DataPDF Available
A preview of the PDF is not available
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Whether development of autism impacts the interactive process between an infant and his/her parents remains an unexplored issue. Using computational analysis taking into account synchronic behaviors and emotional prosody (parentese), we assessed the course of infants' responses to parents' type of speech in home movies from typically developing (TD) infants and infants who will subsequently develop autism aged less than 18 months. Our findings indicate: that parentese was significantly associated with infant responses to parental vocalizations involving orientation towards other people and with infant receptive behaviours; that parents of infants developing autism displayed more intense solicitations that were rich in parentese; that fathers of infants developing autism spoke to their infants more than fathers of TD infants; and that fathers' vocalizations were significantly associated with intersubjective responses and active behaviours in infants who subsequently developed autism. The parents of infants who will later develop autism change their interactive pattern of behaviour by both increasing parentese and father's involvement in interacting with infants; both are significantly associated with infant's social responses. We stress the possible therapeutic implications of these findings and its implication for Dean Falk's theory regarding pre-linguistic evolution in early hominins.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Detecting social events such as imitation is identified as key step for the development of socially aware robots. In this paper, we present an unsupervised approach to measure immediate synchronous and asynchronous imitations between two partners. The proposed model is based on two steps: detection of interest points in images and eval- uation of similarity between actions. Firstly, spatio-temporal points are detected for an accurate selection of the important information contained in videos. Then bag-of-words models are constructed, describing the vi- sual content of videos. Finally similarity between bag-of-words models is measured with dynamic-time-warping, giving an accurate measure of imitation between partners. Experimental results obtained show that the model is able to discriminate between imitation and non-imitation phases of interactions.
Article
Full-text available
Synchrony refers to individuals' temporal coordination during social interactions. The analysis of this phenomenon is complex, requiring the perception and integration of multimodal communicative signals. The evaluation of synchrony has received multidisciplinary attention because of its role in early development, language learning, and social connection. Originally studied by developmental psychologists, synchrony has now captured the interest of researchers in such fields as social signal processing, robotics, and machine learning. This paper emphasizes the current questions asked by synchrony evaluation and the state-of-the-art related methods. First, we present definitions and functions of synchrony in youth and adulthood. Next, we review the noncomputational and computational approaches of annotating, evaluating, and modeling interactional synchrony. Finally, the current limitations and future research directions in the fields of developmental robotics, social robotics, and clinical studies are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The current study reviewed all prior studies conducted on family home movies of infants who would be later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Out of 41 original reports found since 1975, we retained 18 studies (317 films, maximum), sorted according to their methodological design using a quality grid. In the first 2 years of life, signs that differentiated children with ASD from children with developmental delays were as follows: less of a response to their name, less looking at others, lower eye contact quality and quantity, less positive facial expression and intersubjective behaviors (e.g., showing shared attention). Studies focusing on regression confirmed the clinical validity of the phenomena. We conclude that findings from home movies studies along with prospective studies have created the bases for identification of infants and toddlers at risk of developing ASD before the 18–24-month period, despite early diagnosis of autism remains a complex challenge.
Article
This study assessed parents’ first concerns about their autistic child. This information was categorized so that it could help healthcare professionals improve early detection of autism. We designed a questionnaire using an open-ended format, and 459 questionnaires were completed by parents to assess difficulties encountered in obtaining a diagnosis for their child. Answers about their first motive of concerns were categorized and compared with regards to age, gender, birth order, age of onset, delay in seeking professional advice, and delay in diagnosis. Concerns about social development or autistic behaviors were frequent, but not exclusive. Parents were divided into three clusters of concerns: (a) an “early awareness group”: which included motor problems and passivity (14.6 months); (b) “intermediate awareness group”: included emotional, hyperactivity, and sleep problems (15.3 months); and (c) a “later awareness group”: which included communication problems, poor social interaction, and autistic-type behaviors (22.3 months). Parents who noticed general concerns not specific to autism were worried earlier, but received a later diagnosis. We suggest that motor problems, and/or emotional problems, and/or the level of a child's activity should encourage frontline professionals to seek autistic symptoms in infants.
