ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Peppermint oil is obtained from the leaves of the perennial herb, Mentha piperita L. and M. arvensis var. piperascens a member of the Labiatae family. This family includes many well-known essential oil plants such as spearmint, basil, lavender, rosemary, sage, marjoram and thyme. This is a well known and important medicinal plant widely used in several indigenous systems of medicine for various therapeutic benefits viz. analgesic, anesthetic, antiseptic, astringent, carminative, decongestant, expectorant, nervine, stimulant, stomachic, inflammatory diseases, ulcer and stomach problems. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the chemistry, pharmacology, analysis, and uses of Peppermint oil.
Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009 ( )
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
187
A REVIEW ON PEPPERMINT OIL
SHRIVASTAVA ALANKAR*
Peppermint oil is obtained from the leaves of the perennial herb, Mentha piperita L. and M. arvensis var. piperascens a member of the
Labiatae family. This family includes many well-known essential oil plants such as spearmint, basil, lavender, rosemary, sage,
marjoram and thyme. This is a well known and important medicinal plant widely used in several indigenous systems of medicine
for various therapeutic benefits viz. analgesic, anesthetic, antiseptic, astringent, carminative, decongestant, expectorant, nervine,
stimulant, stomachic, inflammatory diseases, ulcer and stomach problems. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive
analysis of the chemistry, pharmacology, analysis, and uses of Peppermint oil.
Keywords : Mentha piperita, Mentha arvensis, peppermint oil, Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
INTRODUCTION
Peppermint oil is obtained from the leaves of the perennial
herb, Mentha piperita L. and M. arvensis var. piperascens a
member of the labiatae family. It is a colourless, pale yellow
or pale greenish-yellow liquid having characteristic odour
and taste followed by a sensation of cold, freely soluble in
ethanol (70%). The solution may show an opalescence.1
The oil is found on the undersides of the leaves, is extracted
by steam distillation and is generally followed by
rectification and fractionation before use.2
India is worlds largest producer and exporter of mint oil.
Mint oil and its constituents and derivatives are used in
food, pharmaceutical and perfumery and flavouring
industry. Its main constituent, menthol, is used in the
manufacture of lozenges, toothpastes, pain balms, cold
balms, Dabur Pudin Hara, etc. The basic raw material for
mint oil is leaves of a plant Mentha arvensis.3 The oil is
used for treating certain stomach disorders like indigestion,
gas problem, acidity, etc. It is the main ingredient of
ayurvedic medicines like Daburs ‘Pudin Hara’. The oil is
a natural source of menthol, which is the main ingredient
of cough drops and ointments like Vicks Vaporub, etc.
STANDARDS1
Peppermint Oil contains not less than 4.5 per cent w/w
and not more than 10.0 per cent w/w of esters, calculated
as menthyl acetate, C12H22O2, not less than 44.0 per cent
w/w of free alcohols, calculated as menthol, C10H20O, and
not less than 15.0 per cent w/w and not more than 32.0
per cent w/w of ketones, calculated as menthone, C10H18O.
EXTRACTION OF PEPPERMINT OIL
Peppermint oil is extracted from the whole plant above
ground just before flowering. The oil is extracted by steam
distillation4 from the fresh or partly dried plant and the
yield is 0.1 - 1.0 %.
Supercritical fluid extraction was performed by I. Gãinar
et al 5 and was compared with that of peppermint oil
isolated by hydrodistillation. The oil extracted under SFE-
1 conditions had a higher content of menthone, menthol,
1, 8-cineole and piperitone compared with the SFE-2
conditions, and a lower content of menthyl acetate,
α
-
caryophyllene and
α
-cadinene. The compounds mainly
responsible for the peppermint fragrance (oxygenated
monoterpenes) amounted to 79.2% for SFE-1 compared
with 74.4% at SFE-2 conditions. In contrast,
sesquiterpenes were only 7.7% for SFE-1 and 11.6% for
SFE-2. The hydrodistilled oil possessed the higher
percentage of terpene acetates, 12.5% against 12.0% for
SFE-1.
Recently on new method was developed by Farid Chemet
et al.6 for the extraction of essential oils that is much more
faster as compared with the conventional hydrodistillation
process.
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS 7
Various constituents of peppermint oil as per monographs
of Internation Pharmacopoeia are limonene (1.0-5.0%),
cineole (3.5-14.0%), menthone (14.0-32.0%),
menthofuran (1.0 -9.0%), isomenthone (1.5-10.0%),
menthyl acetate (2.8-10.0%), isopulegol (max. 0.2%),
menthol (30.0-55.0%), pulegone (max. 4.0%) and carvone
(max. 1.0%). The ratio of cineole content to limonene
content should be minimum two. Chemical structures of
these constituents were given in Fig.1.
EVALUATION
International Pharmacopoeia monograph7
Relative density : 0.900 to 0.916.
Refractive index : 1.457 to 1.467.
Optical rotation : -10° to -30°.
Acid value : maximum 1.4, determined on 5.0 g diluted
in 50 ml of the prescribed mixture of solvents.
Fatty oils and resinified essential oils : Complies with the
*Corresponding author: * Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, B.R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mhow Neemuch Road, Mandsaur (M.P)
e-mail: alankarshrivastava@gmail.com
27
Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009 ( )
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
C
H
3
H
3
C
C
2
limonene
CH3COOCH3
Methyl acetate
C
H
2
Isocaryophyllin
C
H
3
O
H
3
C
C
H
2
Carvone
H
3
C
C
H
3
C
H
2
á
-pinene
FIGURE 1. Various chemical constituents of peppermint oil.
