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Abstract

The abuse of all types of substance to improve sport performance and physical fitness has spread to regularly gym users. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of nutritional and dietary supplements in a group of 415 individuals (260 males and 155 females) from 4 gyms in Seville (Spain). The users completed a previously designed questionnaire whose content validity had been tested in a pilot study. Out of the total sample, 56.14% had consumed a supplement at some time. Among these, the objective was improvement of physical appearance in 57.16%, health care in 16.7%, and sports performance enhancement in 13.2%. The profile of the supplement consumer is a young man who has performed activities in gyms for some time, goes to the gym for several hours a week and is on some type of diet. The percentage of nutritional supplement users (56%) is within values reported in other studies. The five supplements most frequently consumed by these individuals were (in decreasing order): proteins (28%), L-carnitine (18.6%), sport drinks (18.3%), creatine (17.1%) and vitamin complex (17.1%).
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... This study corroborates that individuals attending gyms are major consumers of dietary supplements. The prevalence of dietary supplements use we found (44%) is within what has been described in most studies in gym users (36-56%) [7,8,15], but much lower than what was observed in countries like the USA (84.7%) [18,19] and Brazil (64.7%) [6]. The discrepancies in the reported prevalence rates may be related to sociodemographic and cultural characteristics, the type of gyms included or methodologic aspects, namely what was considered to be a supplement and the method of data acquisition [13]. ...
... Although the role of gender as a determinant of supplement use is not clearly established, we found that supplement consumption was more prevalent among men, consistently with previous studies [4,5,7,8,13,15]. Protein and amino acid where the most common type of supplement consumed, resembling other studies [7,8,19]. This finding can be explained by the importance that optimal protein intake has in increasing muscle mass [21] and the convenience of supplements [22]. ...
... The lack of scientific data to support most of the alleged ergogenic properties highlights the importance of the placebo effect on self-perceived efficacy of supplements and vulnerability to claims [25]. Although the supplementation with vitamins and minerals is frequent in athletes [26] and gym users [8,18,19] it is not justified in most cases, because their requirements are easily satisfied with adequate energy and micronutrient-dense diet, which is often the case in most supplement users [4,8]. ...
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Background: Although there seems to be an increasing interest in the use of dietary supplements in those who exercise recreationally and want to improve body composition, there is little published data regarding gym users and dietary supplement use. Methods: This cross-sectional study describes the prevalence and type of supplements used by gyms members, the reasons for using them and the information source using a self-administered online questionnaire. Results: Of the 459 participants (301 females) who answered the survey, 43.8% reported using dietary supplements. Users were more likely men (62.7% vs. 33.9%, p < 0.05), younger (32 ± 9 vs. 34 ± 11 years, p < 0.05) and trained more hours per week (6 ± 3 vs 4 ± 3 h, p < 0.05) than non-users. The most consumed supplements were proteins (80.1%), multivitamins and/or minerals (38.3%), sport bars (37.3%), branched-chain amino acids (BCAA's) (36.8%) and n-3 fatty acids (35.5%). Men consumed more arginine, BCAA's, creatine, glutamine, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), proteins, β-alanine, taurine, multivitamin/minerals, and carbohydrate supplements (p < 0.05). The most commonly cited reasons for the use of supplements were gaining muscle (55.7%), accelerating recovery (52.7%) and improving performance (47.3%). Men have more often referred increase strength, increase resistance, gain muscle mass, accelerate recovery and improve performance as reasons to use supplements than women (p < 0.05). Those who mentioned muscle gain as a reason were younger than those who did not (30.4 years vs. 33.7 years, p < 0.05). The sources of information most mentioned were registered dietitians (23.1%), internet (22.2%) and him/herself (16.6%). The majority (> 70%) of participants declared being well or very well informed about supplements, while only a minority (4%) felt very poorly or poorly informed. Most individuals purchased dietary supplements from the internet (56.2%) and supplement/health food stores (43.4%). Conclusion: This study concluded that gyms users are large consumers of dietary supplements, and are more likely to be men, young, use protein powders, aiming to increase muscle mass, obtain information from registered dietitians, consider themselves well informed and buy supplements online.