Article
Searching for the mechanism of neonatal imitation resulted in the discovery of neonatal initiative capacity, here called “provocation”. Newborns spontaneously produced previously imitated gestures while waiting for the experimenter’s response. A psychophysiological analysis revealed that imitation was accompanied by heart rate increase while gesture initiation was accompanied by heart rate deceleration, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. Results imply that infants are not only capable of responding to a model movement by imitating, but that they also have the capacity to provoke an imitative response, thus sustaining an interaction. These findings may constitute a laboratory demonstration of the first dialogue and, according to our hypothetical model, they represent how human imprinting begins.
Article
Recent models of the early emergence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose that infant intrinsic risk susceptibilities in behaviour may be amplified by interaction within the early social environment into an increasingly atypical developmental trajectory. This study examines whether 6- and 12-month parent–infant interactions in at-risk siblings differ from those with low-risk and whether – in at-risk siblings – such interactions predict later 3-year classification of ASD or no ASD. Method: Within the British Autism Study of Infant Siblings (BASIS), 6-min videotaped episodes of parent–infant free play in infants at 6–10 months (45 at-risk siblings and 47 low-risk siblings) and 12–15 months (43 at-risk siblings and 48 low-risk siblings) in a laboratory setting were rated on the Manchester Assessment of Caregiver-Infant Interaction (MACI), blind to participant information. Standard tests were administered for concurrent behavioural signs of ASD features and developmental level. Systematic consensus diagnostic classification of ASD was made at 3 years for the at-risk siblings. Results: Parent nondirectiveness and sensitive responsiveness differed in relation to ASD/risk status (at-risk ASD, at-risk no-ASD and low-risk) at both 6 and 12 months. At 6 months, infant liveliness was lower in the at-risk groups; at 12 months, infant attentiveness to parent and positive affect were lower in the at-risk group later diagnosed with ASD. Dyadic mutuality and intensity of engagement showed a group effect at 12 months. Dyadic mutuality, infant positive affect and infant attentiveness to parent at 12 months (but not 6 months) predicted 3-year ASD outcome, whereas infant ASD-related behavioural atypicality did not. Conclusions: This is the first prospective evidence that early dyadic interaction between at-risk infants and their parents is associated with later diagnostic outcome in ASD. Possible explanations for these findings and their theoretical implications are considered.
Article
Considers the goal of mother-infant play activity to be the mutual regulation of stimuli so as to maintain an optimal level of affectively positive arousal. Observations of mothers and their 3-mo-old infants indicate that maternal behaviors are infant-elicited variations of normal adult interpersonal behaviors. The infant contributes to the regulation through the process of gaze alternation. (42 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Background: The social milieu provides the context for the organism's survival, endurance, and adaptation. In mammals, social participation originates within the parent-infant bond and is supported by the oxytocin (OT) system, whose functioning is transmitted from parent to child through patterns of parental care. Human studies indicate that OT administration increases affiliative behavior, including trust, empathy, and social reciprocity. Here, we examine whether OT administration to parent can enhance physiological and behavioral processes that support parental social engagement but, moreover, can have parallel effects on the infant. Methods: Utilizing a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 35 fathers and their 5-month-old infants were observed twice following administration of OT or placebo to father in the face-to-face still-face paradigm. Parent and infant salivary OT were assessed at multiple time points, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured in the three face-to-face still-face episodes, and social behaviors of the parent and child were micro-coded for indices of social engagement. Results: Oxytocin administration increased father salivary OT, RSA during free play, and key parenting behaviors that support parental-infant bonding. Parallel increases were also found in the infant's salivary OT, RSA response, and engagement behavior, including social gaze, exploration, and social reciprocity. Conclusions: Results are the first to demonstrate that OT administration to one attachment partner can have parallel effects on the other and underscore the role of OT in the cross-generation transmission of human social participation. Findings have translational implications for conditions associated with early risk for social-emotional growth, including autism and prematurity, without the need to administer drugs to young infants.