C
H
3
O
H
3
C
C
H
3
H
3
C
C
H
3
C
H
3
C
H
3
H
3
C
C
H
3
O
Piperitone
á
-pinene
1,8, cineole
C
H
3
O
H
H
3
C
C
H
3
Menthol
C
H
3
O
H
3
C
C
H
3
Pulegone
O
Menthofuran
C
H
3
O
H
3
C
C
H
3
l-menthone
H
C
H
3
H
3
C
H
H
3
C
C
H
3
-
f
o
r
m
Cadinine
C
H
2
Caryophylline
28
Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009 ( )
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
test for fatty oils and resinified essential oils.
Chromatographic profiling of peppermint oil can be done
with Gas chromatography with flame ionization detector.
Evaluating Peppermint Oils by Chiral GC/MS 8
Often, a product is adulterated to increase desirable
properties of the natural oil or to avoid costly
manufacturing of all- natural oil. Adulteration usually is
accomplished by adding a similar but cheaper oil, such as
cornmint oil (Mentha arvensis), or by diluting the oil with
various solvent oils. Adulteration and quality consistency
of peppermint oil fuels concern over compromised quality,
but also introduces health safety issues; for example, there
is potential for an allergic reaction to an added unnatural
compound or excess of a natural component. Despite the
value of identifying and quantifying major components
like menthol, methone and methyl acetate, dependable
identification and quantification is difficult because each
of these is represented by several stereoisomers. Menthol,
for example, has three chiral centers, for a total of eight
stereoisomers, making chromatographic separation
difficult. For this GC/MS method was published by Julie
Kowalski optimized to following conditions claiming
detection of major components important to the quality
of peppermint oil product, thus providing manufacturers
and buyers with consistent profiles with which to confirm
and track product quality.
Column: Rt-ãDEXsa™ 30m x 0.25mm ID, 0.25ìm
Inj.: 1.0ìL neat, split (split ratio 1:150)
Inj.: temp.: 230°C
Carrier gas: helium, constant pressure
Flow rate: 35 cm/sec. at 100°C
Oven temp.: 40°C to 120°C @ 5°C/min. to 135°C @
3°C/min. to
200°C @ 5°C/min.
Det: MS
Spectroscopic study of Mentha oils8
The visible fluorescence and excitation spectra of Mentha
oils (Japanese mint oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil)
have been recorded. Different physical constants which
are characteristic of the fluorescent molecules have been
calculated for all three oils. Results reveal that the same
group of organic compounds dominate in the oils of
peppermint and spearmint, whereas some different
compound is present in Japanese mint oil. Study also
demonstrated that the fluorescence intensity of these oils
is comparable to that of Rhodamine 6G dye in methanol
solution and suggests that Mentha oils may be a useful
lasing material in the 450-600 nm wavelength range.
Estimation of Menthone, Menthofuran, Menthyl Acetate
and Menthol in Peppermint Oil by Capillary Gas
Chromatography10
Support-coated open-tubular (SCOT) glass capillary
column (43 m x 0.5mm I.D.) coated with SP-1000 was
fitted into an aluminium support cage. A Packard-Becker
419 gas chromatograph equipped with dual flame
ionization detectors and dual injectors was used. The
injection port temperature was 190°C and detector
temperature 190°C. The multilinear temperature
programmer was used as follows. Initial temperature of
64°C was held for 3 min, then the temperature was raised
at 0.5ºC/min to 80ºC, then at 5ºC/min to the final
temperature of 155ºC, with an isothermal hold of 12 min
at 155°C. The carrier gas was helium at a flow-rate of cu.
2 ml/mm with nitrogen (18 ml/min) as make-up gas. Air
flow was 300 ml/min and hydrogen flow 30 ml/min. The
velocity of the carrier gas was about 21.5 cm/sec whilst
the capacity ratio (k) of the column was 6.5 using docosane
at 185°C.
Quantitative determination of Pulegone by Gas-
Liquid Chromatography
Various methods for the estimation of the pulegone was
found in the literature. It was due to one problem that
pulegone has a retention time,11 according to the columns
employed, that is either very near to that of menthol (main
component), with consequent overlap or very similar to
those of isomenthol and some sesquiterpene hydrocarbons
(e.g. cadinene and caryophyllene).12-14
USES
Hot flushes in women
A single-blind randomised control crossover study15 was
performed to look at the effects of a peppermint and neroli
hydrolat spray on hot flushes in women being treated for
breast cancer. Only 18 of the 44 patients (41%) preferred
the hydrolat spray to a plain water spray, which was less
than the 80% required to offer this spray as a standard
suggestion for hot flush management. However a small
number of those choosing it found it extremely helpful.
Both sprays appeared to lessen hot flush annoyance.
Previous chemotherapy appeared to be a factor influencing
the choice of spray.
Irritable Bowel Syndrom
Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and lactose intolerance
are associated with increased gas production, which may
sometimes trigger abdominal discomfort and bloating
which are also considered also the cardinal symptoms in
IBS.16-17 Furthermore, a high prevalence of celiac disease
has been observed in patients with bloating and diarrhoea
and positive H2-lactose breath test. In these patients the
symptoms related to lactase deficiency seem to be the only
29
Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009 ( )
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
manifestation of celiac disease18. Basing themselves on
these data, some authors suggest that these diseases should
be previously excluded in clinic therapeutic trials with
investigational drugs that affect IBS19. Peppermint oil has
been tested in children20 and adults21 with IBS, with
conflicting results. A recent meta-analysis on this topic
concluded that the role of peppermint oil has not yet been
established beyond a reasonable doubt.22 In this regard one
double blind study by L. Marzio et al.23 57 patients with
irritable bowel syndrome were treated with peppermint
oil (two enteric-coated capsules twice per day or placebo)
and 4 weeks treatment with peppermint oil improves
abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel
syndrome.
