ArticlePDF Available


Peppermint oil is obtained from the leaves of the perennial herb, Mentha piperita L. and M. arvensis var. piperascens a member of the Labiatae family. This family includes many well-known essential oil plants such as spearmint, basil, lavender, rosemary, sage, marjoram and thyme. This is a well known and important medicinal plant widely used in several indigenous systems of medicine for various therapeutic benefits viz. analgesic, anesthetic, antiseptic, astringent, carminative, decongestant, expectorant, nervine, stimulant, stomachic, inflammatory diseases, ulcer and stomach problems. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the chemistry, pharmacology, analysis, and uses of Peppermint oil.
Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009 ( )
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Peppermint oil is obtained from the leaves of the perennial herb, Mentha piperita L. and M. arvensis var. piperascens a member of the
Labiatae family. This family includes many well-known essential oil plants such as spearmint, basil, lavender, rosemary, sage,
marjoram and thyme. This is a well known and important medicinal plant widely used in several indigenous systems of medicine
for various therapeutic benefits viz. analgesic, anesthetic, antiseptic, astringent, carminative, decongestant, expectorant, nervine,
stimulant, stomachic, inflammatory diseases, ulcer and stomach problems. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive
analysis of the chemistry, pharmacology, analysis, and uses of Peppermint oil.
Keywords : Mentha piperita, Mentha arvensis, peppermint oil, Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
Peppermint oil is obtained from the leaves of the perennial
herb, Mentha piperita L. and M. arvensis var. piperascens a
member of the labiatae family. It is a colourless, pale yellow
or pale greenish-yellow liquid having characteristic odour
and taste followed by a sensation of cold, freely soluble in
ethanol (70%). The solution may show an opalescence.1
The oil is found on the undersides of the leaves, is extracted
by steam distillation and is generally followed by
rectification and fractionation before use.2
India is worlds largest producer and exporter of mint oil.
Mint oil and its constituents and derivatives are used in
food, pharmaceutical and perfumery and flavouring
industry. Its main constituent, menthol, is used in the
manufacture of lozenges, toothpastes, pain balms, cold
balms, Dabur Pudin Hara, etc. The basic raw material for
mint oil is leaves of a plant Mentha arvensis.3 The oil is
used for treating certain stomach disorders like indigestion,
gas problem, acidity, etc. It is the main ingredient of
ayurvedic medicines like Daburs ‘Pudin Hara’. The oil is
a natural source of menthol, which is the main ingredient
of cough drops and ointments like Vicks Vaporub, etc.
Peppermint Oil contains not less than 4.5 per cent w/w
and not more than 10.0 per cent w/w of esters, calculated
as menthyl acetate, C12H22O2, not less than 44.0 per cent
w/w of free alcohols, calculated as menthol, C10H20O, and
not less than 15.0 per cent w/w and not more than 32.0
per cent w/w of ketones, calculated as menthone, C10H18O.
Peppermint oil is extracted from the whole plant above
ground just before flowering. The oil is extracted by steam
distillation4 from the fresh or partly dried plant and the
yield is 0.1 - 1.0 %.
Supercritical fluid extraction was performed by I. Gãinar
et al 5 and was compared with that of peppermint oil
isolated by hydrodistillation. The oil extracted under SFE-
1 conditions had a higher content of menthone, menthol,
1, 8-cineole and piperitone compared with the SFE-2
conditions, and a lower content of menthyl acetate,
caryophyllene and
-cadinene. The compounds mainly
responsible for the peppermint fragrance (oxygenated
monoterpenes) amounted to 79.2% for SFE-1 compared
with 74.4% at SFE-2 conditions. In contrast,
sesquiterpenes were only 7.7% for SFE-1 and 11.6% for
SFE-2. The hydrodistilled oil possessed the higher
percentage of terpene acetates, 12.5% against 12.0% for
Recently on new method was developed by Farid Chemet
et al.6 for the extraction of essential oils that is much more
faster as compared with the conventional hydrodistillation
Various constituents of peppermint oil as per monographs
of Internation Pharmacopoeia are limonene (1.0-5.0%),
cineole (3.5-14.0%), menthone (14.0-32.0%),
menthofuran (1.0 -9.0%), isomenthone (1.5-10.0%),
menthyl acetate (2.8-10.0%), isopulegol (max. 0.2%),
menthol (30.0-55.0%), pulegone (max. 4.0%) and carvone
(max. 1.0%). The ratio of cineole content to limonene
content should be minimum two. Chemical structures of
these constituents were given in Fig.1.
International Pharmacopoeia monograph7
Relative density : 0.900 to 0.916.
Refractive index : 1.457 to 1.467.
Optical rotation : -10° to -30°.
Acid value : maximum 1.4, determined on 5.0 g diluted
in 50 ml of the prescribed mixture of solvents.
Fatty oils and resinified essential oils : Complies with the
*Corresponding author: * Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, B.R. Nahata College of Pharmacy, Mhow Neemuch Road, Mandsaur (M.P)
Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009 ( )
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Methyl acetate
FIGURE 1. Various chemical constituents of peppermint oil.
1,8, cineole
Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009 ( )
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
test for fatty oils and resinified essential oils.
Chromatographic profiling of peppermint oil can be done
with Gas chromatography with flame ionization detector.
