin staining and for biochemical characteristics. mRNA-Seq was used to compare differentially expressed genes in control rats, and in rats exposed to AHH and AHH with QLT treatment. Results Inflammation-related effectors induced following QLT treatment for AHH included MMP9 and TIMP1, and involved several phosphorylation signaling pathways implicated in AHH pathogenesis such as PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling. Conclusion This study provides insights into the major signaling pathways induced by AHH and in the protective mechanisms involved in QLT formula activity.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Previous studies have shown that the active fraction of Rhodiola tangutica (Maxim.) S.H. Fu (ACRT) dilates pulmonary arteries and thwarts pulmonary artery remodelling. The dilatation effect of ACRT on pulmonary artery vascular rings could be reduced by potassium (K+) channel blockers. However the exact mechanisms of ACRT on ion channels are still unclear. Aim of the study: This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of ACRT on K+ channels inhibits cell proliferation after pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) are exposed to hypoxia. Materials and methods: The whole-cell patch-clamp method was used to clarify the effect of ACRT on the K+ current (IK) of rat PASMCs exposed to hypoxia. The mRNA and protein expression levels were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. The intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration ([Ca2+]i) values in rat PASMCs were detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The cell cycle and cell proliferation were assessed using flow cytometry analysis and CCK-8 and EdU assays. Results: ACRT pretreatment alleviated the inhibition of IK induced by hypoxia in rat PASMCs. Compared with hypoxia, ACRT upregulated voltage-dependent K+ channel (Kv) 1.5 and big-conductance calcium-activated K+ channel (BKCa) mRNA and protein expression and downregulated voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (Cav) 1.2 mRNA and protein expression. ACRT decreased [Ca2+]i, inhibited the promotion of cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, and prevented the proliferation of rat PASMCs exposed to hypoxia. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that ACRT plays a key role in restoring ion channel function and then inhibiting the proliferation of PASMCs under hypoxia, ACRT has preventive and therapeutic potential in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.
Adaptogens were initially recognized as stress-resistance inducing compounds. Recent studies reveal that adaptogens are pleiotropically-acting chemical constituents that can be isolated from traditional herbs. They are gaining increasing attention in cancer chemotherapy. This review summarizes the physiological action of adaptogens isolated from the 9 most widely used traditional herbs implicated in cancer therapy viz., Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Rhodiola rosea, Emblica officinalis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Bacopa monnieri, Asparagus racemosus, Ocimum sanctum, and Panax notoginseng. The studies were identified through a systematic search of major computerized databases such as Pubmed, Embase, Medline, Inflibnet, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library. Individual names of each herb and biological action were the search terms employed. In this review, we have enlisted the chemical constituents and their mechanism of action in a few organ systems as well as in cancer cells. Studies indicate that the adaptogens isolated from these herbs can be broadly arranged into 2 classes based on their chemical structure. These molecules exert a positive influence on several organ systems such as respiratory, nervous, cardiovascular, immune, and gastrointestinal tract. It is also clear that adaptogens act as effective chemopreventive agents alone or in combination with chemo drugs in multiple cancers by targeting multiple intracellular target proteins. Therefore, we conclude that adaptogens are versatile ligands capable of eliciting many systemic effects. Their biological functions are complex, varied, and context-dependent in various cancers. This offers great scope for personalized treatment and cancer chemoprevention in the future.