Antimicrobial and anti-plasmid activities24
The antimicrobial activities were determined on the Gram
(+) Staphylococcus epidermidis and the Gram (?)
Escherichia coli F’lac K12 LE140, and on two yeast
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0425 ä/1 and 0425 52C strains.
The antiplasmid activities were investigated on E. coli F’lac
bacterial strain. Each of the oils exhibited antimicrobial
activity and three of them antiplasmid action. The
interaction of peppermint oil and menthol with the
antibiotics was studied on the same bacterial strain with
the checkerboard method. Eexperiments proved the
antiplasmid activity of peppermint oil and its main
constituent, menthol, which means that menthol-
containing substances are potential agents that could
eliminate the resistance plasmids of bacteria. The main
point of this menthol-induced plasmid elimination is a
special mechanism of action. The compound preferentially
kills the plasmid-containing bacteria due to their increased
sensitivity to menthol.
Postoperative Nausea
Tate25 demonstrated that inhalation of peppermint oil
vapors significantly reduced postoperative nausea and the
requirement for pharmacologic antiemetics following
gynecologic surgery. Inhalation of isopropyl alcohol vapors
is a South American folk remedy for nausea. More recently,
its use has been advocated for transport-related nausea1 as
well as for PONV in children and adults.26 Winston et
all27 found that isopropyl alcohol inhalation relieved
PONV more rapidly than ondansetron 4 mg IV, but a
placebo group was not studied. A randomized,
doubleblind, placebo-controlled study28 on 33 surgery
patients indicate that initial treatment of postoperative
nausea with aromatherapy reduces patients’ subjective
perception of nausea and IV antiemetic use in the PACU
by nearly 50%.
Against herpes simplex virus29
This essential oil is capable to exert a direct virucidal effect
on HSV. Peppermint oil is also active against an acyclovir
resistant strain of HSV-1 (HSV-1-ACVres), plaque
formation was significantly reduced by 99%. Considering
the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate
the skin, peppermint oil might be suitable for topical
therapeutic use as virucidal agent in recurrent herpes
infection.
Larvicidal and mosquito repellent action30
Oil of Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint oil), a widely used
essential oil, was evaluated for larvicidal activity against
di•erent mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles
stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus by exposing IIIrd
instar larvae of mosquitoes in enamel trays 6´ 4 inch2 size
filled to a depth of 3 inch with water. The oil showed
strong repellent action against adult mosquitoes when
applied on human skin. Percent protection obtained
against An. annularis, An. culicifacies, and Cx.
quinquefasciatus was 100%, 92.3% and 84.5%,
respectively. The repellent action of Mentha oil was
comparable to that of Mylol oil consisting of dibutyl and
dimethyl phthalates.
Treatment of Nervous Disorders and Mental Fatigue
Peppermint and its EO are believed to be effective in the
treatment of nervous disorders and mental fatigue
(Tisserand, 1993),31 suggesting that they may exert some
psychoactive actions. The specific hypothesis used to test
for such pharmacological actions was guided by reports
that it may be effective in the treatment of mental fatigue
(Tisserand, 1993), suggesting that the oil might possess a
similar action to psychostimulants. Study by Toyoshi
Umezu et al.32 determined the effects of peppermint oil on
behavior in mice. The present study revealed that
intraperitoneal administration of natural peppermint oil,
which is used for medicinal purposes in aromatherapy,
caused a significant dose dependent increase in ambulatory
activity. This result demonstrated that peppermint oil
produces an apparent effect on behavior in mice.
Indigestion33
Adding few drops of peppermint essential oil in a glass of
water and drinking it after meal gives relief from indigestive
properties. This oil acts as carminative and helps effectively
in removing the gas.
Other Uses
· It was also reported that peppermint oil is effective against
type I allergic reactions.34-35
30
Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009 ( )
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
·1: 20 dilution (5.0%) of concentrated peppermint
water has now been shown to exhibit considerable
fungistatic but not fungicidal activity against strains of
Aspergik niger and Penicillium ckysogenum.36
·One interesting study concluded that peppermint
oil can indeed reduce daytime sleepiness. However, the
mechanisms by which peppermint oil has its effect and
the applicability of these findings to situations in everyday
life will require further empirical investigation.37
· Peppermint oil was reported to have a relaxing
effect in patients with colonic spasms.38
· One recent study by J. A. Reed et al. results is
that peppermint scent can be used as an effective adjunct
to decrease appetite, decrease hunger cravings, and
consume fewer calories, which may lead to weight
reduction and greater overall health.39
·The use of peppermint oil given orally can cure
certain internal ailments such as gallstones or ureteric
stones. The doses of them sometimes exceed 45 ml/day in
France and Germany.40
· Headlice: Phenols, phenolic ethers, ketones, and
oxides (1, 8-cineole) appear to be the major toxic
components of these essential oils when used on lice.
