HIV infection of the genital mucosa in women

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, D3-100, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA.
Current HIV/AIDS Reports (Impact Factor: 3.8). 03/2009; 6(1):20-8. DOI: 10.1007/s11904-009-0004-1
Source: PubMed


The vast majority of new HIV infections are acquired via the genital and rectal mucosa. Here, we provide an overview of our current knowledge of how HIV establishes local infection, with an emphasis on viral invasion through the female genital tract. Studies using human explant tissues and in vivo animal studies have improved our understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways of infection; this information could be harnessed to design effective HIV vaccines and microbicides.

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Available from: Florian Hladik, Jun 04, 2014
    • "This takes relevance, since lactic acid from all species of Lactobacillus and H 2 O 2 producing species (Lactobacillus included) have shown important virucidal properties against HIV-1 (Klebanoff and Coombs 1991). HIV-1 passes though the thin gaps between squamous epithelial cells, bringing the virus into contact with the target cells (Hladik and Hope 2009). Since TV secretes a cell-detaching factor that releases epithelial cells from tissue, the weaken structure fails in their function as a defense barrier against HIV-1 invasion (Laga et al. 1993).Furthermore, TV frequently causes punctuate mucosal hemorrhages and lesions in the epithelium of the cervicovaginal tissue that facilitate the entry of HIV-1 (Laga et al. 1993). "
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    ABSTRACT: The protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is responsible for trichomonosis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD) with a significant incidence worldwide. This infection is one of the most common non-viral STDs, representing almost 50% of all curable STDs. Trichomonosis has an incidence of 180 million new cases worldwide. Nowadays, the 'gold standard' for TV diagnosis remains the use of in vitro cultures combined with daily visual microscopic evaluations, which is a time-consuming and low sensitive method. Recent diagnostic methodologies include imunocromatographic assays and molecular biology techniques. The use of the latter has improved enormously the sensitivity and specificity of TV diagnosis, despite, however, none being unable to identify the presence of live parasites. By understanding the biology, the pathogenesis, the proteomic profile and its relation with the parasite's virulence mechanisms, new possibilities towards diagnostic techniques can arise. This review covers various important aspects of vaginal trichomonosis from the parasite's biology and virulence to recent improvements in diagnostic techniques and also metabolic and protein discoveries.
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    • "Thus far, several plant-based vaccine models have been developed that can be used to assess the efficacy of a number of HIV immunogens in test animals (Fig. 9.1). As the most common routes of HIV transmission are the genitourinary and rectal mucosa, wherein HIV invades across epithelial cells (Hladik and Hope 2009), mucosal vaccines are proposed as viable candidates that can induce local mucosal immune responses that would eventually mediate immunoprotection on mucosal surfaces (Levine 2000; Lamm 1997). The following sections provide an overview of advanced models of plant-based candidate vaccines against HIV (Fig. 9.2). "
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    ABSTRACT: The spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has evolved in an alarming manner in terms of human mortality and morbidity, and thus development of an effective and affordable vaccine is a priority to fight this viral disease. As candidate vaccines assessed in clinical trials have shown limited efficacies, efforts to test new candidates capable of inducing strong and neutralizing humoral and cellular responses are underway. This chapter presents a general overview of vaccine candidates produced in plant systems, focusing on the most advanced and promising approaches. This group of candidates comprise strategies targeting structural (Env, Gag) and early non-structural HIV-1 proteins (Rev, Tat, and Nef), which have been expressed in plant tissues using a variety of expression approaches. A number of plant-based vaccines are in preclinical evaluation trials with promising results in terms of immunogenicity.
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    • ", elastin , collagen and laminin ) , thus disrupting the mucosal barrier . This improves cellular movement over the epithelial layer but also enhances HIV transmission through gaps between the epithelial cells ( Hladik and Hope , 2009 ) . In addition , the protein enhances the production of IL - 8 and MCP - 1 by endothelial cells , which contributes to continued inflammation , and recruits neutrophils , monocytes and T cells ( van der Geld et al . "
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs) are persons who possess in vivo resistance against HIV. Using iTRAQ, we compared protein abundance profiles from cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) samples obtained from HESNs with samples from low-risk seronegative and from seropositive persons. Serpin A5 and myeloblastin were up- and downregulated, respectively. We hypothesize that a balance between the downregulation of serine proteinases and the upregulation of their inhibitors may contribute to HIV-resistance Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (155 K)Download as PowerPoint slide
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Virology
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