Protein Kinase D1-Mediated Phosphorylation and Subcellular Localization of -Catenin

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusett 01655, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 02/2009; 69(3):1117-24. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-6270
Source: PubMed


beta-Catenin is essential for E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion in epithelial cells and also acts as a key cofactor for transcription activity. We previously showed that protein kinase D1 (PKD1), founding member of the PKD family of signal transduction proteins, is down-regulated in advanced prostate cancer and interacts with E-cadherin. This study provides evidence that PKD1 interacts with and phosphorylates beta-catenin at Thr(112) and Thr(120) residues in vitro and in vivo; mutation of Thr(112) and Thr(120) results in increased nuclear localization of beta-catenin and is associated with altered beta-catenin-mediated transcription activity. It is known that mutation of Thr(120) residue abolishes binding of beta-catenin to alpha-catenin, which links to cytoskeleton, suggesting that PKD1 phosphorylation of Thr(120) could be critical for cell-cell adhesion. Overexpression of PKD1 represses beta-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity and cell proliferation. Epistatic studies suggest that PKD1 and E-cadherin are within the same signaling pathway. Understanding the molecular basis of PKD1-beta-catenin interaction provides a novel strategy to target beta-catenin function in cells including prostate cancer.

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    • "In the case of rhotekin [68] and phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase III-β [69] the association studies gave negative results. Interestingly, some PKD substrates have been shown to associate with the kinase, such as Kidins220 [20], HDAC5 [70], E-cadherin [71], β-catenin [72], CREB [73] and cortactin [41]. However, the effect of PKD activation on substrate association was only specifically addressed before for Kidins220 [20] and HDAC5 [70] that form complexes with the kinase independently of its activation state. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS) is the biosynthetic enzyme responsible for nitric oxide (·NO) production in muscles and in the nervous system. This constitutive enzyme, unlike its endothelial and inducible counterparts, presents an N-terminal PDZ domain known to display a preference for PDZ-binding motifs bearing acidic residues at -2 position. In a previous work, we discovered that the C-terminal end of two members of protein kinase D family (PKD1 and PKD2) constitutes a PDZ-ligand. PKD1 has been shown to regulate multiple cellular processes and, when activated, becomes autophosphorylated at Ser916, a residue located at -2 position of its PDZ-binding motif. Since nNOS and PKD are spatially enriched in postsynaptic densities and dendrites, the main objective of our study was to determine whether PKD1 activation could result in a direct interaction with nNOS through their respective PDZ-ligand and PDZ domain, and to analyze the functional consequences of this interaction. Herein we demonstrate that PKD1 associates with nNOS in neurons and in transfected cells, and that kinase activation enhances PKD1-nNOS co-immunoprecipitation and subcellular colocalization. However, transfection of mammalian cells with PKD1 mutants and yeast two hybrid assays showed that the association of these two enzymes does not depend on PKD1 PDZ-ligand but its pleckstrin homology domain. Furthermore, this domain was able to pull-down nNOS from brain extracts and bind to purified nNOS, indicating that it mediates a direct PKD1-nNOS interaction. In addition, using mass spectrometry we demonstrate that PKD1 specifically phosphorylates nNOS in the activatory residue Ser1412, and that this phosphorylation increases nNOS activity and ·NO production in living cells. In conclusion, these novel findings reveal a crucial role of PKD1 in the regulation of nNOS activation and synthesis of ·NO, a mediator involved in physiological neuronal signaling or neurotoxicity under pathological conditions such as ischemic stroke or neurodegeneration.
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    • "Transient transfection was performed by Lipofectamine 2000 reagent (Invitrogen) overnight. Topflash assay conditions were described previously [21]. Briefly, LNCaP cells (2×104 cell/well in a 96-well plate) were transfected by 50 ng Topflash reporter, 5 ng Renilla luciferase vector and 100 ng either PKD1 expression vector or empty vector control for overnight. "
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    ABSTRACT: The stability and subcellular localization of beta-catenin, a protein that plays a major role in cell adhesion and proliferation, is tightly regulated by multiple signaling pathways. While aberrant activation of beta-catenin signaling has been implicated in cancers, the biochemical identity of transcriptionally active beta-catenin (ABC), commonly known as unphosphorylated serine 37 (S37) and threonine 41 (T41) β-catenin, remains elusive. Our current study demonstrates that ABC transcriptional activity is influenced by phosphorylation of T120 by Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1). Whereas the nuclear β-catenin from PKD1-low prostate cancer cell line C4-2 is unphosphorylated S37/T41/T120 with high transcription activity, the nuclear β-catenin from PKD1-overexpressing C4-2 cells is highly phosphorylated at T120, S37 and T41 with low transcription activity, implying that accumulation of nuclear β-catenin alone cannot be simply used as a read-out for Wnt activation. In human normal prostate tissue, the phosphorylated T120 β-catenin is mainly localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN, 22/30, 73%), and this pattern is significantly altered in prostate cancer (14/197, 7.1%), which is consistent with known down regulation of PKD1 in prostate cancer. These in vitro and in vivo data unveil a previously unrecognized post-translational modification of ABC through T120 phosphorylation by PKD1, which alters subcellular localization and transcriptional activity of β-catenin. Our results support the view that β-catenin signaling activity is regulated by spatial compartmentation and post-translational modifications and protein level of β-catenin alone is insufficient to count signaling activity.
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    • "Several PKD1 targets can contribute to its negative-regulatory function on cell motility. These include the phosphatase slingshot [40], [41], the Par-1 polarity kinase [42], β-catenin and E-cadherin [38], [43]. "
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