Aldehydes and sesquiterpenes may also play a role.41
·In vapor therapy, peppermint oil can help to
increase concentration and to stimulate the mind, as well
as sorting out coughs, headaches, nausea and also has value
as an insect repellant.42
· External usage of peppermint oil gives relief from
pain. The existence of calcium antagonism in peppermint
oil helps in removing the pain. It has wonderful cooling
properties and reduces the fever also.42
·A mouthwash with peppermint oil included can
help with bad breath and gum infections.42
·When included in a cream or lotion, it will help
to ease the sting of sunburn, reduce redness of inflamed
skin, reduce itchiness and cools down the skin with its
vasoconstrictor properties.42
·The oil gives cooling effect on your head and helps
in removing the dandruff and lice.42
GENOTOXICITY
Anderson and Jenson43 (1984) found no mutagenicity of
peppermint essential oil in the salmonella/ microsomes
assay. Essential oil of menthe spicata L. appeared to be slight
genotoxic.44 In human lymphocytes peppermint oil was
found to be cytotoxic and induced chromosomes
aberrations only when inhibition of mitotic activity was
70 % or higher. Peppermint may be classified as “high
toxic clastogen”, which induces chromosomes aberrations
by secondry mechanism associated with cytotoxicity.45 On
the other hand, peppermint essential oil does not behave
like a “typical elastic clastogen” because it is mutagenic in
D. melanogaster somatic mutation and recombinant test
in vivo.46 The component of peppermint oil that causes
genotoxicity is yet not fully understood.
SIDE EFFECTS
Case report of 58 years women smoked heavily changed
to menthol containing cigarettes. After three months she
became irritable and quarrelsome, in contrast to her former
placid good-natured state, and had gastrointestinal upset
with occasional vomiting. Her speech became thick and
she developed a tremor of the hand and an unsteady gait.
On one occasion mental confusion and depression
occurred and she was admitted to hospital with a toxic
psychosis that was considered to be due to menthol
addiction. Within 17 days of the withdrawal of menthol
cigarettes, she became normal in every respect without
specific treatment.47
One more case report of acute lung injury48 following IV
injection of peppermint oil by 18 year old women
developed fulminant pulmonary edema, presumably due
to direct toxicity and a resultant increase in pulmonary
vascular permeability.
CONTRAINDICATIONS49
Obstruction of bile ducts, gall bladder inflammation, severe
liver damage. In case of gallstones, to be used only after
the consultant of physician.
PRECAUTIONS
Peppermint oil is non-toxic and non-irritant in low
dilutions, but sensitization may be a problem due to the
menthol content.It can cause irritation to the skin and
mucus membranes and should be kept well away from the
eyes. It should be avoided during pregnancy and should
not be used on children under seven.49
Peppermint oil in any form is not recommended for those
with hiatal hernia, gallbladder disease or while pregnant
or nursing.33
Overdose symptoms of peppermint oil 50 are Slow
breathing, Rapid breathing, Abdominal pain, Diarrhea,
Nausea, Vomiting, Blood in urine, No urine production,
Convulsions, Depression, Dizziness, Twitching,
Unconsciousness, Uncoordinated movement and Flushing.
DOSAGE 51
Internal
Average daily dose: 6-12 drops
For inhalation: 3-4 drops in hot water
31
Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009 ( )
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
For irritable colon: Average single dose 0.2 ml
Average single dose 0.6 ml in enterically coated form.
External
Some drops rubbed in the affected face areas.
In semi-solid and oily preparations 5-20 %
In aqueous-ethanol preparations 5-10 %
In nasal ointments 1-5 % essential oil.
ADULTRATION 52
Peppermint oil can be adulterated by addition of much
cheaper cornmint oil (Mentha arvensis).
INTERACTIONS
Augment peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of felodipine
and the AUC and Cmax of dehydrofelodipine but did not
alter the half-life (t½)53.
STORAGE7
Store in well-filled, tightly-closed, light-resistant containers
in a cool place.
REFERENCES
1. Indian Pharmacopoeia. Monograph of peppermint oil. 1996.
2. https://www.webvitamins.com/Brands.aspx. Assessed on 26/
08/08.
3. Agrawal VK. Techniques of mentha species cultivation.
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Directorate of extention
services. IGAU. pp 33.
4. http://www.essentialoils.co.za/essential-oils/peppermint.htm.
Assessed on 25/08/08.
5. Gainar I, Vîlcu R and Mocan M. Supercritical fluid extraction
and fractional Separation of essential oils. Available online
link: http://www.chimie.unibuc.ro/biblioteca/anale/2002a/
63-67.pdf
6. Maryline Abert Viana, Xavier Fernandezb, Franco Visinonic,
Farid Chemata. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity, a new
technique for extraction of essential oils. Journal of
Chromatography A, 1190 (2008) 14–17.
7. International Pharmacopoeia. Monograph of peppermint oil.
Link:http://lib.njutcm.edu.cn/yaodian/ep/EP5.0/
16_monographs/monographs_l-p/Peppermint%20oil.pdf.
8. Julie Kowalski. Evaluating Peppermint Oils by Chiral GC/
MS. Available online link: http://www.restek.com/
advantage/adv_2005_04_07.pdf
9. Spectrochimica Acto, Vol. 46A. No. 8, pp. 1269-1272. 1990.
10. J. P. Sang. Estimation of menthone, menthofuran, menthyl
acetate and menthol in peppermint oil by capillary gas
chromatography. Journal of Chromatography, 253 (1982),
109-l 12
11. Carlo Bichi and Carloma Frattini. Quantifative estimation
of minor components in essential oils and determination of
pulegone in peppermint oils. Journal of Chromatography.