... As can be seen, most cases (82.5%) did not take any medication, and a quarter of people did not take any supplements. 74% of the participants reported the usage of dietary supplements, which is higher than the prevalence reported in the studies conducted on the UAE university students, in 2016, Brazilian adults attending gyms, in 2010, the USA population, in 2014, and Spain, in 2008 that reported the values equal to 39, 36.8, 52 , 56.1% respectively [35][36][37][38]. There are a number of possible explanations for these discrepancies, including the different types of gyms included in the studies, different methods of data collection, varied participants' characteristics and their levels of awareness [39,40]. ...
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Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the profile of medicines and nutritional supplements usage, including the correctness of consumption manner, among male bodybuilders. Methods: A checklist was applied to gather data from bodybuilders participating in gyms in Hamadan. Questions were asked about the athlete's demographics, medicines and supplements being used in line with their bodybuilding goals. Then, the pharmacist assessed that how correct is the manner of consumption and provided the participants with the needed advices. Results: 82.5% of the respondents were not using any medicines. Supplementation was far more common and magnesium was the most current product. Wrong consumption was very more prevalent for medicines than supplements. Inappropriate dosage was the most frequent mistake in supplementation. Conclusions: Although a majority of the participants reported that they had received consultation, noticeable issues regarding medicine misuse were identified. Totally, the findings demonstrated the importance of pharmacists' collaboration to ensure athletes' access to accurate consultations.
... Dietary supplementation is generally needed for people following a low-energy diet, eliminating at least one food group from their diets, using severe weight-loss practices or consuming a high-carbohydrate diet poor in vitamins and minerals [6]. However, the use of dietary supplements is becoming increasingly prevalent even in populations whose diets are not deficient in nutrients [7], making it a multi-billion-dollar industry [8]. Athletes and physically active individuals represent a major part of dietary supplements users [9], for reasons including but not limited to improving physical performance [10], enhancing the rate of exercise recovery [11], health maintenance and increasing energy [12], and correcting nutritional deficiencies [13]. ...
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The misuse of dietary supplements and doping substances is commonly associated with toxicity, nutritional imbalances, and health and psychological consequences. This is alarming especially in light of the increasing prevalence of the use of dietary supplements and doping, particularly among young adults including athletes. There is evidence that education interventions can lead to improved knowledge, intentions, and practices. However, no review has summarized and evaluated the effectiveness of such interventions. The aim of this article is to review the characteristics, contents and effects of education interventions that were designed and implemented to improve knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and intentions with respect to the use of dietary supplements and doping agents in different populations. PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycInfo and Google Scholar were searched for English-language education interventions targeting dietary supplements and doping substances. A total of 20 articles were identified and have generally provided consistent findings. Most interventions reported a significant improvement in knowledge on dietary supplements and doping agents. Unfortunately, the heavy reliance on self-reported assessment tools limits the validity of these interventions, with almost all articles targeting athletes and adolescents.
... In our study, the results showed that the predominant substances consumed by students were protein supplements (53%) as they are sold over the counter as dietary supplements and due to the misconceptions regarding protein supplement effectiveness. This is in agreement with other studies which showed the consumption of protein supplements were ranging from 28% in Seville, Spain 29,30 , and 42.3% in New York City 31 , up to 58% in Belo Horizonte, Brazil 32 . The second predominantly used substance was the AASs (24%). ...
