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Developing a holistic strategy for integrated waste management within municipal planning: Challenges, policies, solutions and perspectives for Hellenic municipalities in the zero-waste, low-cost direction

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Abstract

The present position paper addresses contemporary waste management options, weaknesses and opportunities faced by Hellenic local authorities. It focuses on state-of-the-art, tested as well as innovative, environmental management tools on a municipal scale and identifies a range of different collaboration schemes between local authorities and related service providers. Currently, a policy implementation gap is still experienced among Hellenic local authorities; it appears that administration at the local level is inadequate to manage and implement many of the general policies proposed; identify, collect, monitor and assess relevant data; and safeguard efficient and effective implementation of MSWM practices in the framework of integrated environmental management as well. This shortfall is partly due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities without a parallel substantial budgetary and capacity support, thus resulting in local activity remaining often disoriented and isolated from national strategies, therefore yielding significant planning and implementation problems and delays against pressing issues at hand as well as loss or poor use of available funds. This paper develops a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level, summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level. It aims to provide a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece as well as other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socioeconomic settings.

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... In paper [31] a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level has been developed. It summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level, and it provides a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece and other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socio-economic settings [31] [ZOTOS]. ...
... In paper [31] a systemic approach for MSWM at both the household and the non-household level has been developed. It summarizes state-of-the-art available tools and compiles a set of guidelines for developing waste management master plans at the municipal level, and it provides a framework in the MSWM field for municipalities in Greece and other countries facing similar problems under often comparable socio-economic settings [31] [ZOTOS]. Moreover, the Hellenic State has defined sufficiently the legislative and political framework for MWSM, in frame of related EU legislative approaches, and the 4R (reduce-reuse-recycle-recover) concept is well promoted by the "National Planning of SWM"(Hellenic) constituted of two Joint Ministerial Decision, legislated in 1997 and 2000, respectively [30]. ...
... Moreover, the Hellenic State has defined sufficiently the legislative and political framework for MWSM, in frame of related EU legislative approaches, and the 4R (reduce-reuse-recycle-recover) concept is well promoted by the "National Planning of SWM"(Hellenic) constituted of two Joint Ministerial Decision, legislated in 1997 and 2000, respectively [30]. It is interesting to note that SWOT analysis is performed for MSWM (e.g., [31]). ...
... The study was carried out by Romano et al. 2019 in Tuscany, Italy, the first municipality in Europe that assumed a zero-waste policy in 2007, the findings show that municipal waste generation is higher when urban waste services are run by privately-owned firms, also when the taxable revenue of people per capita is lower [13,14]. In New York City, which is one of the leading cities in accessing zero waste through the activation of the reuse strategy, and achieves an annual reduction of 45X106 kg of greenhouse gas emissions [15], Zotos et al, 2009, found that cooperation between local authorities and municipal service providers refer an acceptable and effective solution in waste management while the decentralization of waste management problems to local authorities without a parallel real budgetary and capacity support, thus following in local activity remaining disoriented and separated from national aims, therefore producing notable planning and implementation problems and obstructions against pressing issues at hand as well as the loss of available funds [16]. The progress to "zero waste" and circular economics has recently increased traction as a choice to the dominant "take-make-waste" model of production and as a viable approach to discussing climate change, but that firms' efforts presently are inadequate to sustain such a transformation; because there are no efficient sustainability indicators to estimate improvement, identify opportunities, so most of these measure products versus the impacts of source reduction, reuse, and remanufacturing [17]. ...
... The study was carried out by Romano et al. 2019 in Tuscany, Italy, the first municipality in Europe that assumed a zero-waste policy in 2007, the findings show that municipal waste generation is higher when urban waste services are run by privately-owned firms, also when the taxable revenue of people per capita is lower [13,14]. In New York City, which is one of the leading cities in accessing zero waste through the activation of the reuse strategy, and achieves an annual reduction of 45X106 kg of greenhouse gas emissions [15], Zotos et al, 2009, found that cooperation between local authorities and municipal service providers refer an acceptable and effective solution in waste management while the decentralization of waste management problems to local authorities without a parallel real budgetary and capacity support, thus following in local activity remaining disoriented and separated from national aims, therefore producing notable planning and implementation problems and obstructions against pressing issues at hand as well as the loss of available funds [16]. The progress to "zero waste" and circular economics has recently increased traction as a choice to the dominant "take-make-waste" model of production and as a viable approach to discussing climate change, but that firms' efforts presently are inadequate to sustain such a transformation; because there are no efficient sustainability indicators to estimate improvement, identify opportunities, so most of these measure products versus the impacts of source reduction, reuse, and remanufacturing [17]. ...
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Zero-waste is ideological for facing waste difficulties in our community. The purpose is to start developing and performed in different areas including waste management and treatment, mining, construction, and city development. The zero-waste idea has been welcomed by policymakers because it animates sustainable production and consumption, best recycling, and resource improvement. Experts in waste management systems, however, understand and implement it in different ways. The present study aims to imagine a zero-waste strategy within Baghdad city based on the available data and published in the literature to get an optimum resource recovery from generated waste, by assuming a recycling factory working at a capacity of 7500 tons/day, in three basic units (composting unit 5000 ton/day, composting unit 1500, ton/day, and inert materials unit 1000 ton/day), theses expected capacities of each unit built on Baghdad municipality percentages of each type of waste (57% organic materials, 23% energy sources materials, and 20% for inert materials such as construction waste). From the findings can be concluded that Baghdad city can reach the desired goal (zero-waste) by recycling its waste and implementing a comprehensive management system that includes education, sustainable production, and consumption. Very few investigations have been observed in the fields of zero-waste design, this study shows that the field of zero-waste knowledge is various, and a zero-waste concept is continually growing through different strategies, plans, procedures, and policies. The judgments of this study propose that zero-waste programs are applied in many countries without any holistic zero-waste strategy. The study indicates that countries might be ready to reach zero-waste purposes of explaining general zero-waste plans and by uniting and promoting zero-waste actions (in cities and manufacturers).
... These targets are introduced in the Directives, either in the Directives that regulate the operations, as with Landfill Directive; in the WFD, which contains the objectives for household waste and construction and demolition waste or in Directives that regulate different waste streams, Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive Although the analysis of the fixed targets and their evolution does not fall under the scope of this research, it is important to mention that research has begun important analysis and evaluations of processes in the search for improvement and technology development, such as for end-of -life-vehicles (Edwards et al., 2006;Ene and Öztürk, 2015;Gerrard and Kandlikar, 2006;Johnson and Wang, 2002;Tasala Gradin et al., 2013;Zameri et al., 2006), WEEE (Bigum et al., 2013;Jha et al., 2013;Ylä-Mella et al., 2014b, 2014aZotos et al., 2009), batteries and accumulators Espinosa et al., 2004) or packaging waste Guerrini et al., 2017;Luijsterburg and Goossens, 2014). ...
... But given that countries must achieve objectives, numerous analysis have also been carried out in different territorial areas such as China (Zhang et al., 2011), United Kingdom (Edwards et al., 2006), Denmark (Bigum et al., 2013), the Nordic Countries (Ylä-Mella et al., 2014b, 2014a, Greece (Zotos et al., 2009) or Portugal (da Cruz et al., 2012;Marques et al., 2014). ...
Article
The study of efficiency in hazardous waste management has been proved to be a driving factor for sustainable development (SD). This study focuses on a performance assessment of European countries, most of them European Union (EU) member states and candidate countries that share a common legislative framework through European regulations, in order to provide a general understanding of hazardous waste performance. In this paper, we use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to examine the efficiency of 32 countries in Europe by using novel input/output environmental parameters to study the efficiency of the different waste management operations from an environmental point of view. This analysis contrasts the efficiency in the management of total waste versus hazardous waste and studies three operations with hazardous wastes: incineration and incineration with energy recovery, disposal and recovery. Results show that there are differences in the achievement of efficiency, not only among countries, but also among the different waste management operations analysed.
... To do so, it is important to develop solid waste management policies nationally, regionally, and locally by the corresponding authorities that set the base of the implementation of any waste management program. The development of strategies will be followed by national policies which will set the appropriate targets in terms of, e.g., recycling level, recycling scheme performance, etc. [12]. The whole process requires the citizens' participation and reaches to high efficiency levels once the appropriate supporting infrastructure is provided [13][14][15]. ...
... This is an interactive field, where environmental education, SWM projects efficiency, SWM infrastructure, and job opportunities feed each other. Recycling activities develop the local environmental and SWM market and provide (self-) employment opportunities and opportunities for decent work in the broader SWM and resource field require comprehensive programmes for human development, education, building at the same time productive capacity and improving local infrastructure [12,35]. ...