Evaluating Peppermint Oils by Chiral GC/MS 8
Often, a product is adulterated to increase desirable
properties of the natural oil or to avoid costly
manufacturing of all- natural oil. Adulteration usually is
accomplished by adding a similar but cheaper oil, such as
cornmint oil (Mentha arvensis), or by diluting the oil with
various solvent oils. Adulteration and quality consistency
of peppermint oil fuels concern over compromised quality,
but also introduces health safety issues; for example, there
is potential for an allergic reaction to an added unnatural
compound or excess of a natural component. Despite the
value of identifying and quantifying major components
like menthol, methone and methyl acetate, dependable
identification and quantification is difficult because each
of these is represented by several stereoisomers. Menthol,
for example, has three chiral centers, for a total of eight
stereoisomers, making chromatographic separation
difficult. For this GC/MS method was published by Julie
Kowalski optimized to following conditions claiming
detection of major components important to the quality
of peppermint oil product, thus providing manufacturers
and buyers with consistent profiles with which to confirm
and track product quality.
Column: Rt-ãDEXsa™ 30m x 0.25mm ID, 0.25ìm
Inj.: 1.0ìL neat, split (split ratio 1:150)
Inj.: temp.: 230°C
Carrier gas: helium, constant pressure
Flow rate: 35 cm/sec. at 100°C
Oven temp.: 40°C to 120°C @ 5°C/min. to 135°C @
3°C/min. to
200°C @ 5°C/min.
Det: MS
Spectroscopic study of Mentha oils8
The visible fluorescence and excitation spectra of Mentha
oils (Japanese mint oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil)
have been recorded. Different physical constants which
are characteristic of the fluorescent molecules have been
calculated for all three oils. Results reveal that the same
group of organic compounds dominate in the oils of
peppermint and spearmint, whereas some different
compound is present in Japanese mint oil. Study also
demonstrated that the fluorescence intensity of these oils
is comparable to that of Rhodamine 6G dye in methanol
solution and suggests that Mentha oils may be a useful
lasing material in the 450-600 nm wavelength range.
Estimation of Menthone, Menthofuran, Menthyl Acetate
and Menthol in Peppermint Oil by Capillary Gas
Support-coated open-tubular (SCOT) glass capillary
column (43 m x 0.5mm I.D.) coated with SP-1000 was
fitted into an aluminium support cage. A Packard-Becker
419 gas chromatograph equipped with dual flame
ionization detectors and dual injectors was used. The
injection port temperature was 190°C and detector
temperature 190°C. The multilinear temperature
programmer was used as follows. Initial temperature of
64°C was held for 3 min, then the temperature was raised
at 0.5ºC/min to 80ºC, then at 5ºC/min to the final
temperature of 155ºC, with an isothermal hold of 12 min
at 155°C. The carrier gas was helium at a flow-rate of cu.
2 ml/mm with nitrogen (18 ml/min) as make-up gas. Air
flow was 300 ml/min and hydrogen flow 30 ml/min. The
velocity of the carrier gas was about 21.5 cm/sec whilst
the capacity ratio (k) of the column was 6.5 using docosane
at 185°C.
Quantitative determination of Pulegone by Gas-
Liquid Chromatography
Various methods for the estimation of the pulegone was
found in the literature. It was due to one problem that
pulegone has a retention time,11 according to the columns
employed, that is either very near to that of menthol (main
component), with consequent overlap or very similar to
those of isomenthol and some sesquiterpene hydrocarbons
(e.g. cadinene and caryophyllene).12-14
Hot flushes in women
A single-blind randomised control crossover study15 was
performed to look at the effects of a peppermint and neroli
hydrolat spray on hot flushes in women being treated for
breast cancer. Only 18 of the 44 patients (41%) preferred
the hydrolat spray to a plain water spray, which was less
than the 80% required to offer this spray as a standard
suggestion for hot flush management. However a small
number of those choosing it found it extremely helpful.
Both sprays appeared to lessen hot flush annoyance.
Previous chemotherapy appeared to be a factor influencing
the choice of spray.
Irritable Bowel Syndrom
Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and lactose intolerance
are associated with increased gas production, which may
sometimes trigger abdominal discomfort and bloating
which are also considered also the cardinal symptoms in
IBS.16-17 Furthermore, a high prevalence of celiac disease
has been observed in patients with bloating and diarrhoea
and positive H2-lactose breath test. In these patients the
symptoms related to lactase deficiency seem to be the only
Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009 ( )
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
manifestation of celiac disease18. Basing themselves on
these data, some authors suggest that these diseases should
be previously excluded in clinic therapeutic trials with
investigational drugs that affect IBS19. Peppermint oil has
been tested in children20 and adults21 with IBS, with
conflicting results. A recent meta-analysis on this topic
concluded that the role of peppermint oil has not yet been
established beyond a reasonable doubt.22 In this regard one
double blind study by L. Marzio et al.23 57 patients with
irritable bowel syndrome were treated with peppermint
oil (two enteric-coated capsules twice per day or placebo)
and 4 weeks treatment with peppermint oil improves
abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel
Antimicrobial and anti-plasmid activities24
The antimicrobial activities were determined on the Gram
(+) Staphylococcus epidermidis and the Gram (?)
Escherichia coli F’lac K12 LE140, and on two yeast
Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0425 ä/1 and 0425 52C strains.
