Management of HIV positive pregnancies in Ontario: current status.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
The Canadian journal of clinical pharmacology = Journal canadien de pharmacologie clinique 02/2009; 16(1):e68-77.
Source: PubMed


AIDS is one of the biggest health crises we face today. With nearly 20 million women infected with the virus that causes it, HIV, maternal transmission of HIV is increasingly becoming a serious concern and hindrance in stemming the proliferation of the disease. While an ever increasing number of pregnant women are being administered anti-retrovirals to mitigate the vertical transmission of the virus, little is known about the changing trends in the type of agents used and the duration of therapy.
This paper attempts to identify any changes in the pattern of HIV management in pregnant women for the period of time spanning 1998 to 2005.
Data from the charts of 183 patients were reviewed. A retrospective, longitudinal and cross-sectional patient chart review was employed to obtain data. Parameters such as therapeutic management of HIV, class of drugs used and duration of treatment were assessed to identify any evolving patterns over the course of the study.
It was seen that over time, the number of women receiving adequate therapeutic interventions has steadily increased. We also identified evolving trends in terms of the classes of anti-retrovirals employed and the duration of prophylaxis.
The strategies employed in the management of HIV positive pregnancies in Ontario, while evolving over time, were found to be in line with the guidelines in place. The information delivered by this study might enable the medical community to assess the progress in dealing with this challenge thus far and further fine tune the current strategy.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: There is limited information about changing trends in the management of HIV-positive pregnancies in Canada as Canadian and international guidelines are updated. We reviewed the experience over a 10-year period of one Canadian urban hospital with regard to trends in the demographics and management of HIV-positive pregnant women. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of all HIV-positive pregnant women delivering between March 2000 and March 2010. Demographic, pregnancy, and intrapartum data were collected and analyzed. Results: During the study period, there were 141 singleton pregnancies in HIV-positive women. The mean age of the cohort was 30.4 years. The number of women seen increased significantly over time (P < 0.001), with 63% of cases in care from 2007 to 2010. Most women were of African descent and had recently immigrated to Canada. There was a statistically significant trend towards increasing numbers of Afro-Caribbean women over the study period (P = 0.03). Only 4% reported illicit drug use in their current pregnancy. Although the majority of women had a known diagnosis of HIV before pregnancy, 30 (22.4%) had the diagnosis made on antepartum testing. Most women were compliant with their highly active antiretroviral therapy (94.3%) and had undetectable viral loads documented at the time of delivery (76.4%). A significant shift towards increased use of protease inhibitor antiretovirals in pregnancy was noted over time (P < 0.001). All neonates received zidovudine after delivery. There were no cases of vertical HIV transmission. Conclusion: Our review documented increasing numbers of HIV-positive pregnant women over the past 10 years. The majority of these women were healthy with well-managed disease, and had favourable pregnancy outcomes. There were no infected children born during the study period.
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