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Background: The intake of anabolic -androgenic steroids (AASs) and nutritional supplements as ergogenic aids has been increasing among young men in Benghazi, Libya. Objectives: To assess the use of AASs and nutritional supplements by undergraduate male students in the faculty of Pharmacy and faculty of Medicine at the University of Benghazi. Moreover, is to investigate the awareness and knowledge of students regarding the health consequences ASSs and nutritional supplements intake. Subjects & Methods: A cross sectional study involved 350 undergraduate male students from both the faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed randomly during the period of the study which was conducted from January to May 2019. Results: 31% of the students used AASs and/or nutritional supplements. Out of the 31 %, 53% used protein supplements, 24% used AASs, 9% used both protein and AASs and 14% used other nutritional supplements. Only 8% of the students who used AASs and/or nutritional supplements had experienced some adverse effects. Increased blood pressure was the most prevalent adverse effects among those students (36%). However, 65% of students reported no awareness about health risks of the ergogenic substances presented at the marketing points. Conclusion: The use of AASs and nutritional supplements by undergraduate students was without any awareness about the possible health consequences. Hence, an awareness and guidance should be provided by health care professionals providing ergogenic substances Key words Anabolic- androgenic steroids, nutritional supplements, ergogenic aids
... In our study, the results showed that the predominant substances consumed by students were protein supplements (53%) as they are sold over the counter as dietary supplements and due to the misconceptions regarding protein supplement effectiveness. This is in agreement with other studies which showed the consumption of protein supplements were ranging from 28% in Seville, Spain 29,30 , and 42.3% in New York City 31 , up to 58% in Belo Horizonte, Brazil 32 . The second predominantly used substance was the AASs (24%). ...
... Some studies investigate the effects or physiological efficiency of these products [6][7][8] . Others are concerned with the prevalence and motivations behind the use of the most and the least consumed substances, sometimes correlating them to users' profiles [9][10][11][12][13][14][15] . Some works also analyze which nutrition information and professionals or sources users consult before taking products [16][17][18][19][20][21] . ...
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The use of dietary supplements integrates one of the strategies physical activity practicers employ to manage their bodies in contemporary times. This research sought to identify and analyze the multiple uses of dietary supplements done by these practicers and what such uses represent for them with regard to managing their own bodies. A qualitative study was conducted based on the application of online questionnaires to 67 physical activity practicers who frequent gyms. There was also an observation of the groups dynamics in the internet. The resulting empirical material was analyzed using content analysis. Results indicated that part of these practicers believe that dietary supplements aid in gaining muscular mass and improve performance. Furthermore, some of them question the effects of such products on the body although they claim that dietary supplements facilitate diets or should be used only when prescribed by health professionals. In conclusion, there are different ways of using these products, which are often evaluated by consumers.
... Protein powders are prevalently used by athletes as nutritional supplements [5,6]. Most of them contains whey proteins (WH), but many of them have different proteins, such as milk and meat hydrolysates as ingredient. ...
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Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the consumption of sports supplements (SS) in competitive level fencers and compare differences based on sex and competitive level (international and national). Methods: A total of 49 fencers (18 men and 31 women) of national (n = 16) and international (n = 33) level completed a questionnaire with questions about SS consumption and the possible repercussions on health and / or sports performance. The results were analyzed based on the different categorizations established by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS), as well as by sex and level of competence to which the participants belonged to. Results: 46.9% of fencers have consumed SS with the main motivation being performance improvement (34.2%). Medical doctors were the individuals who were more likely to advise men to consume SS (50.0% vs 5.6%; OR = 3.29[1.50–7.20]). Friends were most likely to advise women (38.9% vs 8.3%; OR = 1.75 [1.05–2.93]). The most consumed SS were sport drinks (44.9%), vitamin C (43.4%), sport bars (38.8%), and caffeine (28.6%). In regards to the SS categories, it was observed differences in the interaction level·sex in medical supplements (p = 0.017). In addition, there was a higher prevalence of whey protein consumption in women (25.8% vs 0%; p = 0.020) and iron consumption in men (33% vs 6.5%; p = 0.039). Conclusions: The prevalence of SS use in fencers is within the values previously reported in athletes of the same competitive level. There were no differences by sex and competitive level in the total consumption of SS, nor in each of the groups of level of evidence, being sport drinks, bars and caffeine the most consumed SS.