The antiplasmid activities were investigated on E. coli F’lac
bacterial strain. Each of the oils exhibited antimicrobial
activity and three of them antiplasmid action. The
interaction of peppermint oil and menthol with the
antibiotics was studied on the same bacterial strain with
the checkerboard method. Eexperiments proved the
antiplasmid activity of peppermint oil and its main
constituent, menthol, which means that menthol-
containing substances are potential agents that could
eliminate the resistance plasmids of bacteria. The main
point of this menthol-induced plasmid elimination is a
special mechanism of action. The compound preferentially
kills the plasmid-containing bacteria due to their increased
sensitivity to menthol.
Postoperative Nausea
Tate25 demonstrated that inhalation of peppermint oil
vapors significantly reduced postoperative nausea and the
requirement for pharmacologic antiemetics following
gynecologic surgery. Inhalation of isopropyl alcohol vapors
is a South American folk remedy for nausea. More recently,
its use has been advocated for transport-related nausea1 as
well as for PONV in children and adults.26 Winston et
all27 found that isopropyl alcohol inhalation relieved
PONV more rapidly than ondansetron 4 mg IV, but a
placebo group was not studied. A randomized,
doubleblind, placebo-controlled study28 on 33 surgery
patients indicate that initial treatment of postoperative
nausea with aromatherapy reduces patients’ subjective
perception of nausea and IV antiemetic use in the PACU
by nearly 50%.
Against herpes simplex virus29
This essential oil is capable to exert a direct virucidal effect
on HSV. Peppermint oil is also active against an acyclovir
resistant strain of HSV-1 (HSV-1-ACVres), plaque
formation was significantly reduced by 99%. Considering
the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate
the skin, peppermint oil might be suitable for topical
therapeutic use as virucidal agent in recurrent herpes
Larvicidal and mosquito repellent action30
Oil of Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint oil), a widely used
essential oil, was evaluated for larvicidal activity against
di•erent mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles
stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus by exposing IIIrd
instar larvae of mosquitoes in enamel trays 6´ 4 inch2 size
filled to a depth of 3 inch with water. The oil showed
strong repellent action against adult mosquitoes when
applied on human skin. Percent protection obtained
against An. annularis, An. culicifacies, and Cx.
quinquefasciatus was 100%, 92.3% and 84.5%,
respectively. The repellent action of Mentha oil was
comparable to that of Mylol oil consisting of dibutyl and
dimethyl phthalates.
Treatment of Nervous Disorders and Mental Fatigue
Peppermint and its EO are believed to be effective in the
treatment of nervous disorders and mental fatigue
(Tisserand, 1993),31 suggesting that they may exert some
psychoactive actions. The specific hypothesis used to test
for such pharmacological actions was guided by reports
that it may be effective in the treatment of mental fatigue
(Tisserand, 1993), suggesting that the oil might possess a
similar action to psychostimulants. Study by Toyoshi
Umezu et al.32 determined the effects of peppermint oil on
behavior in mice. The present study revealed that
intraperitoneal administration of natural peppermint oil,
which is used for medicinal purposes in aromatherapy,
caused a significant dose dependent increase in ambulatory
activity. This result demonstrated that peppermint oil
produces an apparent effect on behavior in mice.
Adding few drops of peppermint essential oil in a glass of
water and drinking it after meal gives relief from indigestive
properties. This oil acts as carminative and helps effectively
in removing the gas.
Other Uses
· It was also reported that peppermint oil is effective against
type I allergic reactions.34-35
Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009 ( )
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
·1: 20 dilution (5.0%) of concentrated peppermint
water has now been shown to exhibit considerable
fungistatic but not fungicidal activity against strains of
Aspergik niger and Penicillium ckysogenum.36
·One interesting study concluded that peppermint
oil can indeed reduce daytime sleepiness. However, the
mechanisms by which peppermint oil has its effect and
the applicability of these findings to situations in everyday
life will require further empirical investigation.37
· Peppermint oil was reported to have a relaxing
effect in patients with colonic spasms.38
· One recent study by J. A. Reed et al. results is
that peppermint scent can be used as an effective adjunct
to decrease appetite, decrease hunger cravings, and
consume fewer calories, which may lead to weight
reduction and greater overall health.39
·The use of peppermint oil given orally can cure
certain internal ailments such as gallstones or ureteric
stones. The doses of them sometimes exceed 45 ml/day in
France and Germany.40
· Headlice: Phenols, phenolic ethers, ketones, and
oxides (1, 8-cineole) appear to be the major toxic
components of these essential oils when used on lice.
Aldehydes and sesquiterpenes may also play a role.41
·In vapor therapy, peppermint oil can help to
increase concentration and to stimulate the mind, as well
as sorting out coughs, headaches, nausea and also has value
as an insect repellant.42
· External usage of peppermint oil gives relief from
pain. The existence of calcium antagonism in peppermint
oil helps in removing the pain. It has wonderful cooling
properties and reduces the fever also.42
·A mouthwash with peppermint oil included can
help with bad breath and gum infections.42
·When included in a cream or lotion, it will help
to ease the sting of sunburn, reduce redness of inflamed
skin, reduce itchiness and cools down the skin with its
vasoconstrictor properties.42
·The oil gives cooling effect on your head and helps
in removing the dandruff and lice.42
Anderson and Jenson43 (1984) found no mutagenicity of
peppermint essential oil in the salmonella/ microsomes
assay. Essential oil of menthe spicata L. appeared to be slight
genotoxic.44 In human lymphocytes peppermint oil was
found to be cytotoxic and induced chromosomes
aberrations only when inhibition of mitotic activity was
70 % or higher. Peppermint may be classified as “high
toxic clastogen”, which induces chromosomes aberrations
by secondry mechanism associated with cytotoxicity.45 On
the other hand, peppermint essential oil does not behave
like a “typical elastic clastogen” because it is mutagenic in
D. melanogaster somatic mutation and recombinant test
in vivo.46 The component of peppermint oil that causes
genotoxicity is yet not fully understood.