Article
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Recycling is one of the management options applied to: minimize the landfilled waste quantity, provide raw materials, and assist in sustaining the environment for future generations. The success of any recycling program globally depends mostly on the active and sustained participation of citizens. The purpose of the conducted research presented in this paper is to investigate the recycling barriers and offer an insight into the motivations that may encourage local population to increase participation in local recycling schemes. The research focused on Ramallah and Al-Bireh district of Palestine, which is a developing country with minimum infrastructure and economics; the raw data were collected using structured questionnaires. The influence of four basic socio-economic factors, namely, gender, level of education, age, and type of residence, on recycling barriers of individuals was recorded and investigated. The results showed that: lack of awareness and information on the process of waste separation and storage are the basic recycling barriers of the local population, whereas financial incentive is the major motivational factor for their active participation. Most importantly, the field research proved that locals are willing to participate in recycling campaigns and almost half of them appreciate the necessity of recycling-green-point’s existence for the collection of segregated waste.
... Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis is a tool used in the framework of situation analysis that is aimed at the analysis of an organisation and its environment from a strategic perspective (Little and Marandi, 2003). SWOT analysis thus constitutes a common tool applied to organisational assessment for strategic planning of a business and its environment (Helms and Nixon, 2010) and also in the field of WM (Antoniou and Zabaniotou, 2015;Beloborodko et al., 2015;Cook et al., 2015;Salman et al., 2015;Zabaniotou, 2014a, 2014b;Srivastava et al., 2005;Tai and He, 2007;Weng et al., 2015;Yuan, 2013;Zamorano et al., 2011;Zhang and Chen, 2013;Zotos et al., 2009;Zurbrügg et al., 2012). This flexible and adaptive tool provides a qualitative examination aimed at evaluating and understanding the status of an organisation (Rachid and El Fadel, 2013). ...
Article
Policymakers apply various policy instruments to meet the objective of resource conservation in the framework of waste policy. The cantonal waste policy of Geneva implements this objective by focussing on sorting of household waste for recycling. Cantonal and municipal authorities use incentive instruments and a mix of infrastructural and persuasive instruments to develop waste sorting for households. However, they have so far failed to reach the objective of a recovery rate of 50% for household waste in Geneva. This study assesses recycling and sorting practices for household waste in Geneva as basis for the formulation of a new improved strategy. This interdisciplinary assessment combines a policy evaluation of the household waste management system over the period 2002–2013 with a situation analysis of the current household waste management practices through a SWOT analysis by using triangulation as the method of data collection. The results of policy evaluation show the effectiveness of incentive instruments (e.g., incineration tax) in encouraging the Genevan municipalities to implement and improve sorting infrastructures and services. Moreover, they demonstrate that a combination of infrastructural (e.g., collection points) and persuasive (e.g., awareness raising campaigns) instruments is effective for enhancing the Genevan household waste sorting practices under certain conditions. The situation analysis identifies the significant internal and external factors that have a positive or a negative influence on household waste sorting and recycling in Geneva. The outputs of the policy evaluation and situation analysis serve to formulate a strategy that is adapted to local specificities. This strategy highlights the necessity for policymakers to avoid unnecessary duplication of the sorting system among the stakeholders and the importance of national authorities for creating framework conditions to encourage the implementation of recycling sectors.
... Integrated management of HSWSP at source may optimize the management of urban solid waste in all sectors and may promote the participation of stakeholders, the effectiveness of the services and the processes of waste separation and recycling (Memon 2010). The lack of integrated urban management system has been reported as a major challenge in the metropolitan cities of Iran (Sarafi 2009;Pourahmad et al. 2012) and some other developing countries (Zotos et al. 2009), as well. These results indicated that municipal authorities can take an important step in successful implementation of the programs through integrating HSWSP at source to the national waste management programs. ...
Article
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Identifying the challenges in source separation of waste in different communities may lead to better understanding on the potential outcomes of recycling programs. Our goal in this study was to identify the challenges of conducting household solid waste separation plan (HSWSP) at source in Tabriz metropolitan city, Iran. In this qualitative study, fourteen key informants on HSWSP at source were interviewed. Content analysis with conventional approach was used to analyze the data. MAXQDA10 was applied to organize the data, to categorize the codes and to identify the relationships between the concepts. Six core categories were identified as the main challenges in the HSWSP at source: (a) low level of participation among citizens; (b) garbage robbery; (c) unbalanced resources; (d) weakness in policymaking; (e) poor performance of private sector; and (f) lack of integrated management. Considering the six challenges identified as hindrances to the successful implementation of HSWSP at source, policymaking was found to connect all the challenges; thus, this work recommends the key authorities and HSWSP at source policymakers to consider revision of the recycling programs plan with appropriate focus on policy development. The work also recommends an integrated approach that will be unified across the city as well as flexible to incorporate variations at various regions of the city.
... In conventional benchmarking process, either the individual PIs are compared or their normalized scores are aggregated to assess and compare the performance of the key components [10]. Information obtained from inter-municipality benchmarking, performed at local, regional, national, and global levels, provide useful information to the top-level management of the municipality for holistic planning of available resources [11]. Operations managers practically develop performance action plans and hold an interest in the performance of underlying processes (or sub-components) in each key component [12,13]. ...
Article
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Most of the municipalities in the Gulf region are facing performance-related issues in their municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems. They lack a deliberate inter-municipality benchmarking processes. Instead of identifying the performance gaps for their key components (e.g., personnel productivity, operational reliability, etc.) and adopt proactive measures, the municipalities primarily rely on an efficient emergency response. A novel hierarchical modeling framework, based on deductive reasoning, is developed for the performance assessment of MSWM systems. Fuzzy rule-based modeling using Simulink-MATLAB was used for performance inferencing at different levels, i.e., component, sub-components, etc. The model is capable of handling the inherent uncertainties due to limited data and an imprecise knowledge base. The model's outcomes can exclusively assist the managers working at different levels of organizational hierarchy for effective decision-making. Performance of the key components assists the senior management in assessing the overall compliance level of performance objectives. Subsequently, operations management can home in the sub-components to acquire useful information for intra-municipality performance management. Meanwhile, individual indicators are useful for inter-municipality benchmarking. The model has been implemented on two municipalities operating in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. The results demonstrate the model's pragmatism for continuous performance improvement of MSWM systems in the country and elsewhere.
... So, one of the most difficult tasks that faced by town and urban planning agency is choosing a prospective landfill potential area (Rushbrook & Pugh, 1999). Multiple decisions must be made at the same time in order to reduce the impact without jeopardising social, economic, environmental, or technical factors (Kontos et al., 2005, b;Zotos et al., 2009). The development of a landfill is critical as part of a solid waste management strategy. ...
Article
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Identification of suitable landfill sites for urban wastes with ease and economic benefits in the metropolitan area is a complex task. Most of the developing countries consider wastelands outside of the urban areas are the ideal places to dispose of urban wastes. Landfill site selection is an essential planning procedure that helps to avoid environmental concerns such as water contamination, public health degradation caused by unsanitary landfills. So, employing a geographic information system (GIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), this study was carried out to find an appropriate planning waste dump site. Nine thematic layers were evaluated as key criteria, including elevation, slope, geology, lineament, land value, distance from river, roads, residence, and Land use and land cover (LULC) weights assigned using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) method analysis. The relative relevance of each parameter was calculated using Saaty’s 1 to 9 priority scale. The consistency ratio was used to check the weighting of each parameter, allowing the efficiency of the chosen parameters to be justified. The overlay analysis of all parameters with aid of GIS provides suitable sites that were marked and refined after the comprehensive field visits were performed. According to the findings, in the study area, 35.61% area is very low suitable for landfilling, 32.64% area is low suitable, 19.37% area is moderate suitable, 8.90% area is highly suitable and certainly, 3.48% area is very high suitable by Natural breaks classification. The very high suitable site belongs to Dhadagoch, Gadheaganj, and its surroundings in the study area. Nevertheless, the present study can help urban planners and concerned authorities to better succeed in urban waste management in the Siliguri municipal corporation planning area.
... Economic, technical, and normative aspects need to be considered, paying particular attention to environmental issues (Costi et al., 2004). For example, Wilson et al. (2001) and Zotos et al. (2009) have discussed the enabling and preventing factors related to the planning of efficient MSW management in the European context. A spectrum of managerial methods has been developed to meet sustainability goals . ...
... Local conditions economical or social will adjust the settings according the volume or the weight of the waste. (1) The application of such a scheme as PAYT is difficult to be found beside small countries or small regions like Luxemburg in which the national legislation includes the application of such a programme. In Germany, the 50% of the municipalities have already implemented a way of such a mechanism like PAYT in order to charge for the solid waste. ...