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Purpose: the aim of the present study was to analyse the pattern of dietary supplements (DS) consumption on federated rugby players, including the analysis of differences based on the sex and competitive level (professional vs. amateurs). Material and methods: 144 rugby players (83 male and 61 female), of whom 69 were professionals and 75 amateurs, were recruited for the study. All the participants filled out a specific questionnaire about DS consumption including questions related to the consumption of DS and their effects on sport performance and health status. Results: 65.3% of participants declared consuming at least one DS, with a higher prevalence in males than females (77.1% vs. 49.2%) and in professionals thanin amateur players (79.7% vs. 52.0%). The main reason for consumption was to enhance sport performance (62.3%) with differences only based on sex (74.3% males vs. 43.2% females). The most common purchase sites were the Internet (45.6%) and specialised stores (39.8%). As to the moment of ingestion, professionals did this most frequently during competition and training (56.4% vs. 28.2%), whereas amateur players did so only during competition (20.5% vs. 3.6%). Moreover, professional player intake most frequently in post-exercise (65.5% vs. 35.9%), whereas amateur during pre-exercise (30.8% vs. 5.5%). The DS most consumed included whey protein (44%), caffeine (42%), sports drinks (38%), energy bars (34%) and creatine monohydrate (31%), with a higher prevalence in male and professional players of whey protein and creatine monohydrate. Conclusions: The main reason for DS consumption is for enhancing sports performance). Professional players more frequently purchase them on the Internet and consume DS during training and competition period and in the post-exercise, whereas amateur players consume during competition and pre-exercise. Related to the main form of DS consumption, it is observed that a moderate consumption of DS could be considered ergogenic, such as whey protein, sport bar and creatine, while an absence of other DS could be considered ergogenic.
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The sports performance of dinghy sailors is determined by their state of nutrition and hydration. Sports supplementation plays a prominent role in elite sailors, being essential in periods of competition due to its characteristics. This study aims to analyze the consumption of sports supplements (SS) in the different categories and groups of sailors based on the level of evidence, differentiating according to sex, competitive level, and type of boat. A total of 42 sailors from national and international levels and belonging to the Laser, 420, Techno-293 and RS:X classes participated in this study. They completed a questionnaire with questions about the consumption of SS and the possible repercussions on health and/or sports performance. The results were analyzed based on the different categorizations and group organization recently established by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS), as well as by sex, level of competition and class to which the participants belonged. The male sailors and those who competed internationally had a higher prevalence in the consumption of SS. Among the classes of vessels studied, class 420 had the lowest SS consumption. SS intake was higher during competition days, regardless of sex or level of competition. Based on the classification established by the AIS, statistically significant differences were observed in sex, level of competition, and the type of boat.
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To the Editor: Asian patent medicines are one component of what are called traditional Chinese medicines. Asian patent medicines comprise multiple products, including herbs, plants, animal parts, and minerals, which are formulated into tablets, pills, or liquids for ease of use. They are widely available in herbal stores and have gained acceptance by the American public as a form of alternative medicine. However, many patent medicines manufactured in Asian countries contain toxic ingredients, such as heavy metals, as well as prescription drugs or unapproved ingredients that may or may not be identified on the label.1,2 Some have caused serious . . .
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Aggressive marketing has led millions of recreational and elite athletes to use nutrition supplements in hopes of improving performance. Unfortunately, these aids can be costly and potentially harmful, and the advertised ergogenic gains are often based on little or no scientific evidence. No benefits have been convincingly demonstrated for amino acids, L-carnitine, L-tryptophan, or chromium picolinate. Creatine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may confer ergogenic or anabolic effects. Chromium picolinate and DHEA have adverse side effects, and the safety of the other products remains in question.