The cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase Iα suppresses kidney fibrosis

Lehrstuhl für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Institut für Pharmazie, Universität Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.
Kidney International (Impact Factor: 8.56). 06/2013; 84(6). DOI: 10.1038/ki.2013.219
Source: PubMed


Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is synthesized by nitric oxide or natriuretic peptide-stimulated guanylyl cyclases and exhibits pleiotropic regulatory functions in the kidney. Hence, integration of cGMP signaling by cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGKs) might play a critical role in renal physiology; however, detailed renal localization of cGKs is still lacking. Here, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of cGKIα and cGKIβ isozymes in the mouse kidney and found both in arterioles, the mesangium, and within the cortical interstitium. In contrast to cGKIα, the β-isoform was not detected in the juxtaglomerular apparatus or medullary fibroblasts. Since interstitial fibroblasts play a prominent role in interstitial fibrosis, we focused our study on cGKI function in the interstitium, emphasizing a functional differentiation of both isoforms, and determined whether cGKIs influence renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureter obstruction. Treatment with the guanylyl cyclase activators YC1 or isosorbide dinitrate showed stronger antifibrotic effects in wild-type than in cGKI-knockout or in smooth muscle-cGKIα-rescue mice, which are cGKI deficient in the kidney except in the renal vasculature. Moreover, fibrosis influenced the mRNA and protein expression levels of cGKIα more strongly than cGKIβ. Thus, our results indicate that cGMP, acting primarily through cGKIα, is an important suppressor of kidney fibrosis.Kidney International advance online publication, 12 June 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.219.

Download full-text


Available from: Frieder Kees
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our previous studies support the protective effect of cGMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKG-I) pathway on the development of renal fibrosis. Therefore, in the present studies, we determined whether pharmacologically or genetically increased PKG activity attenuates renal fibrosis in a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model and also examined the mechanisms involved. To increase PKG activity, we used the phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor-sildenafil and PKG transgenic mice. UUO model was induced in wild type or PKG-I transgenic mice by ligating the left lateral ureteral and the renal fibrosis was observed after 14 days of ligation. Sildenafil was administered into wild type UUO mice for 14 days. In vitro, macrophage and proximal tubular cell function was also analyzed. We found that sildenafil treatment or PKG transgenic mice had significantly reduced UUO-induced renal fibrosis, which was associated with reduced TGF-β signaling and reduced macrophage infiltration into kidney interstitial. In vitro data further demonstrated that both macrophages and proximal tubular cells were important sources of UUO-induced renal TGF-β levels. The interaction between macrophages and tubular cells contributes to TGF-β-induced renal fibrosis. Taken together, these data suggest that increasing PKG activity ameliorates renal fibrosis in part through regulation of macrophage and tubular cell function, leading to reduced TGF-β-induced fibrosis.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · AJP Renal Physiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors prevent the breakdown of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) and therefore may be useful in reducing the detrimental effects of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil, on I/R injury in a porcine model of donation after circulatory death kidney transplantation. Methods: Kidneys were subjected to 20 min warm ischemia followed by 2 or 18 hr of cold storage (n=6 kidneys per group). After preservation kidneys were reperfused on an ex vivo perfusion system for 3 hr with an oxygenated blood based solution. Kidneys were treated with 1.4 mg/kg sildenafil infused 10 min before and for 20 min after reperfusion (n=6 kidneys per group). Renal function and injury markers were measured throughout reperfusion. Results: Prolonged cold ischemia (CI) significantly reduced levels of cGMP (2 hr 3.5 [1.5-5.7] vs. 18 hr 1.2 [0.3-2.8] pmol/mL; P=0.010). The administration of sildenafil significantly increased the levels (P=0.047, 0.064). Sildenafil improved the renal blood flow for the first 30 min in the 2-hr group (sildenafil, 81.8 [43.8-101.9] vs. control 40.2 [6.4-76.9] mL/min/100 g; P=0.026) and up to 60 min in the 18-hr group (sildenafil, 67.4 [38.0-87.0] vs. control 36.2 [30.5-50.0] mL/min/100 g; P=0.009) during reperfusion. Renal function was significantly impaired after 18-hr CI (P=0.0.26), and treatment with sildenafil did not improve renal function in the 2-hr (P=0.384) or 18-hr CI (P=0.099) groups. Conclusion: Sildenafil had a vasodilatory action and increased levels of cGMP but did not affect recovery of renal function or protect against I/R injury.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Transplantation
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kidney fibrosis is an important factor for the progression of kidney diseases, e.g., diabetes mellitus induced kidney failure, glomerulosclerosis and nephritis resulting in chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were implicated to suppress several of the above mentioned renal diseases. In this review article, identified effects and mechanisms of cGMP and cAMP regarding renal fibrosis are summarized. These mechanisms include several signalling pathways of nitric oxide/ANP/guanylyl cyclases/cGMP-dependent protein kinase and cAMP/Epac/adenylyl cyclases/cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Furthermore, diverse possible drugs activating these pathways are discussed. From these diverse mechanisms it is expected that new pharmacological treatments will evolve for the therapy or even prevention of kidney failure.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Show more