Case report of 58 years women smoked heavily changed
to menthol containing cigarettes. After three months she
became irritable and quarrelsome, in contrast to her former
placid good-natured state, and had gastrointestinal upset
with occasional vomiting. Her speech became thick and
she developed a tremor of the hand and an unsteady gait.
On one occasion mental confusion and depression
occurred and she was admitted to hospital with a toxic
psychosis that was considered to be due to menthol
addiction. Within 17 days of the withdrawal of menthol
cigarettes, she became normal in every respect without
specific treatment.47
One more case report of acute lung injury48 following IV
injection of peppermint oil by 18 year old women
developed fulminant pulmonary edema, presumably due
to direct toxicity and a resultant increase in pulmonary
vascular permeability.
Obstruction of bile ducts, gall bladder inflammation, severe
liver damage. In case of gallstones, to be used only after
the consultant of physician.
Peppermint oil is non-toxic and non-irritant in low
dilutions, but sensitization may be a problem due to the
menthol content.It can cause irritation to the skin and
mucus membranes and should be kept well away from the
eyes. It should be avoided during pregnancy and should
not be used on children under seven.49
Peppermint oil in any form is not recommended for those
with hiatal hernia, gallbladder disease or while pregnant
or nursing.33
Overdose symptoms of peppermint oil 50 are Slow
breathing, Rapid breathing, Abdominal pain, Diarrhea,
Nausea, Vomiting, Blood in urine, No urine production,
Convulsions, Depression, Dizziness, Twitching,
Unconsciousness, Uncoordinated movement and Flushing.
Average daily dose: 6-12 drops
For inhalation: 3-4 drops in hot water
Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009 ( )
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
For irritable colon: Average single dose 0.2 ml
Average single dose 0.6 ml in enterically coated form.
Some drops rubbed in the affected face areas.
In semi-solid and oily preparations 5-20 %
In aqueous-ethanol preparations 5-10 %
In nasal ointments 1-5 % essential oil.
Peppermint oil can be adulterated by addition of much
cheaper cornmint oil (Mentha arvensis).
Augment peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of felodipine
and the AUC and Cmax of dehydrofelodipine but did not
alter the half-life (t½)53.
Store in well-filled, tightly-closed, light-resistant containers
in a cool place.
1. Indian Pharmacopoeia. Monograph of peppermint oil. 1996.
2. Assessed on 26/
3. Agrawal VK. Techniques of mentha species cultivation.
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Directorate of extention
services. IGAU. pp 33.
Assessed on 25/08/08.
5. Gainar I, Vîlcu R and Mocan M. Supercritical fluid extraction
and fractional Separation of essential oils. Available online
6. Maryline Abert Viana, Xavier Fernandezb, Franco Visinonic,
Farid Chemata. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity, a new
technique for extraction of essential oils. Journal of
Chromatography A, 1190 (2008) 14–17.
7. International Pharmacopoeia. Monograph of peppermint oil.
8. Julie Kowalski. Evaluating Peppermint Oils by Chiral GC/
MS. Available online link:
9. Spectrochimica Acto, Vol. 46A. No. 8, pp. 1269-1272. 1990.
10. J. P. Sang. Estimation of menthone, menthofuran, menthyl
acetate and menthol in peppermint oil by capillary gas
chromatography. Journal of Chromatography, 253 (1982),
109-l 12
11. Carlo Bichi and Carloma Frattini. Quantifative estimation
of minor components in essential oils and determination of
pulegone in peppermint oils. Journal of Chromatography.
190 (1980) 471-474.
12. T. Sscco, G. M. Nauo and S. scanmyini Allionia, 15 (1969)
13. T. Sacco and G. M. Nauo, Afiionia, 16 (1970) 59.
14. G. Bass& F. CZhiah and P. Paato, Ind. Aliment (Pihero
Italy) ll(l978) 835.
15. Dyer J, et al. A study to look at the effects of a hydrolat spray
on hot flushes in women being treated for breast cancer.
Complement Ther Clin Practice (2008), doi:10.1016/
16. Pimentel M, Kong Y, Park S. Breath testing to evaluate lactose
intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome correlates with
lactulose testing and may not reflect true lactose
malabsorption. Am J Gastroenterol 2003;98: 2700–4.
17. Vernia P, Di Camillo M, Marinaro V. Lactose malabsorption,
irritable bowel syndrome and self-reported milk intolerance.
Dig Liver Dis 2001; 33: 234–9.
18. Ojetti V, Nucera G, Migneco A, Gabrielli M, Lauritano C,
Danese S, et al. High prevalence of celiac disease in patients
with lactose intolerance. Digestion 2005; 71: 106–10.
19. De Giorgio R, Barbara G, Stanghellini V, Cremon C, Salvioli
B, De Ponti F, et al. Diagnosis and therapy of irritable bowel
syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 20 (Suppl. 2):10–
20. Kline RM, Kline JJ, Di Palma J, Barbero GJ. Enteric-coated,
pH ependent peppermint oil capsules for the treatment of
irritable bowel syndrome in children. J Pediatr 2001; 138
21. Liu JH, Chen GH, Yeh HZ, Huang CK, Poon SK. Enteric-
coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable
bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial. J
Gastroenterol 1997;32: 765–8.
22. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Peppermint oil for irritable bowel
syndrome: a critical review and metaanalysis. Am J
Gastroenterol 1998;93: 1131–5.
23. L. Marzio et al. Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of
irritable bowel syndrome: A prospective double blind
placebo-controlled randomized trial. Digestive and Liver
Disease. 39 (2007) 530–536.
24. Zsuzsanna Schelz, Joseph Molnar and Judit Hohmann.
Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils.
Fitoterapia 77 (2006) 279–285.
25. Tate S: Peppermint oil: A treatment for postoperative nausea.
J Adv Nurs 26:543-549, 1997
26. Wang SM, Hofstadter MB, Kain ZN: An alternative method
to alleviate postoperative nausea and vomiting in children. J
Clin Anesth 11:231-234, 1999.
27. Winston AW, Rinehart RS, Riley GP, et al: Comparison of
inhaled isopropyl alcohol and intravenous ondansetron for
treatment of postoperative nausea. AANA Journal 71:127-
132, 2003
Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009 ( )
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
28. Sinclair DR, Chung-F, Mezei G: Can postoperative nausea
and vomiting be predicted? Anesthesiology 91:109-118,
29. A. Schuhmacher, J. Reichling, and P. Schnitzler. Virucidal
effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes
simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Phytomedicine 10:
504–510, 2003.
30. Ansaria M.A, Padma Vasudevanb, Mamta Tandonb, Razdana
RK. Larvicidal and mosquito repellent action of peppermint
(Mentha piperita) oil. Bioresource Technology 71 (2000)
31. Tisserand R. The art of aromatherapy Essex, UK: C.W.
Daniel, 1993.
32. Toyoshi Umezu, Akiko Sakata and Hiroyasu Ito. Ambulation-
promoting effect of peppermint oil and identification of its
active constituents. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and
Behavior 69 (2001) 383–390.
indigestion.html. Assessed on 24/08/08.
34. Arakawa T, Ishikawa Y, and Ushida K: Volatile sulfur
production by pig cecal bacteria in batch culture and
screening inhibitors of sulfate reducing bacteria. J Nutr Sci
Vitaminol 46: 193–198, 2000.
35. Inoue T, Sugimoto Y, Masuda H, et al: Effect of peppermint
(Mentha piperita L.) extracts on experimental allergic rhinitis
in rats. Biol Pharm Bull 24: 92–95, 2001.
36.Hugbo PG. An evaluation of antifungal properties of
peppermint water. International Journal of Pharmaceutics.
10 ( 1982) 193-198.
37. Mark Ian Keith Norrish and Katie Louise Dwyer.
Preliminary investigation of the effect of peppermint oil on
an objective measure of daytime sleepiness. International
Journal of Psychophysiology. 55 (2005) 291– 298.
38. Masato Ai et al. Assessment of the Antispasmodic Effect of
Peppermint Oil and Shakuyaku-Kanzo-To (TJ-68): A
Chinese Herbal Medicine on the Colonic Wall.
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 61(5) AB107.
39. J. A. Reed et al. Effects of peppermint scent on appetite
control and caloric intake. Appetite. (2008), doi:10.1016/
40. Balchin ML. Essential oils and ‘aromatherapy’: their modern
role in healing. J R Soc Health 1997;117:324– 9.
41. Lowana Veal. The potential effectiveness of essential oils as a
treatment for head lice Pediculus humanus capitis.
Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery. (I 996)
2, 97-101.
42. As
assessed on 20/08/08.
43. Anderson PH and Jenson NJ. Mutagenic investigation of
peppermint oil in the salmonella/mammalian salmonella test.
Mutation Research. 138 (1984) 1720.
44. Karpauhtsis I, Pardali E, Feggou E, Kokkini S, Scouras ZG,
Mavragani-Tsipidou P. Insecticidal and genotoxic activities
of orgeno essential oils. Journal of Agriculture and Food
Chemistry. 46: 1111-1115.
45. Lazutka JR, Mierauskiene J, Slapesyte G, Dedonite V.
Genotoxicity of dill (Anethem greviolens L.), peppermint
(mentha × pipereta L.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) essential
oils in human lymphocytes and Drosophila melanogaster. Food
and chemical toxicology. 39 (2001) 485-492.
46. Kirkland D. chromosome aberration testing in genetic
toxicology- past present and future. Mutation Research. 404,
47. Luke, E. (1962). Addiction to mentholated cigarettes. Lancet,
i, 110.
48. Matthias Behrends, Martin Beiderlinden, Jürgen Peters.
Acute Lung Injury After Peppermint Oil Injection. Anesth
Analg; 101 (2005) :1160-1162.
49.List of German Commission E Monographs (Phytotherapy).
Peppermint oil (Menthae piperitae aetheroleum) Published
March 13, 1986; Revised March 13, 1990, September 1,
1990, and July 14, 1993 available online link: http://
As assessed on 25/08/08.
default.asp?m=76. As assessed on 26/08/08.
52. Jones, L. (1998) “Establishing standards for essential oils
and analytical standards” Proceedings of NAHA The World
of Aromatherapy II International Conference and Trade
Show St. Louis, Missouri, Sept 25-28, 1998, p146-163.
53. George K. Dresser, Vincent Wacher, Susan Wong, Harrison
T. Wong, David G. Bailey. Evaluation of peppermint oil and
ascorbyl palmitate as inhibitors of cytochrome P4503A4
activity in vitro and in vivo. Clinical Pharmacology &
Therapeutics (2002) 72, 247–255.
