Prevalence of HPV infection by cervical cytologic status in Brazil

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN, Brazil.
International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Impact Factor: 1.54). 02/2009; 105(1):21-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2008.12.004
Source: PubMed


To assess the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection according to cervical cytologic status in northeastern Brazil; identify other risk factors for low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs and HSILs); and identify the most prevalent HPV genotypes associated with the lesions.
Two cervical smears were collected from 250 women referred for cancer screening, one for cytologic examination and the other to test for the presence of HPV by PCR with genotyping by dot blot hybridization.
There were 110 healthy cervices, 82 LSILs, and 58 HSILs. The overall HPV prevalence was 48%, with higher rates for HSILs, and HPV-16 was the most prevalent type. Age, multiple sexual partners, type of HPV present, smoking, and early onset of sexual activity were risk factors for cervical lesions.
Age, multiple sexual partners, and infection with HPV-16 increased the risk of having LSILs or HSILs. Early onset of sexual activity and smoking only increased the risk of having HSILs.

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    • "HPV16 was twice as common as any other genotype in all countries, except in Nigeria, where the prevalence of HPV35 was similar to that of HPV16 [21]. In countries in South America, such as Paraguay and Brazil, HPV16 and HPV18 have been reported to be the predominant types related to invasive cervical cancers, followed by HPV45, HPV33, HPV31, HPV52, HPV35, and HPV39 [10] [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To determine the prevalence of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in a population in southern Brazil. Methods In a retrospective cross-sectional study, the prevalence of ASCUS was determined among women aged 20–60 years who were referred to a private medical center in Caxias do Sul by a gynecologist for assessment of a cervical condition between January 1, 2010, and September 30, 2011. Histologic and cytologic samples were tested for HPV, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to genotype any HPV DNA identified. Results Among the 250 included women, 25 (10.0%) had ASCUS. HPV DNA was found in 15 (60.0%) women with ASCUS and 115 (51.1%) of the 225 without ASCUS. Viral typing showed that 7 (46.7%) HPV-positive women with ASCUS had multiple infections with up to five different genotypes. Both low- and high-risk HPV genotypes were found in ASCUS samples; the most prevalent genotypes were HPV6/HPV11 (affecting 10 [66.7%] women), HPV51 (6 [40.0%]), and HPV16 (6 [40.0%]). Conclusion ASCUS is not an indication of HPV infection. HPV screening and genotyping would benefit women with ASCUS, because treatment can be planned according to risk of carcinogenesis.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
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    • "A broader range of HPV prevalence (from 10.4% to 24.5%) has been described in Brazilian studies including women with normal cytology. Our result was similar to that described by the Latin America Screening Study (24.5%) [8] and to data related to Amazonas State (29.2%) [18]. However, it was lower than described in others Brazilian studies including women populations from Rio Grande do Sul (34%), São Paulo (58.4%), "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The main cause of cervical cancer in the world is high risks human papillomavirus infection (mainly represented by HPV-16 and HPV-18), that are associated to the development of malign transformation of the epithelium. HPV prevalence exhibits a wide geographical variability and HPV-16 variants have been related to an increased risk of developing cervical intraepithelial lesion. The aim of this study was to describe DNA-HPV prevalence and HPV-16 variants among a women population from Northern Brazil. Methods One hundred and forty three women, during routine cervical cancer screening, at Juruti Project, fulfilled an epidemiological inquiry and were screened through a molecular HPV test. HPV-16 variants were determined by sequencing the HPV-16 E6 open reading frame. Results Forty two samples were considered HPV positive (29.4%). None of those had abnormal cytology results. HPV prevalence varied between different age groups (Z(U) = 14.62; p = <0.0001) and high-risk HPVs were more frequent among younger ages. The most prevalent type was HPV-16 (14%) and it variants were classified, predominantly, as European (87.5%). Conclusions HPV prevalence in our population was higher than described by others and the most prevalent HPV types were high-risk HPVs. The European HPV-16 variant was the most prevalent among HPV-16 positive samples. Our study reinforces the fact that women with normal cytology and a positive molecular test for high-risk HPVs should be submitted to continuous follow up, in order to verify persistence of infection, promoting an early diagnosis of cervical cancer and/or its precursors.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Infectious Agents and Cancer
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    • "Fifteen HPVs have been classified as high-risk types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, and 82) that cause dysplasia and cancer, 12 have been classified as low-risk types (6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 70, 72, 81, and CP6108) that usually cause low-grade mild dysplasia, genital warts, and respiratory papillomatosis, and three have been classified as probable high-risk types (26, 53, and 66) (Munoz et al., 2003). HPVs 31, 33, 35, 51, and 52 are sometimes regarded as 'intermediate-risk' viruses because they are more common in mild or severe dysplastic lesions than in carcinomas (Fernandes et al., 2009). Cutaneous HPVs constitute more than 75% of the HPVs described to date and are grouped into five different genera: alpha-PV, beta- PV, gamma-PV, mu-PV, and nu-PV (De Villiers et al., 2004) that are not generally associated with cancers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a central and necessary, although not sufficient, cause of cervical cancer. Besides HPV, the additional multiple risk factors related with the onset of cervical cancer are early-age sexual activities; high number of sexual partners, which is the most salient risk factor; suppression and alteration of the immune status; long-term use of oral contraceptives; and other hormonal influences. The tumor-suppressor proteins p53 and pRb are degraded and destabilized through ubiquitination by viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. Over 95% of cervical cancer cases worldwide test positive for oncogenic HPV DNA. Although cervical screening procedures have been successful in reducing the disease burden associated with HPV infection because of lack of resources or inadequate infrastructure many countries have failed to reduce cervical cancer mortality. Therefore, prevention may be a valuable strategy for reducing the economic and disease burden of HPV infection. At present, two successful prophylactic HPV vaccines are available, quadrivalent (HPV16/18/6/11) 'Gardasil' and bivalent (HPV16/18) 'Cervarix' for vaccinating young adolescent girls at or before the onset of puberty. Recent data indicate that vaccination prevents the development of cervical lesions in women who have not already acquired the vaccine-specific HPV types. Moreover, several therapeutic vaccines that are protein/peptide-based, DNA-based, or cell-based are in clinical trials but are yet to establish their efficacy; these vaccines are likely to provide important future health benefits. The therapeutic vaccination mode of prevention is a promising area of research, as revealed in preclinical trials; however, clinical trials based on large populations are warranted before reaching a valid conclusion. This review summarizes the studies on the epidemiology of HPV infection, the pathogenesis of viral oncoproteins in the oncogenesis of cervical cancer, the economic and health burden of HPV-related diseases, and, finally, focuses on the results of recent clinical vaccination trials.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
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