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The aim of this study was to observe the effect of the Rhodiola crenulata extracts on gut immunity of Drosophila melanogaster. Wild-type flies fed standard cornmeal–yeast medium were used as controls. Experimental groups were supplemented with 2.5% R. crenulata aqueous extracts in standard medium. Survival rate was determined by feeding pathogenic microorganisms and toxic compounds. The levels of reactive oxygen species and dead cells were detected by dihydroethidium and 7-amino-actinomycin D staining, respectively. The expression of antimicrobial peptides was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and morphological change of the intestine was imaged by an Axioskop 2 plus microscope. The results demonstrate that R. crenulata increased the survival rates of adult flies and expression of antimicrobial peptide genes after pathogen or toxic compound ingestion. Moreover, decreased levels of reactive oxygen species and epithelial cell death were associated with results in improved intestinal morphology. The pharmacological action of R. crenulata from Tibet was greater than that from Sichuan. These results indicate that the R. crenulata extracts from Tibet had better pharmacological effect on D. melanogaster gut immunity after ingestion of pathogens and toxic compounds. These results may provide the pharmacological basis for prevention of inflammatory diseases of the intestine. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The objective was to investigate the stimulating and normalizing effect of the adaptogen Rhodiola rosea extract SHR-5 in foreign students during a stressful examination period. The study was performed as a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled with low repeated dose regime. The study drug and the placebo were taken for 20 days by the students during an examination period. The physical and mental performance were assessed before and after the period, based on objective as well as on subjective evaluation. The most significant improvement in the SHR-5 group was seen in physical fitness, mental fatigue and neuro-motoric tests (p <0.01). The self-assessment of the general well-being was also significantly (p < 0.05) better in the verum group. No significance was seen in the correction of text tests or a neuro-muscular tapping test. The overall conclusion is that the study drug gave significant results compared to the placebo group but that the dose level probably was suboptimal.
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An HPLC method permitting the first simultaneous detection of 5 marker compounds (salidroside, rosarin, rosavin, rosin, rosiridin) of R. rosea was developed. A separation was achieved within 27 min by using C-18 column material, a phosphate buffer/acetonitrile gradient system and at a separation temperature of 60 degrees C. All five compounds could be detected at concentrations as low as 0.62 microg/ml and were clearly assignable in R. rosea plant material and commercial products. Therefore, this quantitative and qualitative applicability of the method offers efficient and reliable means for the evaluation of R. rosea and products thereof.
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It is shown that autonomic nervous system participates in the preventive antiarrhythmic effect ofRhodiola rosea. The effect of the preparation is presumably mediated through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system.
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Oxidants, generated by stimulated leukocytes, induce a variety of distinct biochemical changes in target cells. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), produced by the action of peroxidase on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of chloride ions, acts at low molar concentrations (10-20 μM) to damage proteins on cell membranes and destroy their function. H2O2 rapidly permeates cells and causes inhibition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis via both glycolytic and oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondrial) pathways. In the glycolytic pathway, damage is limited to the step involving glyceraldehyde-3-PO4 dehydrogenase (GAPDH). This results from both an attack of H2O2 on GAPDH and, indirectly, by a reduction in concentration of the GAPDH cofactor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This latter effect was found to result from activation of the enzyme, poly(adenosine diphosphate) (ADP)-ribose polymerase, an enzyme involved in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair. DNA damage in target cells was found at low concentrations of H2O2(20-80 μM) in many cell types. Strand breaks and base hydroxylation were observed, resulting in the generation of hydroxyl radicals (· OH) from H2O2, in the presence of a transition metal. DNA damage resulted in either cell injury and death or mutations of the base sequence and amino acid residues. These latter effects led to malignant transformations in cultured cells in both tissue cultures of the cells, and in vivo in athymic mice. Exposure of a proto-oncogene, K-ras 4B, also led to the development of a malignant transformation by virtue of mutations in codon positions 12 and 61. Thus, oxidant effects on target cells can damage multiple functional pathways inside the cells, as well as give rise to malignant transformation via DNA damage.
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The volatile oil of the wood of Cedrus deodara (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant inhibition of compound 48/80 and nystatin-induced rat paw edema. It also inhibited heat- as well as hypotonic solution-induced haemolysis of erythrocytes in vitro. The anti-inflammatory activity of the oil could be due to its membrane stabilizing action.