... The mint's main chemical compounds consist of limonene, cineole, menthone, menthofuran, isomenthone, menthyl acetate, isopulegol, menthol, pulegone, and carvone (Rohloff, 1999;Alankar, 2009). Flavonoid glycosides contain substances like hesperidin, luteolin-7-o-rutinoside, isorhoifolin, narirutin, and others (Areias et al., 2001). ...
Ke ywor ds Immu nomodula tors Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Moringa oliefera Lam. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprenge Euphorbia hirta (L.) Mentha piperita (L.) Abstract In the current scenario, an extensive study on diverse plant species is presently being done to assess traditional medicine for its possible therapeutic effects throughout the world. Indian medicinal plants have extraordinary healing properties that can treat a wide variety of human illnesses and ailments. Herbs are making a comeback, and today's herbal goods are safer and more secure than synthetic drugs, which encourages research into herbal medications. Protein, vitamin D, iron, vitamin B12, and folate are common nutritional deficits found in Indians which make them more susceptible to infection. The immune system is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, which plays a significant role in the high death rates linked to immune system dysregulation and other disorders. Herbs rich in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants helps to prevent cell damage from free radicals or promote the development of cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Numerous Indian medicinal plants have been found to have immunostimulant properties, making them prospective medication sources for the treatment of different chronic illnesses as well as AIDS and other immunocompromised diseases. The immunomodulatory characteristics of numerous substances, including alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides, lactones, and glycoside derivatives, are well reported. Since ancient times, several therapeutic plants and phytochemicals have been used to influence the immune system. This review provides a broad overview of medicinal herbs, including Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., Moringa oliefera Lam., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprenge, Euphorbia hirta (L.), and Mentha piperita (L.). This review is presented to spread awareness of Indian herbal medicines as immunomodulators around the world, keeping in mind the enormous potential of medicinal plants and the pharmaceuticals made from them.
... Also, it can ease the sting of sunburn, reduce redness/itchiness and cool down the skin with its vasoconstrictor properties. In addition, peppermint oil acts as an antimicrobial agent and virucidal agent [31]. These essential oils were selected for the experimental studies due to the skin rejuvenating properties, fading skin marks/scars, and the antiseptic, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, and pleasant odour of mogra [32]. ...
Conference Paper
Bacillus lipopeptides are promising biosurfactants that find applications in various sectors like biotechnological, cosmetics and biopharma due to their outstanding functionality like high specificity, low toxicity, and high surface activity. Among the different Bacillus species, Bacillus subtilis is well known for producing a biosurfactant surfactin. The objective of the work was to optimize the process parameters such as temperature, working volume and agitation speed that critically influence the surfactin production in batch cultivation systems using shake-flasks. Optimization of surfactin production was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM). To evaluate the significance of the processing parameters and to locate the actual optimal condition (which significantly affected the lipopeptide production) the Central Composite Design (CCD) method was used. The optimal conditions were found to be a culture volume of 250 mL (in a 500 mL conical flask), a temperature of 37˚C and an agitation speed of 250 rpm with the maximum surfactin concentration of 1.49 g/L. Results of RSM showed that the predicted response could be closely correlated with the experimentally obtained production. A kinetics study on surfactin production, substrate consumption and biomass production at optimal conditions was carried out. Overall, this study provided an efficient method for optimizing the process parameters by reducing the production cost and enhancing the production of surfactin. Partially purified surfactin based cosmetic nanoemulsion remained stable for over 100 days maintained and found to have hydrodynamic diameter of 170 and 173.9 nm and PDI of 0.178 and 0.170 on 0th and 100th day, respectively, at 28 °C. On the successful formulation of stable nanoemulsion, plant-sourced thickener, xanthan gum, was incorporated in formulating thickened cosmetic emulsion. Thickened nanoemulsion exhibited pseudoplastic behaviour and has a hydrodynamic diameter of 173.2 nm and PDI of 0.177, proving that the introduction of xanthan gum did not affect the stability.
... It is commonly known as corn mint. India is the leading producer, accounting for 80-85% of total production and a significant supplier to the flavor, pharmaceutical, and food industries (Shrivastava, 2009;Villanti et al., 2021). The essential oil also possesses anti-microbial properties (Chagas et al., 2020;Patel et al., 2021). ...
Full-text available
Menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) is a globally recognized commercial crop with a substantial share in the international trade because of its utility in the food, cosmetics, aroma, and pharmaceutical industries. The natural production of menthol still contributes about 70% of the total global supply of menthol, out of which mint grown by Indian farmers has a significant share. The quality of seeds/planting material is a critical factor in the economical production of every crop, and suckers are the planting material in case of menthol mint. Considering the impact of the planting method on the quantity and quality of sucker production, this study was aimed at evaluating the comparative performance of two methods of planting, i.e., newly developed ridge-bed planting and traditional flat-bed planting, on two popular varieties, Kosi and CIM-Kranti, at farmer's fields in the Barabanki district of Uttar Pradesh. The data was collected through direct interaction with farmers involved in the cultivation of this crop. According to data collected from the Block Masauli, Tehsil Fatehpur, and Jaitpur regions of district Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India, the ridge-bed plantation method is more productive in terms of sucker yield (37.7%), herb yield (19.3%), and essential oil yield (46.1%) than the flat-bed plantation method, resulting in a higher net return (40.3%) for farmers. The data collected and analyzed during this study concludes that the improved plantation method has played a vital role in the time-bound production of quality planting material (suckers) and thus assisted the farmers in better farming of menthol mint to achieve higher economic gains.