Conference Paper
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A modern innovative Pay As You Throw (PAYT) system has been developed from the close collaboration of three companies (Helesi, Arvis and ISE4b) and two national universities (NTUA and AUTH). The developed PAYT system integrates Information Technologies (IT) into the solid waste management chain for supporting the general concept " Pay Less As You Efficiently/Effectively Recycle/Reuse/Reduce ". The PAYT system developed implemented a customized user (recycler) identification system (smart card) which provides Local Authorities and citizens with a virtual identity and stores relevant data. The system uses a digital scale to determine the weight of the recyclables and transmits the output to a web server. A web-based/mobile application is used to check users' recycling progress, collect points and claim benefits (e.g. products, services). The system supports citizens in monitoring their recycling achievements and is also able to monitor the amount and kind of recyclables in the containers together with their filling status and location and send this information to a control center. Using software optimization techniques, specific algorithms allows proper management of the container location and distribution in a specific urban area, as well as the collection from each container; Local Authorities' control center is also able to program the best time and route that every truck should make in order to reduce environmental and economic impact of the collection, with particular emphasis on greenhouse gas emissions.
... Local authorities in the developing world are battling to cope with waste and the management thereof. The rapid increase in the amount of waste can be contributed to people moving to urban areas and economic growth with the resultant rise in consumption patterns (Zotos et al., 2009;Al-Khatib et al., 2010;Marshall and Farahbakhsh, 2013). Factors that hinder local government in managing solid waste include the increase of municipal waste, lack of skilled staff, limited budget, lack of land for landfill sites and very low recycling rates (Oelofse & Godfrey, 2008;Suttibak & Nitivattananon, 2008). ...
Conference Paper
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Waste, and the management thereof, is a major societal challenge in both developed and developing countries. In South Africa metropolitan areas are running out of landfill space and only 10% of waste is recycled. The role that waste pickers play in waste management and recycling has been unrecognized for many years. The City of Johannesburg (CoJ) started formalizing the waste pickers in the city as part of their vision of a 'green African city'. However, very little is known about the waste pickers and their views on formalization. This study profiled the trolley pushers on the streets in Johannesburg and the problems they encounter daily. It further investigated their willingness to join the formalisation of their roles and what equipment the city must provide. Trolley pushers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The results showed that 80.4% of respondents are male, the majority of the waste pickers is in the 30-39 years age group with limited education. They earn on average R900 per week working long hours and are harassed by police and taxi drivers. They are unaware that CoJ is formalising their role. However, 65.5% indicated they would like to take part in the formalisation process and that CoJ must provide them with safety equipment and sorting facilities.
... Two examples stand forth as torchbearer in dealing with E-waste; i) the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directive as enacted by the European Union [37] and ii) the Specified Home Appliance Recycling (SHAR) introduced in Japan which lays the onus of recycling of electronic goods on the producers [55]. In Mauritius, there is no such legislative, but some good practices do Municipalities are called to play the key role towards sustainable development on the zero-waste pathway [56]. ...
Article
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Climate change is a global phenomenon that is expected to affect cities around the world to differing degrees and scales. Developing and emerging cities have a range of challenges to deal with in responding to climate change while aspiring to leap frog outdated approaches. It will be important for these cities to undertake well informed and strategic approaches to respond to climate change in urban planning; both in adaptation and mitigation. However, the two do not always complement each other and focusing on one area may be counterproductive overall. Literature also shows that it is also important to understand that adaptation and mitigation strategies in low income cities need to focus on social and economic issues along with environmental measures. This paper seeks to investigate how waste management can offer an extra dimension where urban policies can contribute to move towards a net-zero carbon city. Through a focus on waste minimisation there are a range of mitigation options available that are associated with reducing the wastage of energy, materials, and water. This paper outlines the findings of an assessment of technological, environmental, institutional and socio-economic opportunities and challenges related to a ‘Zero Waste’ pathway for one small emerging African city; Port Louis, the capital city of the island of Mauritius. The findings of this study seek to inform policy makers to implement ‘Zero Waste’ policies and approaches in Mauritius.
... First, it was recognized that sustainability challenges, such as that of MSW, require new ways of knowledge production and decision-making, where the focus is on research collaboration among scientists from different disciplines as well as between scientists and non-academic stakeholders (i.e., business, government, and civil society) [1][2][3][4]. It has been argued that in order to change established waste management practices, there is a need for public engagement in the political, institutional, and social arenas in which decisions are made [5,6]. Second, in this process, citizens play a crucial role in achieving cleaner and more sustainable societies through the ways in which they purchase products and deal with waste in and around their homes. ...
Article
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Growing waste production has become a global sustainability challenge that is in need of innovative solutions. It has been argued that greater public engagement in science and technology policy could stimulate new directions for innovation and provide orientation for the development of more acceptable, sustainable, and desirable innovations that address societal needs. In 2013, the European Commission (EC) piloted a EU-wide study to engage citizens in setting the research and innovation (R&I) agenda on urban waste. This yielded the question: 'To what extent are the proposed ideas considered innovative, feasible, and meaningful for the EC R&I agenda?' This article addresses the outcomes of 100 focus group discussions held in 27 European Union (EU) countries in which 992 citizens were consulted. Citizens discussed a number of (self-experienced) barriers and concerns regarding waste management, and proposed and prioritized over 350 ideas to realize a (near) zero-waste society. Although citizens found it complex to propose innovative and feasible ideas, their priorities were consistent with current EU research policy areas of importance (e.g., reduce packaging, stimulate recycling), and in addition, citizens proposed various new ways to strengthen current waste management (e.g., innovations to enhance convenience in household waste management). We argue that citizen involvement in EC R&I agenda-setting across the EU is feasible, and leads to meaningful input. However, in making sense of this input, it is essential to take contextual differences into account. Various recommendations are given for future agenda-setting activities at the EU level.
... Initiatives to improve waste management, require participation of both public and private sectors (Kirama & Mayo, 2016). The municipalities have a key role to play in supporting changes towards achieving a zero waste society (Zotos et al., 2009). If society shift toward zero waste, alternative material pathways like composting and recycling will become more attractive. ...
Article
Poor waste management in developing countries indicates that waste generation is mostly associated with the economic status of a society, their weak economy-social factors affected by the absence of proper environmental legislation, financial management and administrative capacities. Over the years, increasing amount of waste without any treatment is mainly disposed of on the existing dumpsites in the municipalities. This practice not allows the exploitation of resources from waste, and represents a huge loss of resources and threat to the environment and human health. Therefore, this problem is very complex and requires constant adjustment of the situation, fluctuations and the needs and demands of innovative solutions. This paper is focused on the drivers that have the biggest impact on waste management in Serbia and improvement of the system by changing the impact of the drivers. The objective is related to waste management drivers in the context of circular economy. This includes establishing baseline data on waste and assessment of the current waste management system, setting future goals, identification of issues, plans for integrated waste management and their implementation. The paper identifies bottlenecks that restrict Serbian’s sustainable development, such as low levels of reuse, recycling and recovery of waste, shortage of advanced technology, significant waste disposal amounts and weak economic incentives. The comparison is made with the Municipality of Ljubljana approach to Zero waste practice and circular economy. This analysis depicts real opportunities for more sustainable and efficient waste management in the municipalities and suggests a step forward towards the integrating best Zero Waste practices in the municipalities in developing countries.
... Recycle and Recover are the main processes used for managing waste in organizations, which are also known as the 4 R's of waste management. These waste management processes have been regulated by implementing new tools and adopting new technologies for managing waste in the service sector organizations (Lee 2001;Zotos et al. 2009). In this chapter, the hotel industry has been chosen as the service sector organization for analyzing waste management processes. ...
Chapter
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Dynamics of global environment can be achieved in service sector by managing waste in the service sector organizations. This chapter highlights the role of waste management in service sector organizations, specifically in the hotel industry. In this chapter, waste management in the hotel industry has been analyzed through a case study, wherein Situation–Actor–Process and Learning–Action–Performance (SAP–LAP), SAP–LAP linkages, Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM) and Flowing Stream Strategy (FSS) have been used to conduct the waste management case study in a hotel. In SAP framework, situation includes the present scenario of waste management practice followed in the hotel. Actors are the participants that affect the situation, and on the basis of SAP–LAP, analysis has been performed. TISM is used for identifying the driving and dependent factors in the hotel waste management. The final outcome of TISM model has been analyzed through FSS and SAP–LAP linkages framework. The outcome of chapter provides the roadmap of waste management scenario in the hotel, which explains the waste management strategies in term of FSS elements, i.e. raise, maintain and reduce.
... Initiatives to improve waste management services and the overall sustainability environmental policy chosen by local authorities require participation of all involved stakeholders (citizens, NGOs, state authorities, etc.). In order to be successful, all actions have to be credible, transparent, socially sustainable and, as far as possible, convenient and practical to participants [11]. Thus, consciousness-raising and training capacity for citizens are fundamental for the success of the composting plan. ...