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Rhodiola rosea, a popular medicinal plant in Russia and Scandinavia, has been exploited as an adaptogen at high altitudes in these countries. Root extract from this plant is known to affect favorably various physiological functions, including cognition, work performance, high-altitude sickness and cardioprotective effects. However, R. rosea found in the Indian Himalayas needs to be investigated for its beneficial health effects. In the present study, the proximate composition, total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant potency of this plant were determined. The results indicated that the roots contained a significant amount of total phenols (153 ± 2 mg/g of extractable compounds). Antioxidant activity of the root extract measured by radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and thiocyanate methods revealed that the roots had excellent antioxidant potency. Thus, the roots of this unique phytoadaptogen may have an important role in alleviating oxidative stress in biological systems as well as peroxidative changes in food systems. Therefore it can be exploited for the development of nutraceuticals and health foods.
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Oral administration ofRhodiola rosea extract to rats (3.5 ml/kg, 8 days) prevents reperfusion arrhythmias and elicits a protective effect in experiments on isolated heart. Experiments with naloxone and ICI 174,864 suggest that the antiarrhythmic effect ofR. rosea extract is mediated through activation of μ-opiate receptors in the myocardium. The cardioprotective effect of this extract is not associated with opiate receptors.
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Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are reactive oxygen species (ROS) primarily produced by phagocytic cells as a consequence of the process of phagocytosis. This defensive role, may, however, become one of attack when production of ROS is excessive and overwhelms cellular scavenging systems. This happens in situations such as acute inflammation and results in host cell membrane damage, which is particularly prevalent in the presence of transition metal catalysts such as iron and copper. The skin is uniquely vulnerable to this attack being rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and exposed to high oxygen tensions and ultraviolet light, both of which promote production of ROS. Additionally, the respiratory burst of infiltrating polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages in inflamed skin will produce high local levels of superoxide that can release "catalytic iron" from storage proteins such as ferritin. The role of iron and ROS in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin disease is discussed as is the possibility of novel therapeutic strategies based on their removal.
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In experiment on rats with Pliss lymphosarcoma (PLS) it was shown that partial hepatectomy (PHE), a course application of Rhodiola rosea extract (RRE) or combined effects inhibit the growth of tumors by 37, 39 and 59%, respectively, and that of metastases by 42, 50 and 75%. In combined treatment the process of hepatic regeneration was completed in earlier terms versus the animals which underwent PHE, and proliferative activity of the tumor and metastases decreased by 15 and 59%, respectively, judging by the degree of 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA of these tissues. The assessment of clonogenic activity of PLS cells taken in the animals of this group, using the method of diffusion chambers, revealed a significant decrease in this index versus the rats which underwent PHE or which were given RRE (number of colonies per chamber being 4.8 +/- 0.5; 8.6 +/- 0.9; 5.7 +/- 0.6, respectively; in control 13.8 +/- 1.5). The assumption that these effects are determined by factors originating from the regenerating liver was confirmed in experiments with double-layer agar systems. Inhibition of colony-forming activity of PLS cells was the maximum in application of the hepatocytes of the rats which underwent a complex of effects, as a feeder, versus the hepatocytes taken in intact or hepatectomized animals, or the rats which were given RRE (number of colonies per plate well being 4.6 +/- 0.3; 15.7 +/- 1.6; 7.4 +/- 0.8; 8.7 +/- 0.9, respectively; in the control 25.6 +/- 6.5). In experiments on mice with Ehrlich adenocarcinoma, the factors isolated from the liver of animals subjected to PHE against a background of RRE administration and from the liver of mice which were given RRE only, as well as operated or intact ones, inhibited the tumor growth to 63, 38, 35 and 21%, respectively.