190 (1980) 471-474.
12. T. Sscco, G. M. Nauo and S. scanmyini Allionia, 15 (1969)
23.
13. T. Sacco and G. M. Nauo, Afiionia, 16 (1970) 59.
14. G. Bass& F. CZhiah and P. Paato, Ind. Aliment (Pihero
Italy) ll(l978) 835.
15. Dyer J, et al. A study to look at the effects of a hydrolat spray
on hot flushes in women being treated for breast cancer.
Complement Ther Clin Practice (2008), doi:10.1016/
j.ctcp.2008.02.003
16. Pimentel M, Kong Y, Park S. Breath testing to evaluate lactose
intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome correlates with
lactulose testing and may not reflect true lactose
malabsorption. Am J Gastroenterol 2003;98: 2700–4.
17. Vernia P, Di Camillo M, Marinaro V. Lactose malabsorption,
irritable bowel syndrome and self-reported milk intolerance.
Dig Liver Dis 2001; 33: 234–9.
18. Ojetti V, Nucera G, Migneco A, Gabrielli M, Lauritano C,
Danese S, et al. High prevalence of celiac disease in patients
with lactose intolerance. Digestion 2005; 71: 106–10.
19. De Giorgio R, Barbara G, Stanghellini V, Cremon C, Salvioli
B, De Ponti F, et al. Diagnosis and therapy of irritable bowel
syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 20 (Suppl. 2):10–
22.
20. Kline RM, Kline JJ, Di Palma J, Barbero GJ. Enteric-coated,
pH ependent peppermint oil capsules for the treatment of
irritable bowel syndrome in children. J Pediatr 2001; 138
:125–8.
21. Liu JH, Chen GH, Yeh HZ, Huang CK, Poon SK. Enteric-
coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable
bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial. J
Gastroenterol 1997;32: 765–8.
22. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Peppermint oil for irritable bowel
syndrome: a critical review and metaanalysis. Am J
Gastroenterol 1998;93: 1131–5.
23. L. Marzio et al. Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of
irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind
placebo-controlled randomized trial. Digestive and Liver
Disease. 39 (2007) 530–536.
24. Zsuzsanna Schelz, Joseph Molnar and Judit Hohmann.
Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils.
Fitoterapia 77 (2006) 279–285.
25. Tate S: Peppermint oil: A treatment for postoperative nausea.
J Adv Nurs 26:543-549, 1997
26. Wang SM, Hofstadter MB, Kain ZN: An alternative method
to alleviate postoperative nausea and vomiting in children. J
Clin Anesth 11:231-234, 1999.
27. Winston AW, Rinehart RS, Riley GP, et al: Comparison of
inhaled isopropyl alcohol and intravenous ondansetron for
treatment of postoperative nausea. AANA Journal 71:127-
132, 2003
32
Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009 ( )
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
28. Sinclair DR, Chung-F, Mezei G: Can postoperative nausea
and vomiting be predicted? Anesthesiology 91:109-118,
1999.
29. A. Schuhmacher, J. Reichling, and P. Schnitzler. Virucidal
effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes
simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Phytomedicine 10:
504–510, 2003.
30. Ansaria M.A, Padma Vasudevanb, Mamta Tandonb, Razdana
RK. Larvicidal and mosquito repellent action of peppermint
(Mentha piperita) oil. Bioresource Technology 71 (2000)
267-71.
31. Tisserand R. The art of aromatherapy Essex, UK: C.W.
Daniel, 1993.
32. Toyoshi Umezu, Akiko Sakata and Hiroyasu Ito. Ambulation-
promoting effect of peppermint oil and identification of its
active constituents. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and
Behavior 69 (2001) 383–390.
33. http://www.ehow.com/how_2295291_use-peppermint-oil-
indigestion.html. Assessed on 24/08/08.
34. Arakawa T, Ishikawa Y, and Ushida K: Volatile sulfur
production by pig cecal bacteria in batch culture and
screening inhibitors of sulfate reducing bacteria. J Nutr Sci
Vitaminol 46: 193–198, 2000.
35. Inoue T, Sugimoto Y, Masuda H, et al: Effect of peppermint
(Mentha piperita L.) extracts on experimental allergic rhinitis
in rats. Biol Pharm Bull 24: 92–95, 2001.
36.Hugbo PG. An evaluation of antifungal properties of
peppermint water. International Journal of Pharmaceutics.
10 ( 1982) 193-198.
37. Mark Ian Keith Norrish and Katie Louise Dwyer.
Preliminary investigation of the effect of peppermint oil on
an objective measure of daytime sleepiness. International
Journal of Psychophysiology. 55 (2005) 291– 298.
38. Masato Ai et al. Assessment of the Antispasmodic Effect of
Peppermint Oil and Shakuyaku-Kanzo-To (TJ-68): A
Chinese Herbal Medicine on the Colonic Wall.
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 61(5) AB107.
39. J. A. Reed et al. Effects of peppermint scent on appetite
control and caloric intake. Appetite. (2008), doi:10.1016/
j.appet.2008.04.196.
40. Balchin ML. Essential oils and ‘aromatherapy’: their modern
role in healing. J R Soc Health 1997;117:324– 9.
41. Lowana Veal. The potential effectiveness of essential oils as a
treatment for head lice Pediculus humanus capitis.
Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery. (I 996)
2, 97-101.
42. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/home-accueil/text-eng.php. As
assessed on 20/08/08.
43. Anderson PH and Jenson NJ. Mutagenic investigation of
peppermint oil in the salmonella/mammalian salmonella test.
Mutation Research. 138 (1984) 1720.
44. Karpauhtsis I, Pardali E, Feggou E, Kokkini S, Scouras ZG,
Mavragani-Tsipidou P. Insecticidal and genotoxic activities
of orgeno essential oils. Journal of Agriculture and Food
Chemistry. 46: 1111-1115.
45. Lazutka JR, Mierauskiene J, Slapesyte G, Dedonite V.
Genotoxicity of dill (Anethem greviolens L.), peppermint
(mentha × pipereta L.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) essential
oils in human lymphocytes and Drosophila melanogaster. Food
and chemical toxicology. 39 (2001) 485-492.
46. Kirkland D. chromosome aberration testing in genetic
toxicology- past present and future. Mutation Research. 404,
173-185.
47. Luke, E. (1962). Addiction to mentholated cigarettes. Lancet,
i, 110.
48. Matthias Behrends, Martin Beiderlinden, Jürgen Peters.
Acute Lung Injury After Peppermint Oil Injection. Anesth
Analg; 101 (2005) :1160-1162.
49.List of German Commission E Monographs (Phytotherapy).
Peppermint oil (Menthae piperitae aetheroleum) Published
March 13, 1986; Revised March 13, 1990, September 1,
1990, and July 14, 1993 available online link: http://
www.heilpflanzen-welt.de/buecher/BGA-Commission-E-
Monographs/index.htm
50. http://www.drugs.com/enc/peppermint-oil-overdose.html.
As assessed on 25/08/08.
51. http://content.herbalgram.org/eoproducts/HerbalMedicine/
default.asp?m=76. As assessed on 26/08/08.
52. Jones, L. (1998) “Establishing standards for essential oils
and analytical standards” Proceedings of NAHA The World
of Aromatherapy II International Conference and Trade
Show St. Louis, Missouri, Sept 25-28, 1998, p146-163.
53. George K. Dresser, Vincent Wacher, Susan Wong, Harrison
T. Wong, David G. Bailey. Evaluation of peppermint oil and
ascorbyl palmitate as inhibitors of cytochrome P4503A4
activity in vitro and in vivo. Clinical Pharmacology &
Therapeutics (2002) 72, 247–255.
33
... In this study, qualitative analysis of Oregano, Thyme, and Menthol revealed that Carvacrol and Thymol were the most predominant active ingredients in Thyme and Oregano, while Menthone and its derivatives were the most predominant ones in case of Menthol. This finding was in agreement with (Alankar, 2009) and (Ortega-Nieblas et al., 2011) who found that carvacrol, Thymol, and Menthone were the most predominant active ingredients in Thyme, Oregano and Menthol, respectively. The obtained MICs of Thyme 0.3%, Oregano 0.1%, and Menthol 0.8% were recommended to be used in the preparation of luncheon as these concentrations inhibited the visible growth of Bacillus cereus bacteria which was chosen to be the model for the most resistant strain due to its thick wall and spore-forming capability. ...
... While in case of Menthol, the used concentration showed extended shelf life till 14 days of storage. This result was similar to that obtained by (Roller & Seedhar, 2002), (Alankar, 2009),(Santana et al., 2013 and (Sakkas & Papadopoulou, 2017) who concluded that using Thyme, oregano and menthol as preservatives has a significant effect against food poisoning bacteria and can extend the shelf lifetime of different food categories. The obtained photos which illustrated the mode of action of EOs under study against salmonella (as a model of a predominant and problematic food poisoning causative agent) supported the data reported by (Alankar, 2009) and (Ortega-Nieblas et al., 2011), who concluded that essential oils cause impairment of the permeability of the cell wall of pathogenic bacteria and also impairment in the ion exchange and electrolyte exchange which led to rupture of the cell wall followed by loss of all cell constituents. ...
... This result was similar to that obtained by (Roller & Seedhar, 2002), (Alankar, 2009),(Santana et al., 2013 and (Sakkas & Papadopoulou, 2017) who concluded that using Thyme, oregano and menthol as preservatives has a significant effect against food poisoning bacteria and can extend the shelf lifetime of different food categories. The obtained photos which illustrated the mode of action of EOs under study against salmonella (as a model of a predominant and problematic food poisoning causative agent) supported the data reported by (Alankar, 2009) and (Ortega-Nieblas et al., 2011), who concluded that essential oils cause impairment of the permeability of the cell wall of pathogenic bacteria and also impairment in the ion exchange and electrolyte exchange which led to rupture of the cell wall followed by loss of all cell constituents. Results of the panel test showed that Oregano was the most acceptable preservative followed by thyme, while Menthol treated products were not accepted at all as the used concentration was very high. ...
... Menthol remove resistant plasmids from bacteria (Shrivastava, 2009). It disrupts the structure of bacterial cell membranes and mitochondria. ...
... Clear appearance can be obtained because the VCO is filtered by filter paper during oil separation. VCO with peppermint oil addition yielded the same color because peppermint oil is colorless or yellowish or greenish yellow (Shrivastava, 2009). It is affected by the main content inside peppermint oil (monoterpen), and monoterpenes are colorless (Robinson, 1991). ...