... A useful tool for assessing the performance of city MSWM systems and recycling activities, the WBI provides a simple view of the whole MSWM system . In general, local authorities often do not know how well or how badly they are performing and at what level they should set their goals (Zotos et al., 2009). Furthermore, in environmental topics, the problem is how information can be gathered and assessed in a simple, affordable and rapid manner, while allowing stakeholders to make more informed decisions and to apply new strategies. ...
Article
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Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is considered an important public health, economic and environmental concern, especially in developing countries. This paper introduces the situation of MSWM in La Paz (Bolivia) in 2016, and is based on the Wasteaware indicators and waste flow analysis, useful tools for classifying and comparing waste treatment and management plans among other countries. Taking into account the lack of technology in waste treatment and the presence of a developed informal sector, the paper analyses the main strengths and weak points for implementing a sustainable MSWM. The research conducted revealed that the MSWM of La Paz is not efficient with regard to collection, recycling (8%), financial sustainability, and equity of the service. At the same time, local Government and stakeholders are interested in implementing new MSWM methods for improving the current sanitary state of the city and many efforts were made over the last ten years. In general terms, La Paz could be considered as a good study area for developing plans for waste valorization, becoming an example for a low–middle income developing big city of Latin America. The study provided a few considerations about the affordability of the methodology applied and critically analyzed the case study proposed.
... Developing holistic strategies for life cycle waste activities requires the cooperation of various stakeholders (e.g. citizens, state authorities, and enterprises), implying trade-offs among safe collection and disposal, socio-economic feasibility, technologies available, efficient waste services and environmentally-friendly actions (e.g., GHG emissions reduction) (Zotos et al., 2009;Zaman, 2014;Cucchiella et al., 2013). Given the various operating objectives of the waste sector, alternative measures involving waste prevention, transportation improvement and disposal optimization have been proposed in current city management. ...
Article
Waste-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been recognized as one of the prominent contributors to global warming. Current urban waste regulations, however, face increasing challenges from stakeholders' trade-offs and hierarchic management. A combined method, i.e., life cycle inventories and scenario analysis, was employed to investigate waste-related GHG emissions during 1995-2015 and to project future scenarios of waste-driven carbon emissions by 2050 in a pilot low carbon city, Xiamen, China. The process-based carbon analysis of waste generation (prevention and separation), transportation (collection and transfer) and disposal (treatment and recycling) shows that the main contributors of carbon emissions are associated with waste disposal processes, solid waste, the municipal sector and Xiamen Mainland. Significant spatial differences of waste-related CO2e emissions were observed between Xiamen Island and Xiamen Mainland using the carbon intensity and density indexes. An uptrend of waste-related CO2e emissions from 2015 to 2050 is identified in the business as usual, waste disposal optimization, waste reduction and the integrated scenario, with mean annual growth rates of 8.86%, 8.42%, 6.90% and 6.61%, respectively. The scenario and sensitivity analysis imply that effective waste-related carbon reduction requires trade-offs among alternative strategies, actions and stakeholders in a feasible plan, and emphasize a priority of waste prevention and collection in Xiamen. Our results could benefit to the future modeling of urban multiple wastes and life-cycle carbon control in similar cities within and beyond China.
... With the increasing power of consumers in society, the role of social norms and values has been increasingly recognized in pursuing inclusivity and environmental justice in the waste management sector. The use of community-oriented tools toward a "Zero-Waste City" could be highly effective (138)(139)(140). ...
Article
Urbanization is one of the biggest social transformations of modern time, driving and driven by multiple social, economic, and environmental processes. The impacts of urbanization on the environment are profound, multifaceted and are manifested at the local, regional, and global scale. This article reviews recent advances in conceptual and empirical knowledge linking urbanization and the environment, focusing on six core aspects: air pollution, ecosystems, land use, biogeochemical cycles and water pollution, solid waste management, and the climate. We identify several emerging trends and remaining questions in urban environmental research, including (a) increasing evidence on the amplified or accelerated environmental impacts of urbanization; (b) varying distribution patterns of impacts along geographical and other socio-economic gradients; (c) shifting focus from understanding and quantifying the impacts of urbanization toward understanding the processes and underlying mechanisms; (d) increasing focus on understanding complex interactions and interlinkages among different environmental, social, economic, and cultural processes; and (e) conceptual advances that call for articulating and using a systems approach in cities. In terms of governing the urban environment, there is an increasing focus on public participation and co-production of knowledge with stakeholders. Cities are actively experimenting toward sustainability under a plethora of guiding concepts that manifest their aspirational goals, with varying levels of implementation and effectiveness.
... In this paper, we discuss students' attitudes to recycle and interests in solid waste issues through a questionnaire survey. The objective is to understand which are the main difficulties for introducing sustainable approaches and main weaknesses that should be solved in order to develop waste reduction targets, promotion of waste separation activities, and the vision of 'zero-waste', as proposed in other case studies worldwide [1,44]. ...
Article
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Solid waste mismanagement is a social burden that requires the introduction of reliable public policies, including recycling principles and technological facilities. However, the development of recycling plans is a real issue for municipal governments, since it involves psychological and cultural factors, both in developed and developing countries. Questionnaire survey is an important tool for evaluating which solid waste management policy is suited for each specific study area, involving citizens and stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to evaluate what approach should be applied for social surveys in higher education institutes, comparing developing and developed countries. Italy is the developed country analyzed, where two universities in different cities are compared, while La Paz (Bolivia) is the emerging reality considered. The research conducted in La Paz led us to understand that, although recycling rates are low (about 8%), many students (56.96%) separate up to half of the waste produced at home. At the same time, about 53% of those interviewed do not know the recycling practices implemented by the informal sector which is the one that constantly act for improving the recycling rates of the city. Low technological acceptance is instead underlined in the high income country, since there is a common negative opinion concerning the introduction of landfills and incinerators near residential areas (49% disagree). A comparison of the methodologies adopted for the two case studies is introduced whereas investigations results are presented.
... The management of urban residues is a major environmental concern worldwide whose magnitude only tends to increase year after year (Zotos et al., 2009). Sewage sludge (SS) is one of the most worrying components of total waste, as it is generated in large quantities during wastewater treatment processes (Pathak et al., 2009). ...
... Indeed, waste generation, collection, transportation and disposal continues to put pressure on state resources and its physical infrastructure (Oresanya, 1998;Idowu et al., 2011). However, in view of limited budgetary allocation to waste management services that have low initial monetary returns on investments vis-a-vis the challenge of delivering efficient and cost-effective waste service, the state Government, like other cities of the modern world (Wilson et al., 2006;Singhai and Pandey, 2001;Agarwal et al., 2005;Pasang et al., 2007;Sharholy et al., 2008;Zotos et al., 2008;Turan et al., 2009;Nitivattanannon and Sembiring, 2010;Young et al., 2010;Zhang et al;2010;Dagadu and Nunoo, 2011;Nzeadibe and Ajaero, 2011), has taken giant strides to curb the menace of attendant waste management issues. The state government instituted the Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA), the agency t h a t performs supervisory roles and statutorily charged with the implementation, advocacy, monitoring and enforcement of waste management policies. ...
Article
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One of the challenges of Lagos State is efficient and cost-effective solid waste management. This paper focuses on progress made in waste management operations in the State. An assessment to know how waste generation, collection, transportation and disposal have put demands on state resources, and its physical infrastructure was carried out. The state generates about 12,000 metric tons of waste daily (0.72kg/person/day). Due to limited budgetary allocation, the state government instituted the Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA) to perform supervisory roles and charged with the implementation, advocacy, monitoring and enforcement of waste management policies. As part of its roles, the agency enlisted Private Service Providers (PSP) for the purpose of appropriate billing of waste services. LAWMA centrally collects revenue and remits agreed portion of 60% of waste charges to individual PSP accounts in accordance to estimated waste collected. The state is focused on resource recovery programs such as composting, land filling and pelletizing of plastics and nylons. The implications (environmental, economic, social and financial) for managing solid waste gives credence to the renewal campaign for resource conservation and environmental sustainability. Thus, the 4 Rs of waste management – Reduction, Reuse, Recovery and Recycling are being demonstrated through establishment of compost production plant, championing of Waste-To-Wealth Initiatives and Renewable Energy (RE).
... Sin embargo, hoy en día resulta injustificable, desde el punto de vista ambiental, ético y estratégico, olvidar la planificación a medio y largo plazo. La cuestión es, como reconocen, Zotos et al., (2009) no comprometer el potencial actual de recursos que puedan destinarse a promover y financiar modelos de gestión sostenible. Aunque es cierto que se requieren acciones a corto plazo para resolver los problemas operacionales que plantea una gestión integrada de los residuos, es imprescindible mantener la perspectiva a largo plazo, con la vista puesta en los objetivos, necesidades y soluciones futuras. ...