Article
Oxidants, generated by stimulated leukocytes, induce a variety of distinct biochemical changes in target cells. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), produced by the action of peroxidase on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence of chloride ions, acts at low molar concentrations (10-20 microM) to damage proteins on cell membranes and destroy their function. H2O2 rapidly permeates cells and causes inhibition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis via both glycolytic and oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondrial) pathways. In the glycolytic pathway, damage is limited to the step involving glyceraldehyde-3-PO4 dehydrogenase (GAPDH). This results from both an attack of H2O2 on GAPDH and, indirectly, by a reduction in concentration of the GAPDH cofactor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This latter effect was found to result from activation of the enzyme, poly(adenosine diphosphate) (ADP)-ribose polymerase, an enzyme involved in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair. DNA damage in target cells was found at low concentrations of H2O2 (20-80 microM) in many cell types. Strand breaks and base hydroxylation were observed, resulting in the generation of hydroxyl radicals (.OH) from H2O2, in the presence of a transition metal. DNA damage resulted in either cell injury and death or mutations of the base sequence and amino acid residues. These latter effects led to malignant transformations in cultured cells in both tissue cultures of the cells, and in vivo in athymic mice. Exposure of a proto-oncogene, K-ras 4B, also led to the development of a malignant transformation by virtue of mutations in codon positions 12 and 61. Thus, oxidant effects on target cells can damage multiple functional pathways inside the cells, as well as give rise to malignant transformation via DNA damage.
Article
The rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb, are used in Indonesian folk medicine as cholagogues, aromatic stomachics, analgesics, a rheumatic remedy, etc. The present study was carried out to elucidate the antiinflammatory effect of the methanol extract obtained from these rhizomes and its active principles. The methanol extract was partitioned between ether and water, and then the ether-soluble fraction was extracted with n-hexane. The n-hexane-soluble fraction was chromatographed (fr. I-IV), fr. II was rechromatographed (fr. V-VII), and then fr. V was rechromatographed (fr. VIII-X) by silica gel column chromatography. The antiinflammatory activity of these fractions was investigated on carrageenin-induced edema in rats and acetic acid-induced vascular permeability as well as the writhing symptom in mice. The methanol extract (p.o.) showed both an antiinflammatory activity and an analgesic activity and these activities shifted successively to the ether-soluble fraction, the n-hexane-soluble fraction, fr. II, V and IX. The chemical structure of fr. IX was identified as germacrone. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory action of Curcuma xanthorrhiza is the result of the germacrone that it contains.
Article
A major phospholipase A2 (NN-XIII-PLA2) which constitutes 20% of the whole Naja naja naja venom was purified to homogeneity on CM-Sephadex C-25 column chromatography. NN-XIII-PLA2 is a basic protein with a mol. wt of 11,200 by SDS-PAGE. This enzyme has low enzymatic activity but is more toxic to mice than the whole venom. The LD50 value (i.p.) of NN-XIII-PLA2 is 2.4 mg/kg body weight (whole venoms LD50 is 2.8 mg/kg body weight). It induces neurotoxic-like signs in experimental animals. It induces myotoxicity when injected i.m. into the thigh muscle of mice and edema when injected into the foot pads of mice. This enzyme has a fluorescence maxima between 310-316 nm which is typical of tyrosine residues.
The effect of alcohol-aqueous extract (1:1) from Rhodiola rosea L. roots on the processes of learning and memory is studied on rats. Several methods of active avoidance with negative and positive reinforcements are used, as well as of passive avoidance. Using the maze-method with negative (punitive) reinforcement, it has been found that Rhodiola extract in a single dose of 0.10 ml per rat essentially improves learning and retention after 24 hours. Significant improvement of the long-term memory is also established in memory tests after 10-day treatment with the same dose of the extract. In the other two doses tested (0.02 and 1.0 ml per rat) the extract has no substantial effect on learning and memory. In a dose of 0.10 ml per rat the Rhodiola extract had a favourable effect on the training process using the "staircase" method with positive (food) reinforcement as well. With the other methods used (active avoidance method with negative reinforcement "shuttle-box" and passive avoidance methods "step down" and "step through") Rhodiola extract in the dose used (0.10 ml per rat) had no substantial effect on learning and memory (a certain deterioration of the training process was even observed using the "shuttle-box" method, while the "step-down" method resulted in deterioration of the memory). The great significance of the method used for studying the effects of the pharmacological agents on learning and memory for the results obtained is evident.