Article
Full-text available
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a pure coconut oil made from mature and fresh coconut meat. VCO is consumed for health-related reasons, but the unsaturated fatty acids of VCO are prone to oxidation. Mixing VCO with peppermint oil, which contains antioxidants, inhibits the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and thus prevents the rancidity of VCO. This research used the antioxidants from peppermint oil to improve VCO quality. VCO contains antioxidants, such as α-pinene, menthol, 1,8-cineol, camphor, flavonoid, borneol, tocopherol, and carotene. The treatments consisted of three peppermint oil concentrations (2.5%, 5%, and 7.5%) in VCO. Results showed that the additionof peppermint oil significantly improved VCO quality. The optimal concentration of peppermint oil in VCO was 7.5% with a water content of 0.05%, a free fatty acid value of 0.13%, a peroxide value of 0.53 mg eq/kg, an iodine value of 4.42 g I2/100 g, a total plate count of 0 cfu/mL, and antioxidant activity of 90.28%.
... The interest on essential oils increases strongly worldwide, including those of Mentha genus. Mentha, an herb of the Lamiaceae family, has been long used in analgesic, astringent, carminative, expectorant and inflammatory disease-related pharmaceutical preparations [5] . The essential oil of each species has characteristic chemical signature e. g., menthol (75-80%) in Mentha. ...
... The optical activities of pulegone and menthol are ±23. 5 The first group contained pulegone, menthol and menthofuran and α pinene suggesting that these constituents may be interconverted during the storage period. It is reported that menthofuran has been identified as common precursor for the secondary transformation of menthane lactones in Mentha species 28 and lead to clustering in the one group. ...
Article
Full-text available
The storage of the menthofuran rich essential oil of Mentha piperita (cv. CIMAP-Patra released by CSIR-CIMAP) is the major problem for its market sustainability. In the present study, the best storage conditions were optimized without degradation in menthofuran content and the quality of essential oil. The quality of the essential oil was evaluated in two storage conditions (temperature: 25±2 °C and 4±0.5 °C), three types of storage containers (transparent glass, amber color glass, and aluminum bottles), and six storage periods (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months). The results indicated that maximum degradation (52.45%) was reported in the oil sample which was stored in a transparent vial at 25 °C. At 4 °C, degradation in menthofuran content was not pronounced irrespective of different containers, however, the lowest degradation was reported in the amber color bottle. Apart from the menthofuran, pulegone, and iso menthone, minor fluctuations in other chemical constituents were recorded, but not in the proper pattern. The refractive index of the essential was not altered with storage condition and time, while optical density was decreased with the storage time. Results suggest that the storage of the menthofuran rich essential oil of Mentha piperita in an amber color glass container at 4 °C is the best way to reduce the oxidation and degradation/conversion of menthofuran for a longer period of time.
... Interestingly, some research showed the repellent effect of VD [13]. In fact, essential oil, especially peppermint oil, was well known for strong mosquito repellent action Molecules 2020, 25, 2800 2 of 11 and its action has been widely reported [14][15][16]. Thus, it is known that VD plays an important role in the mosquito repellent effect of peppermint [13]. ...
... repellent effect of VD [13]. In fact, essential oil, especially peppermint oil, was well known for strong mosquito repellent action and its action has been widely reported [14][15][16]. Thus, it is known that VD plays an important role in the mosquito repellent effect of peppermint [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A simple, sensitive, and rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of veratraldehyde and its metabolite veratric acid in rat plasma. Cinnamaldehyde was used as an internal standard (IS) and the one-step protein precipitation method with 0.2% formic acid in acetonitrile (mobile phase B) was used for the sample extraction. Reversed C18 column (YMC-Triart C18 column, 50 mm × 2.0 mm, 1.9 µm) was used for chromatographic separation and was maintained at 30 °C. The total run time was 4.5 min and the electrospray ionization in positive mode was used with the transition m/z 167.07 → 139.00 for veratraldehyde, m/z 183.07 → 139.00 for veratric acid, and m/z 133.00 → 55.00 for IS. The developed method exhibited good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9977), and the lower limits of quantification ranged from 3 to 10 ng/mL for the two analytes. Intra-day precision and accuracy parameters met the criteria (within ±15%) during the validation. The bioanalytical method was applied for the determination of veratraldehyde and veratric acid in rat plasma after oral and percutaneous administration of 300 and 600 mg/kg veratraldehyde. Using the analytical methods established in this study, we can confirm the absorption and metabolism of veratraldehyde in rats for various routes.
... 65 This plant is widely used in folk remedies and traditional medicine for the treatment of hot flushes in women, irritable bowel syndrome, herpes simplex virus, nervous disorders and mental fatigue, nausea, and indigestion. 66 The main chemical compounds of the peppermint are based on phenolics reaching up to 23%, including eriocitrin, rosmarinic acid, hesperidin, luteolin, limonene, cineole, menthone, menthofuran, isomenthone, menthyl acetate, isopulegol, menthol, pulegone, and carvone. 67,68 Side effects of peppermint have been usually reported as mild and minimally toxic; additionally, high doses could be hepatotoxic 69 and nephrotoxic. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Herbs and spices are commonly consumed in different regions for culinary and medical purposes. Herbs and spices may have several positive health effects due to their phytochemical contents that have already been discussed in several studies. In this study, the main aim was to review and discuss the possible toxic effects of commonly used herbs and spices. The dose-dependent toxic effects of herbs and spices are important to create public awareness on the consumption of these phytochemical sources for both culinary and medical purposes. Even though the health-promoting effects of these herbs and spices at lower concentrations have been reported in various studies, each herb and spice may become toxic after a certain dose. In addition to the general evaluation of these herbs and spices, susceptible organs or systems in living organisms were presented in this chapter covering several in vivo studies.