Article
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Desde hace más de doce años, la provincia de Guipúzcoa está viviendo un debate en torno a la gestión de los Residuos Sólidos Urbanos de este territorio. Desde que en 2002 se aprobara un primer documento de planificación sectorial sobre gestión de RSU, los desacuerdos y enfrentamientos a nivel político y ciudadano han impedido la puesta en marcha de ninguna de las actuaciones e infraestructuras previstas en el mencionado plan de residuos. El núcleo del conflicto se sitúa fundamentalmente en la planta de incineración con recuperación energética prevista en el plan, reclamada por algunos sectores como la solución óptima y rechazada por otros como innecesaria y perjudicial desde el punto de vista medioambiental y de salud pública. El problema de Guipúzcoa forma parte de un debate más general sobre los modelos idóneos de gestión de residuos, de complejidad y alcance muy considerables. Dentro de este contexto, el artículo presenta los resultados de una revisión bibliográfica del tema realizada con el fin de 1) contrastar el grado de acuerdo existente entre las propuestas y planteamientos procedentes del ámbito científico y las líneas de actuación que define la política europea de residuos y 2) obtener una visión sintética y actualizada de los aspectos nucleares del debate en torno a la gestión de los residuos sólidos urbanos. Para ello se ha realizado un rastreo bibliográfico mediante palabras clave de dos de las bases de datos bibliográficas más reputadas y utilizadas en la investigación científica (ScienceDirect y Scopus). El análisis bibliométrico y temático demuestran el interés creciente de la comunidad investigadora en torno al tema y la existencia de visiones a menudo contradictorias que dividen a los expertos y que demuestran la necesidad de reconducir el debate existente, incorporando elementos de análisis hasta es presente escasamente considerados.
... Corporate groups are in a better position to get external cash, because they have diverse investments that reduce their operating risks and provide mutual insurance or risk sharing (Khanna and Yafeh, 2005). They may also obtain investment funds at advantageous interest rates more easily, without needing external financing (Duchin, 2010), which aligns with the call for huge investment in tangible infrastructures such as incinerators, recycling facilities, and landfills (Zotos et al., 2009). ...
Article
Drawing on stakeholder theory, the premise in this manuscript is that moral and ethical behavior in terms of correct financial information contribute to higher sustainable performance that satisfies the wide range of stakeholders who are interested in the economic feasibility and environmental viability of waste management firms. On the basis of a scientific literature review and by using a balanced panel data set of 416 waste management firms worldwide over the period 2013–2016, the empirical evidence shows that ownership structures (e.g. governmental, institutional, corporate group, family, and concentrated) as well as corporate governance characteristics (e.g. size of the board, directors’ gender, nationality, and expertise) diversely affect waste management firms’ accounting behavior in terms of both discretionary accruals and earnings smoothness. The findings bring into focus the “black boxes” of ownership structures and corporate governance encouraging the policy makers to shape up laws that can constrain accounting misbehavior in waste management firms.
... During the last decade, a very ambitious policy has begun in Europe to minimize the amount of waste to be disposed of by rethinking the process of waste disposal and improving recycling, recovery, reuse [3][4][5][6]. For these countries, industrial symbiosis could become a good mid-term solution to save resources and move towards a circular economy on a landfill basis [7,8]. ...
Article
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Circular economy is a tool based on the inclusion of environmental, social, and governance performance (ESG) in decision-making to achieve sustainable development goals (SDG). In recent years, it has become clear that business-as-usual has nothing to do with sustainability, and alternative business models, primarily on technological grounds, must be implemented to mitigate the damage caused by significant and unpredictable effects of climate change. The current situation requires unprecedented and urgent changes to policies and business development models. The current research aimed to target on industrial symbiosis as one of the business models of the circular economy. It evaluated the benefits of symbiosis and the fostering of cooperation between industries and, consequently, has a major impact on resource efficiency ratios. The research is based on quantitative and qualitative research methods, including a literature review, assessment, and application of the triangulation method. As a result of this research, the authors realized a matrix for the development of regional or cross-country industrial symbiosis that can be used by policymakers to foster the development of symbiotic interconnections on a wide scale. The authors also recommend the development of the Baltic University Program (BUP) network center of excellence and methodological justification for industries to engage in industrial symbiosis (IS).
... 16 Minimizing the impact without compromising social, economic, environmental, and technical aspects requires multiple decisions at a time. 17,18 The use of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approaches to tackle complicated decision-making situations, such as landfill site selection, is common. 19 The use of multi-criteria decision approaches (MCDA), which combine geographic information systems (GIS), and multicriteria evaluation techniques such as the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), is currently considered as a better approach. ...
Article
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Solid waste disposal is one of the challenging components in integrated solid waste management. Particularly the problem is prominent in cities with rapid population growth and waste generation. Harar, a capital city of Harari regional state located in the eastern part of Ethiopia, covers an area of 19.5 km ² and has a total population of 270 000. Despite the fastest population growth of the city, it doesn’t have a landfill site to accommodate the waste generated and open dumping is in full practice. As an integral part of a solid waste management plan, the construction of a landfill has been suggested by the city municipality. However, the multi-dimensional and conflicting aspect of landfill sitting, which involves environmental, social, technical, and economic considerations, challenges the location of a suitable landfill site. In the current study, we have applied geographic information system (GIS) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) multi-criteria decision analysis to select a landfill site through minimizing conflicting interests. Environmental and socio-economic factors including well water, distance from residence, land use and land cover, elevation, slope, and wind direction were weighted to develop a suitability index for landfill siting. Experts’ opinion was obtained to rank the aforementioned factors. The required landfill size was determined based on population growth, waste generation rate, and waste volume/year. Accordingly, the suitability index resulted in 3% of the area as highly suitable, and the rest 0.29%, 14.18%, 52.75%, and 29.8% classified as unsuitable, least suitable, moderately suitable, and suitable, respectively. Considering the future trend of waste generation, 16 ha of land located in the eastern part of the city was selected as a candidate landfill site with all the required suitability. The results of this study can be used as an input for decision making in siting landfill for Harar city.
... Initiatives to improve waste management, require participation of both public and private sectors (Kirama & Mayo, 2016). The municipalities have a key role to play in supporting changes towards achieving a zero waste society (Zotos et al., 2009). If society shift toward zero waste, alternative material pathways like composting and recycling will become more attractive. ...
... Also, the absence and the non-involvement of stakeholders in the planning and decision-making process, lack of long-term waste strategies, unskilled staff, low coordination between authorities and local workers as well as the low level of concern about sustainability are also among the main issues that strategies may face significant issues. Forsyth (2006) and Zotos et al. (2009) mentioned that in local level (small municipalities) appears with limited implementation of policies as they influence less. Inadequate governmental policy, education, low levels of waste collection, scale of economy, recyclable markets, and land availability also identified as potential barriers for success implementation of recycling strategy (Troschinetz and Mihelcic, 2009). ...
Article
Taking into account the declaration from the Treaty of Rome (back in 1957), on environmental protection "the harmonization of environmental legislations and uniformity in the fight against certain forms of aid, so that technical barriers to the free circulation of goods would not arise due to different national links", there is a need to develop Strategy(ies) in the Framework of Waste Management in order to reach the targets on 2050. Those Strategies aim to increase quality of life and change the way that citizens react in the great debates. Those Strategies should reduce the impact of several processes on the environment through product, processes, and corporate policies using green applicable sustainable resources and environmental management systems (such as ISO 14001, EMAS) as well as a number of activities (prevention, reduced, reused etc) measuring at the same time the impact on society. This paper provides a holistic approach processing how to develop, implement, monitor and improve a strategy (even an existing one) in the framework of waste management at a local level and or at a central level. The proposed methodology could be a useful tool for any policy makers, consultants, engineers, urban planners, academics etc., in order to develop and apply strategy related with household and/or food waste prevention, material reuse, waste reduce (i.e plastics, food, recyclables etc)., in the framework of household solid waste management and beyond. Moreover, the adoption of Strategy(ies) also aims to protect and enhance the Union's natural capital and to turn the Union into a resource-efficient, green, and competitive low-carbon economy in the nearest future taking into acount also the European Green Deal stategy.
... 10. Overall summary classification of factors according to PESTLE classification analysis in the Delphi survey.Of all the listed political factors, local government plan and government priorities were fully agreed by all experts as visible . A documented SWM plan, which is visible and accessible, is important to the development of local waste management systems(Zotos et al., 2009). Undoubtedly, government plays a fundamental role in waste management in terms of planning and providing required services as well as ensuring safe disposal of waste(Mukhtar et al., 2017). ...