Article
A polyene antibiotic Nystatin injected into the subcutaneous tissues of the rat’s hind-paw provokes a long-lasting localized inflammation. This inflammationis prevented or antagonized by steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs administered respectively before or after inflammation induction. Among the inhibitors of protein synthesis tested cyclophosphamide, alanosine and 6-mercaptopurine inhibit the development of Nystatin inflammation.
Article
Selective inhibition of the inducible isoform of prostaglandin G/H synthase (cyclooxygenase-2; COX2; EC 1.14.99.1) can be achieved with compounds of the general form of aryl methyl sulfonyls and aryl methyl sulfonamides. DuP 697 and NS-398 are representative examples of these compounds. Both inhibit the constitute (COX1) and inducible (COX2) isoforms of the enzyme with equal potency shortly after mixing, but their potencies increase with time for COX2 selectively. This time-dependent inhibition follows first-order kinetics, and the rate constant for inactivation of COX2 is dose dependent for both compounds. Kinetic analysis allows us to determine KI and kinact (the maximal rate of inactivation) for each inhibitor. The potency of both compounds is substrate concentration dependent, as expected for time-dependent competitive inhibitors. COX2 that has been incubated with these inhibitors, and then extensively dialyzed against buffer, shows no recovery of enzyme activity, while complete recovery of activity is seen for COX1. Thus, these inhibitors irreversibly inactivate COX2 with time, while showing minimal reversible inhibition of COX1. We isolated these inhibitors after long incubation with excess enzyme and subsequent denaturation of the enzyme. Both inhibitors showed no loss of potency resulting from interactions with COX2, suggesting that inhibition is not mediated by covalent modification of the enzyme. These data suggest that binding of these inhibitors to COX2 induces a slow structural transition of the enzyme that results in its selective inactivation.
Article
Most species belonging to Scrophularia genus had been used as antiinflammatory drugs by the folk medicine. The phenylpropanoids are considered to be the active principles of these drugs with antiinflammatory action by different Authors, especially harpagoside and harpagide. In this report, the antiinflammatory effects of Scrophularia frutescens L. (Scrophulariaceae) was studied and the iridoid glucoside harpagoside has been evidenced and isolated for the first time from this plant. Aqueous extract, methanolic extract and harpagoside, isolated from the methanolic extract, were tested for antiinflammatory activity on the rat paw oedema. The results obtained showed that the aqueous extract has a small but significant antiinflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced oedema test, while methanolic extract has a lower antiinflammatory activity and the activity of the isolated harpagoside is remarkably low. Thus, the conclusion may be that S. frutescens L. is a potential antiiflammatory agent but its activity is not due to harpagoside.
Article
The discovery of an inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) requires a refinement of the theory that inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity explains both therapeutic and side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Indeed, new pharmacological results suggest that COX-2 inhibition provides the therapeutic (ie, anti-inflammatory) activity of NSAIDs, whereas inhibition of constitutive COX-1 is responsible for their gastric and renal side effects as well as for their antithrombotic activity. However, a role of COX-1 in inflammation cannot be excluded. Furthermore, the functional relevance of COX-2 expression and induction in various tissues warrants further investigation. These studies should help in predicting potential adverse effects as well as new indications for selective COX-2 inhibitors.
Article
Two bioactive cyanoglycosides, rhodiocyanosides A and B, and two oligoglycosides, rhodioflavonoside [gossypetin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside] and rhodiooctanoside [octyl alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl(1-->6) beta- D-glucopyranoside), were isolated from the Chinese natural medicine "Si Lie Hong Jing Tian" (Shiretsukoukeiten in Japanese), the underground part of Rhodiola quadrifida (Pall.) Fisch. et Mey., together with four known compounds: rhodioloside, n-hexyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, gossypetin 7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, and tricetin. The chemical structures of new glycosides were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Rhodiocyanosides A and B exhibited inhibitory activity on the histamine release from rat peritoneal exudate cells sensitized with anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl IgE. Additionally, rhodiocyanoside A, the major constituent of this natural medicine, was also found to show antiallergic activity in a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test in rat.