Article
Full-text available
he use of herbal drugs is as old as human beings. Püdéna or Mentha arvensis L. belongs to the family of Lamiaceae. It is a common edible and aromatic perennial herb cultivated throughout India. It is one of the oldest culinary herbs known to the mankind and widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and flavoring industries. As per the ancient Unani classical literature, it is used for various ailments such as nausea, vomiting, flatulence, indigestion, hiccup, mastitis, etc. In recent times, a lot of scientific studies have been conducted on Püdéna namely; phyto-chemical, physico-chemical, pharmacological and clinical studies. In this paper, an attempt has been made to collect information on medicinal properties of Püdéna as mentioned in Unani classical literature as well as in studies conducted in the recent past.
Article
Full-text available
Yoghurt was prepared from skimmed milk supplemented with menthol in an attempt to increase the health benefits of yoghurt. Four yoghurt treatments were made: yoghurt free from menthol as control, yoghurt with 128, 256 and 512 ppm of menthol T1, T2 and T3 respectively. The antibacterial activity of menthol on some pathogenic bacteria (E. coli O157:H7, Staph. aureus and Salmonella enteritidis) was measured by the disc diffusion assay. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and the minimum lethal concentration (MLC) were determined for each strain. E. coli exhibited the highest MIC and MLC of 128 and 256 ppm respectively. All yoghurt treatments were chemically, microbiologically and sensory analyzed throughout storage period of 21 days. Control had the highest acidity, lactic acid bacteria LAB and total viable (TVC) counts. T1 ranked highest scores for flavour and total scores up to 21 days. However, T3 had the lowest acidity, LAB and TVC. Fungi and coliform bacteria were not detected in all treatments. Control went bad after 30 days of storage, while yoghurt with menthol remained acceptable up to 45 days.
Article
The use of peppermint water as a flavouring agent in extemporaneously prepared alkaline mixtures has been implicated with bacterial contamination and proliferation in these mixtures. The natural tendency therefore, has been to disfavour the use of peppermint water as a flavouring agent. The British Pharmacopoeia (1973) recommends a 1:20 dilution (5.0%) of concentrated peppermint water (CPW) for use in mixtures. This concentration has now been shown to exhibit considerable fungistatic but not fungicidal activity against strains of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. Fungicidal concentrations of CPW as obtained in the present study are, however, well in excess of the concentrations normally included in mixtures and they completely, halted spore germination at any given phase of growth without affecting size of swollen spores.
Article
The essential oils (EOs) obtained from the oregano plants Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Coridothymus capitatus, and Satureja thymbra were examined by a combination of GC and GC−MS and found to be rich in carvacrol, thymol, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene. These EOs and their main constituents, carvacrol and thymol, were tested for insecticidal and genotoxic activities on Drosophila. The EO of S. thymbra was found to be the most effective as an insecticide, while carvacrol was found to be more toxic than thymol. The toxicities of carvacrol and thymol do not correspond to their participation in the EOs, and mixtures of these two phenols in levels resembling their content in the three oils showed that the toxicity of carvacrol was reduced in the presence of thymol, thus suggesting antagonistic phenomena. The somatic mutation and recombination test on Drosophila revealed that, among the five compounds studied, only thymol exhibits genotoxic activity. Keywords: Oregano; Origanum vulgare; Coridothymus capitatus; Satureja thymbra; essential oils; carvacrol; thymol; insecticides; genotoxicity; Drosophila melanogaster
Article
This paper describes a research study to investigate the efficacy of peppermint oil as a treatment for postoperative nausea. It uses a three-condition experimental design using statistical analysis to compare groups. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to establish significance and the Mann–Whitney test to differentiate significance between the groups. The control, placebo and experimental groups of gynaecological patients were compared, using variables known to affect postoperative nausea. They were found to be homogeneous for the purposes of the study. A statistically significant difference was demonstrated on the day of operation, using the Kruskal-Wallis test, P= 0·0487. Using the Mann-Whitney test the difference was shown to be between the placebo and experimental group (U=3; P= 0·02). The experimental group also required less traditional antiemetics and received more opioid analgesia postoperatively. The total cost of the treatment was 48 pence per person.
Article
Oil of Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint oil), a widely used essential oil, was evaluated for larvicidal activity against different mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus by exposing IIIrd instar larvae of mosquitoes in enamel trays 6 + 4 inch2 size filled to a depth of 3 inch with water. Of the three species tested Cx. quinquefasciatus was most susceptible followed by Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. Application of oil at 3 ml/m2 of water surface area resulted in 100% mortality within 24 h for Cx. quinquefasciatus, 90% for Ae. aegypti and 85% for An. stephensi. For Ae. aegypti 100% mortality was achieved at 3 ml/m2 in 48 h or 4 ml/m2 in 24 h. For An. stephensi 100% mortality was observed at 4 ml/m2 in 72 h. The emergence at 3 ml/m2 was also inhibited to a great extent and the few adults which emerged did not ovipost even after taking a blood meal.The oil showed strong repellent action against adult mosquitoes when applied on human skin. Percent protection obtained against An. annularis, An. culicifacies, and Cx. quinquefasciatus was 100%, 92.3% and 84.5%, respectively. The repellent action of Mentha oil was comparable to that of Mylol oil consisting of dibutyl and dimethyl phthalates.