Thesis
Despite a remarkable progress in economic status of countries around the world, there are significant negative implications on the environment resulted from the escalation and complexity of solid waste generated. The development of common strategy to understand the interactions of solid waste management factors has become increasingly challenging due to the differences of city’s realities and local waste circumstances. There are many factors that influenced such differences, how the systems evolved overtime and shaped the future systems. Although various factors of solid waste management are applicable at a basic level in every country, the strength of each factor and depth of interaction with other factors are unique in each local context. The overall study aims to identify sets of fundamental factors and their interactions between one to another that are impacted the development of solid waste management in terms of their visibility and influence. Visible factors are commonly considered in the development of SWM solid waste management which are measurable by specific indicators or scale,quantifiableby measuring methods,considered indecision making and implementation processes, published for awareness and available for relevant access by public. Influence of factors refers to the impact of each factor on the development of SWM solid waste management. This study employs a two rounds Delphi to seek global experts’ views from developed and developing countries. This study has identified 43 fundamental factors with regard to the development of SWM solid waste management systems and classified them via a PESTLE (political, environment, social, technology, legal and economic) system. Global experts classified these factors in terms of their visibility and influence. The analysis of influence and visibility of fundamental factors in SWM solid waste management shows the different interactions of factors that impacted the development of SWM in developed and developing countries. A conceptual models on waste management status are employed to provide insights on how the ideal combination of fundamental factors can impacted in different conditions. Findings highlights on the need to adopt new perspectives in the selection of factors considered in regard to local waste management systems. Recognising and making use of selected invisible factors within a local context may hasten the implementation and effectiveness of initiatives taken towards the development of SWM systems. Factors in waste management may vary in influence and change dynamically alongside urbanization; this dynamic varies from one country to another and so factors need to be re-evaluated periodically. Alongside the use of a reliable evidence base, addressing the factors in terms of their visibility and influence is crucial if municipalities in developed and developing countries are to move towards more effective and locally optimised sustainable waste management systems.
... Zorpas (2020) provides a holistic approach processing how to develop, implement, monitor and improve a strategy in the framework of waste management at a local level as well as at a central level. Zotos et al. (2009) developed an approach for waste management strategy planning at both the household and companies level. Waste management involves multiple stakeholders such as government agencies, suppliers, consumers, providers of treatment and transport. ...
Article
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The modern way of life places considerable demands on energy and material resources. The limited amount of primary resources and the burden on the environment have supported the circular economy's tendencies which has EU recently incorporated into its legislation as Circular Economy Package. The aim of this package is to turn waste into material or energy source. The waste treatment methods are also regulated in EU legislation through recycling and landfilling targets. Estimation of future waste production and treatment is a fundamental prerequisite for adjustments in waste management. The aim of this paper is to model the municipal solid waste production and treatment at a national level for the EU member states. The principles of linear regression were used to reveal the relationship between waste management data (waste streams production and treatment) and 19 socioeconomic , demographic and other factors. Among the EU states, the resulting models explain at least 66 % of the variability in waste streams production and 52 % in case of waste treatment methods. The most influential variables are GDP, income and educational level of inhabitants. The results of these analyses could be used for forecasting production and waste treatment on the state level and can indicate the gaps between probable development and waste management targets set by the EU. The accuracy and comparability of waste production data across the EU should be further analysed.
... Academic research on zero waste is in its infancy (Zaman, 2015) and how socio-political factors shape zero waste governance is still relatively unclear. Empirical studies of zero waste policies include research on Asia (Fujita and Hill, 2007;Young et al., 2010), Africa (Matate and Trois, 2008), Australasia (Clay et al., 2007;Zaman, 2014a), North America (Murphy and Pincentl, 2013), and Europe (Zotos et al., 2009;Phillips et al., 2011;Cole et al., 2014). Studies have considered policies aimed at communities (Mason et al., 2003); cities (Fujita and Hill, 2007;Zaman and Lehmann, 2011); municipalities (Phillips et al., 2011;Cole et al., 2014;Matate and Trois, 2008) and regions (Silva et al., 2016). ...
... For example, a modern city built with a high ecological footprint is not an "eco-city"; moreover, it is not possible to accommodate the entire world's people in the limited global land area in the same design criteria. Many studies have been conducted in different cities to design effective waste management systems aiming at zero waste, including studies in Masdar City (Nader, 2009), Tshwane (Snyman and Vorster, 2010), Taiwan , India (Colon and Fawcett, 2006), Australia (Clay et al., 2006), Greece (Zotos et al., 2008), and England. However, there have been very few studies on a holistic approach to zero waste cities. Cities are not only over-populated and over-consuming, but they also deplete global finite natural resources at a high rate. ...
Chapter
The modern world produces billions of tons of waste per day. Waste can be of any type such as solid, liquids, or gases. The waste generated causes pollution in the environment. Management of this waste is becoming the biggest challenge to developing nations like India. Lack of knowledge and innovative technologies is pulling down the movement toward waste management. Although the waste generation can be minimized by reducing, reusing and recycling, this involves the awareness of public and a change at communities and global level. Hence, the modern world has started to focus on the manufacturing side by producing products that will not produce waste and can be reused with extended shelf life. Various products are being produced to move toward a Zero Waste society. This will make a huge change in the management of waste and reducing the waste generated. This chapter discusses the products or tools produced with sustainable manufacturing theories applied in prominent sectors.
... Academic research on zero waste is in its infancy (Zaman, 2015) and how socio-political factors shape zero waste governance is still relatively unclear. Empirical studies of zero waste policies include research on Asia (Fujita and Hill, 2007;Young et al., 2010), Africa (Matate and Trois, 2008), Australasia (Clay et al., 2007;Zaman, 2014a), North America (Murphy and Pincentl, 2013), and Europe (Zotos et al., 2009;Phillips et al., 2011;Cole et al., 2014). Studies have considered policies aimed at communities (Mason et al., 2003); cities (Fujita and Hill, 2007;Zaman and Lehmann, 2011); municipalities (Phillips et al., 2011;Cole et al., 2014;Matate and Trois, 2008) and regions (Silva et al., 2016). ...
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Production volumes are increasing by growing economy and consumption processes. Industry and other economic activities generate municipal solid waste stream. With the growth of the industry, economy and pace of consumption, major key is to avoid municipal solid waste (MSW) generation.The majority of developing countries are seeking to alter the prevailing waste management practices and to adapt the concept of Zero Waste society. This study aims to provide guidance in Klaipėda district and gives an opportunity to become the first district in Lithuania, which provides an objective assessment of the public municipal waste management service area and identifies the real situation of the municipal waste management sector. This paper develops that the path towards Zero Waste society is essential for the approximation of the different waste treatment technologies. To achieve this objective is a difficult task because the solution requires a holistic approach to waste generation, collection, processing and disposal. The main conclusions of the study offers a major challenges faced by Klaipėda district of limited data quantifying and characterizing waste generation patterns also suggesting that " way to Zero Waste " society require renewed governmental leadership as well as founding of effective national regulatory framework to reduce waste generation or conserve resources.
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Human activities are considered among the main producers of any kind of pollution. This paper, through a Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model analyses, focuses on the evaluation and assessment of the existing practices, procedures and results obtained in order to determine whether the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management implemented in three major Greek Municipalities in the greater urban area of Attica, namely the Municipalities of Nea Smirni, Vyronas, and Piraeus, could be considered viable and sustainable. The evaluation indicated that MSW in Greek cities have reduced over the last years, also suggesting a steady downward trend, which could be considered consistent with that of the per capita incomes in Greece due to the extended economic austerity, while at the same time the recycling indicator seems to optimize. The results are very useful for policymakers, local authorities towards taking actions related to the targets set from the circular economy strategies as well as the targets set from United Nation Development Program.
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Cemetery waste (CW) constitutes one of the streams of municipal waste (MW). Based on the available data, it can be said that it accounts for about 1% of the mass of MW being generated in Poland. CW management should be carried out selectively. It is estimated that the level of CW selective collection is lower than the average level achieved for MW. This paper presents some solutions concerning the selective collection of CW implemented in selected municipal and denominational cemeteries in Poland. Based on research conducted, the levels of proper separation of glass and biodegradable waste in containers for their selective collection were determined, accordingly as >85% and >80%. Due to the contamination with paraffin residues, the purity of the selectively collected plastic fraction was lower than 20%. The human factor was recognized as the most significant determining efficiency of the selective collection of CW. Therefore, further education of society, as well as promoting good practices in the field of CW management, should be regarded as desirable.