Article
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) produce their therapeutic activities through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), the enzyme that makes prostaglandins (PGs). They share, to a greater or lesser degree, the same side effects, including gastric and renal toxicity. Recent research has shown that there are at least two COX isoenzymes. COX-1 is constitutive and makes PGs that protect the stomach and kidney from damage. COX-2 is induced by inflammatory stimuli, such as cytokines, and produces PGs that contribute to the pain and swelling of inflammation. Thus, selective COX-2 inhibitors should be anti-inflammatory without side effects on the kidney and stomach. Of course, selective COX-2 inhibitors may have other side effects and perhaps other therapeutic potential. For instance, COX-2 (and not COX-1) is thought to be involved in ovulation and in labor. In addition, the well-known protective action of aspirin on colon cancer may be through an action on COX-2, which is expressed in this disease. Moreover, NSAIDs delay the progress of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, selective COX-2 inhibitors may demonstrate new important therapeutic benefits as anticancer agents, as well as in preventing premature labor and perhaps even retarding the progression of Alzheimer's disease.
Article
Plants from all over the world such as Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng, Raponticum carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum have been extensively evaluated for their adaptogenic potential. However, none of them has been successfully introduced as an adaptogen in the clinic. This paper discusses some of the problems in evaluation of adaptogens which have precluded their inclusion as clinically useful drugs. We further discuss our results with six rasayana plants from Ayurveda, which were studied for their adaptogenic potential.
Article
The resins and leaves of species of Protium are commonly used by folk medicine. In the present study, we analyse the pharmacological effects of essential oils obtained by steam distillation (leaves and resin) from Protium species. Analysis by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry and retention indices calculations demonstrate that the resin oil is constituted mainly of monoterpenes and phenylpropanoids: alpha-terpinolene (22%), p-cymene (11%), p-cimen-8-ol (11%), limonene (5%) and dillapiol (16%), whereas sesquiterpenes predominate as the volatile constituents of the leaves. The resin of Protium heptaphyllum (PHP) and leaves of P. strumosum (PS), P. grandifolium (PG), P. lewellyni (PL) and P. hebetatum (PHT) were screened for anti-inflammatory activity by the use of mouse pleurisy model induced by zymosan (500 microg/cavity) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (250 ng/cavity), for antinociceptive effect (by means of preventing mice abdominal writhings), as well as NO production from stimulated macrophages and proliferation of neoplasic cell lines: Neuro-2a (mouse neuroblastoma), SP2/0 (mouse plasmocytoma) and J774 (mouse monocytic cell line). The oils from PHP, PS and PL were able to inhibit protein extravasation but no sample inhibited total or differential leucocyte counts after administrating p.o. (100 mg/kg) 1 h before stimulation with zymosan. The oils from PG, PL and PHT inhibited neutrophil accumulation whereas PHP and specially PL inhibited LPS-induced eosinophil accumulation in mouse pleural cavity. PHT was also able to inhibit mononuclear cells accumulation. Antinociceptive effect was not observed, when animals received oral administration of the essential oils (100 mg/kg). In vitro treatment with essential oils (100 microg/well) changed the NO production from stimulated mouse macrophages. PHP inhibited in 74% and PS in 46% the LPS-induced NO production. In contrast, treatment with PL was able to increase in 49% the NO production. Cell lines proliferation was affected by the oils assayed in the range of 60-100% for Neuro-2a, 65-95% for SP2/0 and 70-90% for J774. Taken together these results showed that essential oils could be useful as efficient pharmacological tools.
