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Colour Blindness: Causes and Effects

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... 1,2,4 A previous study reported that hereditary tritan deficiency is a very rare condition; the prevalence was estimated to be about 1 per 15 000 to 1 per 50 000. 5 ACVD occur secondary to an ocular, visual pathway, or systemic disease. 6 ACVD is more common in the elderly population as visual or systemic disorders increase with age, 7 and progress or regress depending on the underlying condition. ...
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The Farnsworth D15 (FR‐D15) color vision test is generally used to determine whether individuals with color vision defects have good color discrimination to perform their jobs safely. The Waggoner computerized color vision test D15 (WC‐D15) is a computerized version of the FR‐D15 test. This study aimed to evaluate the color differences vectors analyses (CDV) quantitative scoring in clinical practice using the FR‐D15 and WC‐D15 color vision tests. Fifty‐nine individuals with congenital red‐green color vision deficiency participated in this study. All participants were screened with the Ishihara, Waggoner Pseudoisochromatic plates, and City University Tests. Participants also completed FR‐D15 and WC‐D15 tests. The number of crossings, and CDV indices, including the confusion index, total error score, specificity index, and angle were assessed. There were significant correlations between the number of crossings and each of the CDV parameters. Results of both D15 tests showed that defects classified by confusion angles improve with an increase in crossings. The correct diagnosis rate improved when the criterion of failure was relaxed compared to the generally accepted criteria of ≥2. A CDV angle of either 0° or −3° accurately classifies defects as protan or deutan. Quantitative measurements of the FR‐D15 and WC‐D15 color vision tests showed good results in detecting color vision deficiency and diagnosing the type of defect. The CDV parameters positively correlated with the traditional evaluation of the defect's presence by counting the crossings. It is more accurate for clinicians to interpret their results using the CDV parameters.
... But even then colorblindness can be not detected e.g. due to the error of the examiner or the examining method [8]. In some cases, the wrong result of this examinations can be two-fold: either a colorblind person is allowed to apply for e.g. ...
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Pseudoisochromatic plates have been used for detecting dichromacy (especially protanopia and deutanopia) for almost a century. This method, although widespread due to its simplicity and relatively low examination cost, is often criticized because of potential ambiguity and inaccessibility for certain groups of patients. In this article author analyzes different versions of currently used pseudoisochromatic plates and introduces a tool for generating customized plates in order to detect different types of dichromacy in certain user groups.
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