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Developing countries adopt policies to reduce the negative impacts of large amount of waste generated by accelerated industrialization and rapid urbanization, but these actions are far from establishing procedures that meet society's needs, especially regarding the management of municipal solid waste (MSW), which requires the cooperation of numerous stakeholders, and a broad plan of action, in terms of sustainability cities’ targets and policies. In this sense, sustainable and integrated solid waste management (S-ISWM) emerges as a solution to address the growing challenges of disposing of MSW in developing countries municipalities. However, to guide S-ISWM implementation there still a need of a framework with a multi-stakeholder and holistic perspective of the MSW management, considering the barriers and critical success factors (CSFs) to achieve it. To this end, a systematic literature review using the PRISMA diagram on the Scopus and Web of Science databases, and then, a content analysis of 75 articles, which met the eligibility criteria, were carried out. As a result, were identified eight barriers, 11 CSFs, which were grouped according to five pillars - public policies, disposal techniques, legal aspects, public-private partnership (PPP) and energy recovery – that affect the municipal S-ISWM and were pointed out ways of implementing these factors in practice. Finally, it was proposed a management artefact – a framework towards S-ISWM - based on state-of-the-art CSFs and barriers, mainly oriented to waste to energy, to the developing countries municipalities. This study offers theoretical, practical, and political implications, serving as a stimulus for the development of public policies with a multidisciplinary approach, providing environmental, economic, and societal contributions, and, thus, encouraging the achievement of the eleventh and the twelfth sustainable development goals.
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This work approaches organic waste decentralized composting as a key component in municipal waste management strategies, focusing on technological aspects of small-scale composting, as composter used in home or small generators. The aim of this research was to identify design issues in composters and in the process management, which allow process optimization and thus promote the implementation of decentralized composting. Particularly, it was addressed the feasibility of decentralized composting process in a low temperatures climate. The composting process was evaluated through commonly used international standards. Results allowed to: i) verify the feasibility of decentralized composting processes in adverse climatic conditions, in compliance with composting sanitation standards and stabilization parameters (easily degradable carbon, microbial respiration and other compost stability indicators); ii) observe a stratification effect which significantly affected the process at the bottom of the static composters (500 L); iii) evaluate the positive effect of leachates recirculation in compost stability, maturity and quality parameters and iv) assess the benefical effect of incorporating animal wastes (e.g. meat) in stability, maturity and quality parameters. Results show the desentralized composting as a recommended technology despite low ambient temperatures. This work also show the incorporation of meat as a benefical action for mixture sanitization and a general convenience for leachates recirculation. Technology could be optimized if design criteria epplied to static composters are reconsidered.
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Most of Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) is currently mixed with domestics waste. So that, it can impact human health and environmental quality. One important aspect in the management strategy is to determine the quantity generated and characteristics of HHW. The method used to determine the characteristics HHW refers to SNI 19-2454-2002, while the HHW generation refers to the SNI 19-3694-1994 calculated based on weight and volume. Research was conducted in four districts of Semarang. The samples used in this study were 400 families calculated based on the proportion of Slovin Formula. The characteristic of HHW in Semarang City is mainly infectious (79%), then poisonous (13%), combustible (6%) and corrosive materials (2%). The quantity HHW generated is 0.01 kg/person/day equivalent with 5.1% of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Semarang (linear equations : y=1,278x+82,00 (volume), y=0,216x+13,89 (weight).
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Hazardous and toxic waste are not only produced by industry, but also by household. But in fact, the household activities also produce Household Toxic and Hazardous Waste (HTHW). Considering the potential of the impact of HTHW to the reduction of environment quality, the effort of HTHW management must have been started well. One important aspect in the management strategy is to determine the characteristics and the HTHW generation. The method used to determine the characteristics HTHW refers to SNI 19-2454-2002, while the calculation HTHW generation refers to the SNI 19-3694-1994 calculated based on weight and volume. Sampling was conducted in four districts of Semarang (Pedurungan, Semarang Barat, Semarang Utara and Banyumanik). The samples used in this study were 400 families were calculated based on the proportion of Slovin Formula. Data analysis performed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Walis test (α = 0.05). The largest characteristic of HTHW in Semarang City is infectious (79%), further Poisonous (13%), Combustible (6%) and Corrosive (2%). While HTHW generation is 0.01 kg/person/day (5.1% MSW). Statistical test result showed there was significant difference (p-value : 0.001) between HTHW generation based on economic level, but there was no significant difference (p-value :0.442) between HTHW characteristics in Semarang city. Level of education, occupation, income level and lifestyle may become potential factor in difference characteristics and HTHW generation in Semarang city.
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This research seeks to examine the fundamental environmental management principles that have been violated and how their adoption may remediate solid waste management practices in Lebanon. The study will enrich the more traditional approaches to assessing environmental problems by identifying the factors facilitating and impeding improvement in some contexts but not others. The root cause analysis methodologies were utilized to systematically disclose the underlying components that contribute to the impairment of contemporary solid waste structures. The principles of subsidiarity, precautionary, and cost internalization are in direct correlation with the identified root causes and are capable of propagating the beneficial outcomes associated with integrating environmental management perspective into the strategic planning process. Integrated and sustainable waste management strategies that aim to rectify the intrinsic dysfunctionalities of contemporary structures should be developed from the bottom-up and ought to adopt a precautionary approach to management, while utilizing economic measures to finance operational costs.
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Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an organic matter conversion technology which offers a wide range of options for production of biogas from organic biomass, providing an excellent opportunity to convert abundant bioresources into safe, eco‐friendly, renewable energy. Important factors in the process of AD are the biodiversity of microorganisms, chemical load of oxygen demand, and content of water and total solids. A challenge for the future is to find technologies that will maximally enhance biogas production and to find pathways for biogas to supersede well‐established technologies and practices in the contemporary heavily fossil fuel‐based energy system. Current studies on technologies of biogas production indicate a number of possibilities of using appropriate biological and physicochemical additives, like added enzymes or fruit pomace, as well as immobilizing microorganisms on biofilters. Anaerobic biorefinery is an emerging concept that generates not only bioenergy but also high‐value biochemical products from the same feedstock. This study is a review of articles describing the intensification of biogas production by using various technologies. Biogas, a renewable form of eco‐friendly energy is a very well substitute for fossil fuels like coal, oil petroleum, and more, which are causing ecological‐environmental problems and at the same time depleting at a faster rate. So far researchers have tried different techniques to enhance gas production. This study reviews the various, new techniques, which could be used to enhance the biogas production rate from solid organic substrates.
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Smart Cities are increasingly hailed as the potential solution for growing urbanisation, coupled with the demanding needs of efficiency and performance. Nonetheless, the Smart City paradigm is still evolving. However, it seems to be a branding or marketing competition between ICT consortiums where the key focus is implementation of their smart technologies. This is perhaps the reason why it is not being adopted or even used by the United Nations. There is a conspicuous gap in knowledge when it comes to understanding how the promised efficiencies of Smart Cities can lead to a range of desired outcomes such as the Sustainable Development Goal 11 referring to ‘inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable’ cities including issues of cultural heritage. Smart Cities appear to be focusing on modernist development in green-fields sites. Moreover, there are issues with emerging cities if their priority to emphasise Smart Cities is not given adequate economic transparency. This thesis attempts to resolve some of these issues through developing a new Smart Cities Framework and applying it through a case study on Port Louis, Mauritius. The Government of Mauritius has implemented a Smart Cities policy since 2014 which enabled the creation of nine new Smart Cities around Port Louis with a range of positive and negative impacts; the case studies can thus enable perspective to be generated on the Smart Cities concept.
Conference Paper
The paper reports the results of several feasibility study performed on medium to large size MSW management business cases in several emerging countries ranging from 250 to over 7500 t/day. The target of the work is to assess the hurdles and opportunities of offering innovative integrated long term stepwise solutions and business models in countries which are facing a strong combined growth of population, concentration towards large cities and per capita consumption of goods. As worldwide environmental issues are increasing in relevance, typical technological practices all around the globe is still that of non-lined, often controlled dumping even without biogas collection or leachate treatment and source collection and recycling is often still performed with very low-quality standards while enforcement of new regulation is still a major issue often because there is a lack of law complying alternatives. In this picture, the authors has been widely working on real case business cases in different countries with a holistic approach by assessing: possible technological alternatives and/or combinations, including the combined and progressive, application of proprietary solutions such as BRL (BioReactor Landfill) for optimisation of standard and non standard landfills, ITS (Intelligent Transfer Stations) both as an upstream to final disposal and energy recovery and downstream to LFM (LandFill Mining) and NRC (Nutrient Recovery Center). All these well established approaches have been tested on different geographical areas worldwide and under various conditions both from the industrial and cultural point of view with a deep scientifically based analysis of the hurdles and drivers for the implementation of new and realistic green circular economy deal on MSW. Real case examples and sensitivity assessments of such new holistic approach are presented and results discussed. Abstract: The paper reports the results of several feasibility study performed on medium to large size MSW management business cases in several emerging countries ranging from 250 to over 7500 t/day. The target of the work is to assess the hurdles and opportunities of offering innovative integrated long term stepwise solutions and business models in countries which are facing a strong combined growth of population, concentration towards large cities and per capita consumption of goods. As worldwide environmental issues are increasing in relevance, typical technological practices all around the globe is still that of non-lined, often controlled dumping even without biogas collection or leachate treatment and source collection and recycling is often still performed with very low-quality standards while enforcement of new regulation is still a major issue often because there is a lack of law complying alternatives. In this picture, the authors has been widely working on real case business cases in different countries with a holistic approach by assessing: possible technological alternatives and/or combinations, including the combined and progressive, application of proprietary solutions such as BRL (BioReactor Landfill) for optimisation of standard and non standard landfills, ITS (Intelligent Transfer Stations) both as an upstream to final disposal and energy recovery and downstream to LFM (LandFill Mining) and NRC (Nutrient Recovery Center) and other market open source technologies. All these well established approaches have been tested on different geographical areas worldwide and under various conditions both from the industrial and cultural point of view with a deep scientifically based analysis of the hurdles and drivers for the implementation of new and realistic green circular economy deal on MSW. Real case examples and sensitivity assessments of such new holistic approach are presented and results discussed.