Article
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most used drugs worldwide, in spite of their renal and gastric side effects. Medicinal plants may represent a useful source of new effective therapeutic agents, particularly considering the new findings concerning the mediators of inflammation, such as prostaglandins and nitric oxide. In fact, the discovery of two isoforms of the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, has opened new interesting perspectives in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. As cyclooxygenase, also nitric oxide synthase, the enzyme which converts L-arginine to nitric oxide, exists in two isoforms. It appears that the constitutive isoforms of both enzymes (cyclooxygenase-1 and constitutive nitric oxide synthase) have a regulatory-physiological role, whereas the inducible isoforms (cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase) are involved in inflammation. A number of medicinal plants have been screened for their ability to inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 and/or inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and/or expression.
Article
A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to determine salidroside and tyrosol simultaneously in the Rhodiola rosea. The optimum condition was Nova-Pak C18 as stationary phase, 6.5% methanol in water as mobile phase and detection at UV 225 nm. The identification was carried out by comparing the retention time and IC/MS spectrum of the relevant peaks with those of isolated standards. The contents of salidroside and tyrosol in the samples gathered from various area in China were ranged over 1.3-11.1 mg/g and 0.3-2.2 mg/g, respectively.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated low-dose treatment with a standardized extract SHR/5 of rhizome Rhodiola rosea L, (RRE) on fatigue during night duty among a group of 56 young, healthy physicians. The effect was measured as total mental performance calculated as Fatigue Index. The tests chosen reflect an overall level of mental fatigue, involving complex perceptive and cognitive cerebral functions, such as associative thinking, short-term memory, calculation and ability of concentration, and speed of audio-visual perception. These parameters were tested before and after night duty during three periods of two weeks each: a) a test period of one RRE/placebo tablet daily, b) a washout period and c) a third period of one placebo/RRE tablet daily, in a double-blind cross-over trial. The perceptive and cognitive cerebral functions mentioned above were investigated using 5 different tests. A statistically significant improvement in these tests was observed in the treatment group (RRE) during the first two weeks period. No side-effects were reported for either treatment noted. These results suggest that RRE can reduce general fatigue under certain stressful conditions.
Article
A method is presented for measuring the edema induced by injection of 0.05 ml of 1% solution of carrageenin, an extract of Chondrus, into the plantar tissues of the hind paw of the rat. Peak edema develops within the first 3 to 4 hours, and is inhibited by pretreatment of the animals by single oral doses of antiinflammatory agents, steroid or non-steroid. Log dose responses to drugs are linear and parallel, and yield potency ratios with relatively narrow confidence limits. The potency ratios obtained for aspirin, phenylbutazone and hydrocortisone are fairly close to the ratios of their respective daily doses in the treatment of rheumatic disease. A potent antihistaminic-antiserotonin compound, cyproheptadine, is without effect on carrageenin-induced edema.
Article
The methanol extract of the underground part of Rhodiola rosea was found to show inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a 95% ethanol extract from the stems of R. rosea led to the isolation of five compounds: gossypetin-7-O-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), rhodioflavonoside (2), gallic acid (3), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid (4) and p-tyrosol (5). Their structures were elucidated by UV, IR, MS and NMR data, as well as by comparison with those of the literature. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antibacterial and antiprostate cancer cell activities. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited activity against Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 50 microg/mL and 100 microg/mL, respectively. Cytotoxicity studies of 1 and 2 also displayed activity against the prostate cancer cell line with IC(50) values of 50 microg/mL and 80 microg/mL, respectively.
DOI: 10.1002/ptr REFERENCES Petkov VD Effects of alcohol aqueous extract from Rhodiola rosea L roots on learning and memory
  • Copyright
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytother. Res. 23, 1099–1102 (2009) DOI: 10.1002/ptr REFERENCES Petkov VD, Yonkov D, Mosharoff A, Kambourova T, Alova L, Petkov VV, Todorov I. 1986. Effects of alcohol aqueous extract from Rhodiola rosea L roots on learning and memory. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bull 12: 13–16.
Arctic root of Rhodiola rosea – the powerful ginseng alternative Quantitative determination of salidroside and tyrosol from the under-ground part of Rhodiola rosea by high performance liquid chromatography
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