... Menthol (% 30-55), menthone (% 14-32) ve menthyl acetate (% 2.8-10) uçucu yağın ana bileşenleridir. Diğer bileşenler arasında limonene (% 1-5), pulegone (% 4'e kadar), menthofurane (% 1-9), isomenthone (% 1.5-10) ve carvone (% 1'e kadar) bulunur (Alankar, 2009;Rita ve Animesh, 2011). Tıbbi nanenin uçucu yağ kalitesini, yüksek menthol ve menthone oranı ve düşük pulegone ve menthofurane oranı belirler (Rios-Estepa ve ark., 2008). ...
... O uso de fitoterápicos também já está preconizado para o controle da enteropatia em diversas normas de orientação clínica. Um dos principais é o óleo essencial extraído das folhas de Mentha x piperita L., pertencente à família Lamiaceae e conhecido popularmente como hortelã-pimenta [14][15][16] . É de fácil acesso pela sua disponibilidade no SUS, baixo custo e sua ação terapêutica já comprovada ocorre através do bloqueio de canais dependentes de cálcio, acarretando a diminuição do influxo do íon, o que resulta no relaxamento muscular do trato gastrointestinal [17] . ...
Este estudo teve por objetivo reunir e analisar evidências científicas sobre a eficácia de duas abordagens terapêuticas disponíveis para alívio dos sintomas em pacientes com síndrome do intestino irritável (SII), o cloridrato de mebeverina e o óleo de hortelã-pimenta (Mentha x piperita L.). Uma revisão crítica sistematizada foi realizada a partir das bases de dados MEDLINE, CENTRAL e LILACS. Onze artigos referentes à ensaios clínicos randomizados abrangeram os critérios de elegibilidade. Os achados sugerem baixa evidência da mebeverina no controle dos sintomas intestinais da desordem, ainda que, apenas um dos estudos preocupou-se em relatar a ocorrência de efeitos adversos. Já o óleo de hortelã-pimenta mostrou-se eficaz e bem tolerado para a redução do quadro. Escalas de qualidade de vida também obtiveram resultados positivos com a fitoterapia. A busca por efeitos adversos durante o tratamento foi abordada em praticamente todos os ensaios. Em suma, as evidências apontam positivamente para o uso do fitoterápico no alívio dos sintomas da síndrome do intestino irritável, todavia a mebeverina permanece comercializada a um custo elevado e carece de estudos que demonstrem sua eficácia. Reforça-se a necessidade de investigações com métodos de qualidade criteriosos capazes de auxiliar boas escolhas terapêuticas na prática clínica.
... Those ingredients there quantity and properties has been mentioned in the chart given below. Ingredient, percentage and properties of ingredient used to prepare this herbal solution are as follow [14][15][16][17][18][19] these ingredients were calculated for 50μl/ml as at this concentration herbal solution was effective against the given bacteria's. That is why this solution not only boost effect of all natural ingredient against bacteria but also preserve the surface details of the impression. ...
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic issue and genuine worldwide wellbeing annihilating issue. The plague ascends in the quantity of new pace of diabetes mellitus is perhaps the most disturbing statistic with respect to wellbeing association overall premise. Notwithstanding, customary information could be utilized to help present-day or ordinary diabetes medicines. Here, we distinguish therapeutic plants that have been utilized as medicines for diabetes dependent on Chitrakoot ethnobotanical information. According to individuals’ viewpoint, it is demandable and OK to incorporate homegrown concentrates as a component of the clinical intercession that the homegrown medication is viewed as normal and that the training might have been trailed by numerous ages. In this possibility, the utilization of therapeutic plant concentrates to treat a particular sickness was noticed for millennia. Therefore, Natural herbal phyto constitute a potentially important natural resource to provide inexpensive treatment of a disease commonly affecting the population of rural community as well as country. The plants used for diabetes treatment should be tested for pharmacological efficacy to help select the most useful for traditional medicines.
Background Dandruff is a scalp malady affecting predominantly the male populace. Topical agents and synthetic drugs used for dandruff treatment have specific side effects including burning at the application site, depression, dizziness, headache, itching or skin rash, nausea, stomach pain, vision change, vomiting, discoloration of hair, dryness or oiliness of the scalp and increased loss of hair. Thus, essential oils and extracts from plants could be valuable in the treatment and prevention of dandruff. Aim & Objective This review aims to highlight current findings in dandruff occurrence, its etiology, promising plant essential oils/extracts, and novel treatment strategies. The main emphasis has been given on the anti-dandruff effect of essential oils and plant extracts to disrupt microbial growth. The proposed mechanism (s) of action, novel approaches used to perk up its biopharmaceutical properties, and topical application have been discussed. Results The literature survey was done, bibliographic sources and research papers were retrieved from different search engines and databases, including SciFinder, PubMed, NCBI, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The selection of papers was accomplished based on exclusion and inclusion criteria. The scalp of diverse populations revealed an association of dandruff with microbial symbiosis, including Staphylococcus, Propionibacterium, Malassezia, and Candida as the pathogens responsible for the cause of dandruff. Topical antifungals are considered as the first line of treatment for dandruff including azoles, with clotrimazole (1%), ketoconazole (2%), and miconazole (2%). Other commonly used therapies integrate benzoyl peroxide, coal tar, glycerin, zinc pyrithione, lithium succinate/gluconate, salicylic acid, selenium disulfide/sulfide, sodium sulfacetamide, etc. However, these medicaments and chemicals are known to cause specific side effects. Alternative therapies, including tea tree oil, thyme, Aloe vera, Mentha have been reported to demonstrate anti-dandruff activity by disrupting the microbial growth associated with dandruff formation. Conclusion Overall, this review explains the occurrence of dandruff, its etiology, and the potential applicability of promising plant essential oils/extracts, and their novel treatment strategies. Further studies based on pre-clinical and clinical research are essential before making any conclusion about its efficacy in humans.