Article
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This paper presents some preliminary, qualitative results on the applicability of the implementation of a waste management and pricing system based on ''Pay As You Throw'' (PAYT) in Greece. PAYT is described and both its aims and potential benefits and problems are presented. Next, the waste charging and billing systems are studied. Finally, a possible implementation scheme is proposed for PAYT to be potentially successful in Greece.
Article
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This paper summarises some recent work exploring the development of a multi-criteria optimisation tool for achieving sustainable solutions for municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMS). The aim of the project was to provide a new methodological background for the regional solid waste management modelling taking into account spatial and temporal patterns of waste generation and processing, environmental as well as economic impacts of the system development with a particular emphasis on public health and biodiversity.
Article
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The separate collection of waste, and especially of recyclables with specific collection systems, would not be possible without the involvement of the users. Apart from the physical installations such as collection containers, collection points, etc., the motivation of the users is an essential component. Motivation can be reinforced through public relations work. In addition to the underlying technical considerations, this paper describes the difference between communication in general and public relations and specifically examines public involvement in recycling. Through the use of examples, we look at the targeted users and typical media employed. Furthermore, we analyzes the development of public involvement. The examples show that public relations for recycling strategies relies to a great extent on attitudes, habits, and access to the target group. Thus, standardized procedures cannot be developed. For these reasons, public relation activities must be planned carefully and professionally and include an analysis of the target group, choice of media, and verification of success.
Article
Waste management policy is fast becoming a major social and political issue around the globe. However, little work to date has been carried out on the ways in which local government are responding to the new waste management agenda being set by the EU and UK. This research is investigating the adoption of national Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) policy at the local level and the barriers that exist to its progress and the development of MSW technology and practice, using the data from a national survey of English waste management authorities (67% response rate). Local practices are clearly a response to a number of key parameters operating on a local authority, including: availability of landfill, relative costs of MSW management options, funding and staffing levels (political bias) and historical trends in the management of waste (existing markets and processing facilities). Currently 40% of authorities in England are experiencing a policy implementation gap, with 70% claiming to suffer from local implementation failure; with costs of options, staffing levels, local government cut-backs and the introduction of privatisation being cited as the key reasons for failure. Clearly a policy implementation gap is being experienced throughout the UK, with certain regions experiencing more acute implementation problems and practical difficulties than others, and the reasons and implications of this will form the core of the discussion. It appears that in the UK, administration at the local level is inadequate to manage the general policies proposed, identify and collect the relevant data and ensure the successful implementation of MSW management. This failure is in part due to the decentralisation of waste management issues to local authorities, without substantive budgetary additions (a common problem following privatisation), resulting in local activity remaining distinct and isolated from national strategies, causing significant implementation problems. Clearly, further work needs to be carried out into policy development and implementation processes with relation to solid waste management to ensure that where feasible movement of practices are encouraged up the hierarchy towards recovery and minimisation.
Article
Partnership working is becoming popular as a strategic and operational approach to developing sustainable waste management. However, the evidence base to support partnership working is poor and the impact and potential of partnerships in the waste sector has not been analysed and assessed. This paper starts to address the gap in knowledge. It focuses on partnership working for the management of municipal waste, and identifies and characterises a range of different types including partnerships between local authorities and between local authorities and their service providers. Five models of partnerships are presented and illustrated through case studies. The paper is novel in applying an analytical framework for partnership working developed in healthcare [Hudson B, Hardy B. What is ‘successful’ partnership and how can it be measured? In: Glendinning C, Powell M, Rummery K, editors. Partnerships, New labour and the governance of welfare. Bristol: The Policy Press; 2002] to the public service delivery of waste and recycling services. The theoretical concepts of synergy and governance are used to inform this analysis and discuss the implications arising from emerging trends. Partnerships have defined members, a written understanding, a shared vision and a joint commitment to work together towards common objectives. Findings suggest successful partnerships have developed over the long-term, a partnership lifecycle exists where motivations, characteristics and activities change over time. Current partnerships appear to be primarily concerned with meeting targets and delivering efficiencies, which can lead towards more centralised decision making and aggregated services. We suggest that policy rhetoric promoting partnerships for delivering sustainable resource management and as a local governance mechanism is not borne out in practice and should be treated with caution.
Article
This paper examines the contributions that new alliances in urban solid waste management (SWM) systems can make to the quality of life by improving effective provision of this urban basic service, based on case studies of three multi-million cities in developing countries: Chennai, India; Manila, Philippines; and Lima, Peru. It starts with a systematic examination of the main types of alliances formed around SWM activities (including formal collection, transportation and disposal as well as informal collection, trade, re-use and recycling). These include public–private, public–community, community–private and private–private alliances. The main conclusion is that local authorities work together with large enterprises and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), but refuse to deal directly with the informal trade and recycling enterprises which recover large fractions of waste – linking to them only through NGO or community-based organisation (CBO) mediation. It goes on to examine the contributions different alliances can make to sustainable development in cities, utilising the multiple goals of sustainable development as developed by Satterthwaite in 1997 (Urban Studies 34 (1997) 1667). Using a nine-point indicator system, it shows that current contributions of alliances between local authorities and large enterprises lie mainly in the area of improved disposal, cleaner neighbourhoods and financial viability. In contrast, alliances between local authorities, NGOs or CBOs and through them informal trade and recycling enterprises contribute more heavily to financial viability, employment, and cleaner urban neighbourhoods, as well as greater re-use and recycling of waste fractions.
Article
In this paper we apply the mainstream theory of regulatory economics to the industry of municipal waste management (MWM) and discuss its potential for further liberalization and competition. We argue that opportunities for developing market-based solutions are indeed present, at least in principle: most stages are suitable for private-sector involvement and satisfy the theoretical requirements for introducing competition in its various forms. On the other hand, this development is slowed down by a number of factors arising from environmental policy, some of which have been justified in the past by the need to boost the supply of disposal facilities and maintain public control over the system. Though not fully incompatible with more competition, many of these factors are still valid today. However, while some observers seem to believe that competitive tendering is the best option for increasing market potential, we believe this is not the case, especially as far as vertically-integrated MWM is concerned. Other strategies, including competition in the market and regulated monopoly, seem more promising.
Article
The UK Government's White Paper of 1995, `Making Waste Work', emphasises the role of key stakeholders in driving forward the widespread adoption of waste minimisation practice. Industry is challenged to meet a range of targets and have environmental management systems in place. The Government's contribution is underpinned by the activities of the Environment Agency and the Environmental Technology Best Practice Programme. This article presents findings from a survey of waste minimisation developments in the East Midlands of England. Despite a national waste strategy there are clear variations in the extent of waste minimisation developments across the region. The reasons for this are many and complex and a sizeable gap exists, in many cases, between policy and its implementation. Traditionally, the UK has employed a `top down approach' in which legislative decisions are taken at the centre and then executed within the constraints of the local context. The findings suggest that much greater consideration needs to be taken of local constraints if waste minimisation developments are to be successful. Well structured initiatives that have been rigorously planned and have utilised the available resources have proved very successful and significant financial savings and waste reductions have been made. Surprisingly, few of the key environmental organisations surveyed had a waste minimisation policy. There remains significant barriers to the uptake of waste minimisation programmes, especially from Small to Medium Enterprises. A number of external funding sources have been utilised by projects but future funding will probably come from the participating companies. A wide range of supporting networks exist that could be utilised in the future. There is a need for an overarching, regional organisation to co-ordinate future developments so as to avoid duplication and efficiently use all available resources.
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Completion and particularization of no. 113944/1944/1997 Common Ministerial Decision entitled as “National strategy of solid waste management
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