Peppermint is of great economic importance, mainly due to its valuable essential oils. The present study aimed to compare the expression level of genes coding for proteins involved in the rosmarinic acid biosynthesis pathway and some physiological responses in peppermint under three levels of salinity (0, 60 and 120 mM) and two levels of thermal stresses (at 25 °C, optimal plant heat, and 35 °C, for thermal stress). The results showed that salinity at 25 °C resulted in an increased relative level of phenolic compounds, proline and antioxidant activity by 1.88, 1.92 and 2.58 times after 72 h respectively at salinity of 120 mM. Rosmarinic acid as well as soluble sugar, chlorophyll and K+/N+ ratio showed a decreasing trend by 3.2, 1.8, 4.6 and 9 times after 72 h respectively at salinity of 120 mM at 35 °C. Gene expression analysis showed a significant increase in HPPR and C4H expression and a significant decrease in RAS expression in plants subjected to simultaneous stresses. The higher levels of C4H and HPPR expression indicate the roles of these genes in defense processes and the effects of phenolic compounds in inhibiting oxidative stress. Our results may help increase knowledge about the stress-dependent alterations in gene expression profiles and physiological patterns in plants. This information may be used for medicinal plant improvement programs aimed at increasing rosmarinic acid production.
The use of peppermint water as a flavouring agent in extemporaneously prepared alkaline mixtures has been implicated with bacterial contamination and proliferation in these mixtures. The natural tendency therefore, has been to disfavour the use of peppermint water as a flavouring agent. The British Pharmacopoeia (1973) recommends a 1:20 dilution (5.0%) of concentrated peppermint water (CPW) for use in mixtures. This concentration has now been shown to exhibit considerable fungistatic but not fungicidal activity against strains of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. Fungicidal concentrations of CPW as obtained in the present study are, however, well in excess of the concentrations normally included in mixtures and they completely, halted spore germination at any given phase of growth without affecting size of swollen spores.
The essential oils (EOs) obtained from the oregano plants Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Coridothymus capitatus, and Satureja thymbra were examined by a combination of GC and GC−MS and found to be rich in carvacrol, thymol, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene. These EOs and their main constituents, carvacrol and thymol, were tested for insecticidal and genotoxic activities on Drosophila. The EO of S. thymbra was found to be the most effective as an insecticide, while carvacrol was found to be more toxic than thymol. The toxicities of carvacrol and thymol do not correspond to their participation in the EOs, and mixtures of these two phenols in levels resembling their content in the three oils showed that the toxicity of carvacrol was reduced in the presence of thymol, thus suggesting antagonistic phenomena. The somatic mutation and recombination test on Drosophila revealed that, among the five compounds studied, only thymol exhibits genotoxic activity. Keywords: Oregano; Origanum vulgare; Coridothymus capitatus; Satureja thymbra; essential oils; carvacrol; thymol; insecticides; genotoxicity; Drosophila melanogaster
This paper describes a research study to investigate the efficacy of peppermint oil as a treatment for postoperative nausea. It uses a three-condition experimental design using statistical analysis to compare groups. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to establish significance and the Mann–Whitney test to differentiate significance between the groups. The control, placebo and experimental groups of gynaecological patients were compared, using variables known to affect postoperative nausea. They were found to be homogeneous for the purposes of the study. A statistically significant difference was demonstrated on the day of operation, using the Kruskal-Wallis test, P= 0·0487. Using the Mann-Whitney test the difference was shown to be between the placebo and experimental group (U=3; P= 0·02). The experimental group also required less traditional antiemetics and received more opioid analgesia postoperatively. The total cost of the treatment was 48 pence per person.
Oil of Mentha piperita L. (Peppermint oil), a widely used essential oil, was evaluated for larvicidal activity against different mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus by exposing IIIrd instar larvae of mosquitoes in enamel trays 6 + 4 inch2 size filled to a depth of 3 inch with water. Of the three species tested Cx. quinquefasciatus was most susceptible followed by Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. Application of oil at 3 ml/m2 of water surface area resulted in 100% mortality within 24 h for Cx. quinquefasciatus, 90% for Ae. aegypti and 85% for An. stephensi. For Ae. aegypti 100% mortality was achieved at 3 ml/m2 in 48 h or 4 ml/m2 in 24 h. For An. stephensi 100% mortality was observed at 4 ml/m2 in 72 h. The emergence at 3 ml/m2 was also inhibited to a great extent and the few adults which emerged did not ovipost even after taking a blood meal.The oil showed strong repellent action against adult mosquitoes when applied on human skin. Percent protection obtained against An. annularis, An. culicifacies, and Cx. quinquefasciatus was 100%, 92.3% and 84.5%, respectively. The repellent action of Mentha oil was comparable to that of Mylol oil consisting of dibutyl and dimethyl phthalates.