Handbook of Star Forming Regions Vol. I
Astronomical Society of the Paciﬁc, 2008
Bo Reipurth, ed.
NGC 1333: A Nearby Burst of Star Formation
University of Hawaii, Institute for Astronomy, 640 N. Aohoku Pl. Hilo, HI
University of Colorado, Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389
UCB, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
J. Di Francesco
Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada,
5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7, Canada
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge,
MA 02138, USA
Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey
Lab, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Abstract. NGC 1333 is the currently most active region of star formation in the
Perseus molecular cloud. The presence of emission-line stars and Herbig-Haro objects
ﬁrst established NGC 1333 as an active region of star formation. Today, NGC 1333 is
one of the best studied extremely young clusters of low to intermediate mass stars. This
region is rich in sub-mm cores, embedded YSOs, radio continuum sources, masers,
IRAS sources, SiO molecular jets, H2and HH shocks, molecular outﬂows, and the
lobes of extinct outﬂows. Dozens of outﬂows from embedded and young cluster mem-
bers criss-cross this region. While the complexity and confusion of sources and out-
ﬂows has made it difﬁcult to unravel the relations between various components, NGC
1333 has illuminated the roles of feedback and clustering phenomena in star formation.
1. Overview of NGC 1333
First discovered by Eduard Sch¨onfeld in 1855, NGC 1333 (Figs. 1 & 2) is a bright
reﬂection nebula in the western portion of the Perseus molecular cloud. The earli-
est references to NGC 1333 in research literature are by Edwin Hubble who included
NGC 1333 in a catalog of nebulae used to examine the distribution (Hubble 1922a) and
stellar content (Hubble 1922b) of Galactic nebulae. The star BD +30◦549 illuminates
NGC 1333 and was found to be a B8 spectral type (van den Bergh 1966; Racine 1968).
Walawender et al.
Figure 1. A composite of visible wavelength and infrared images of NGC 1333.
Hα, S II, and i′images are from the Mosaic camera on the Mayall 4 meter telescope
at Kitt Peak (from Walawender et al. 2005). The broadband i′ﬁlter is mapped to
blue, the Hαimage is mapped to green, and the S II image is mapped to orange. The
infrared component (mapped to the red channel) is from the Spitzer Space Telescope
4.6 µm image. The Spitzer image is courtesy of the Legacy Program ”From Molec-
ular Cores to Planet Forming Disks” (NASA/JPL-Caltech & c2d LegacyTeam). The
ﬁeld is approximately 35′across and is oriented North up, East left.
The NGC 1333 reﬂection nebula and its associated dark cloud L1450 (also known
as Barnard 205) are located at the northern end of a degree-long, north-south ridge of
CO emission in the Perseus region at the west side of a large cavity in the Perseus
molecular cloud (Fig. 1 in Sargent 1979; Loren 1976). Work by Herbig & Kameswara
Rao (1972), Herbig (1974), and Liu et al. (1981) showed that NGC 1333 contains
numerous H-alpha emission line stars. Today, the term NGC 1333 is used to denote the
young stellar cluster in addition to the reﬂection nebula.
Figure 2. Hαimage of the NGC 1333 region from Walawender et al. (2005).
Several key objects are labeled.
The molecular mass in the NGC 1333 region is approximately 450 M⊙(Warin
et al. 1996). The molecular cloud surrounding NGC 1333 contains many cavities sur-
rounded by ﬁlaments of dense gaswhich tend to point away from the most active centers
of star formation (Leﬂoch et al. 1998; Quillen et al. 2005). Although there is some cor-
relation with currently active outﬂows, most cavities are not associated with obvious
sources. Quillen et al. (2005) interpreted the radial ﬁlaments pointing away from the
NGC 1333 cluster as the walls of ancient outﬂow cavities which are no longer actively
driven, and therefore do not contain Herbig-Haro objects, H2shocks, or molecular out-
Walsh et al. (2006) found evidence for pervasive infall of molecular gas onto the
NGC 1333 region. They found excess redshifted self-absorption in several transitions of
HCO+which is spatially extended over a 0.39 pc2region. They interpret this signature
as evidence for a global infall rate of ˙
M≈10−4M⊙yr−1. Currently, the NGC 1333
cluster contains about 150 young stars with a median age of about 106years and a total
Walawender et al.
mass of about 100 M⊙. Averaged over the last million years, the star formation rate in
NGC 1333 must have been close to 10−4M⊙yr−1(see also Walsh et al. 2007).
There are several measurements of the distance to NGC 1333. Cernis (1990) sug-
gested a distance of 220 pc to NGC 1333 based on interstellar extinction. Herbig &
Jones (1983) adopted a distance of 350 pc to NGC 1333 based on several previous
measurements. Recently, Hirota et al. (2007) have determined a distance to NGC 1333
of 235 ±18 pc based on VLBI parallax measurements of the SVS 131source. Though
this is a measurement of a single stellar source, it is consistent with the photometric
measurements of the cluster made by Cernis (1990), therefore we consider it to be the
best value currently available, however the reader should be aware that many papers
have used and continue to use distance values of 300-350 pc.
NGC 1333 has been the target of numerous studies across the electromagnetic
spectrum. In this chapter we summarize the infrared observations (Section 2.) and de-
scribe notable observations in the radio (submillimeter through centimeter wavelengths;
Section 3.)including high resolution interferometric observations. Protostellar outﬂows
may have played a signiﬁcant role in the evolution of star formation in NGC 1333 and
are described in Section 4. Detailed summaries of four notable objects (SVS 13/HH 7-
11, IRAS 2, IRAS 4, and HH 12) are given in Section 5. Lastly, NGC 1333 has been
the target of several studies using X-rays which are summarized in Section 6.
2. Infrared Photometric Surveys
The population of young stellar objects in the NGC 1333 region has been an obvious tar-
get for photometric surveys at near- and mid-infrared through far-infrared wavelengths.
2.1. The First Surveys (pre-1990)
The NGC 1333 cluster was ﬁrst mapped at infrared wavelengths, J(1.25 µm), H
(1.6 µm), K(2.2 µm), and L(3.5 µm) by Strom et al. (1976), who identiﬁed 25 sources,
all likely YSOs. Harvey et al. (1984) presented mid/far-infrared (1 µm–100 µm) pho-
tometry of a handful of these sources using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility
(IRTF) and Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). They identiﬁed two sources with
strongly increasing SEDs from near-infrared wavelengths toward 100 µm, indicative
of their embeddedness and association with local warm dust condensations (envelopes
in the current terminology). Jennings et al. (1987) used data from the Infrared Astro-
nomical Satellite (IRAS) Chopped Photometric Channel to identify nine distinct far-
infrared sources at 50 and 100 µm. They showed that in particular two of these sources
(IRAS 1 and IRAS 4) were “protostars”, i.e., obscured by their infalling envelope of
gas and dust: the latter did not show a peak in maps of dust temperature constructed
on the basis of the emission at these two wavelengths, indicating that it was not signif-
icantly warmer than the large scale cloud. Jennings et al. (1987) also speculated that
1There is some confusion regarding the designation of this source as either SVS 13 or SSV 13. It was listed
as source number 13 by Strom et al. (1976), which led to the SVS designation. Herbig & Jones (1983),
however, chose to use SSV 13 because “the designation SVS has been pre-empted.” Subsequently both
SVS and SSV have been used in the literature when referring to this source. We choose to use the SVS
designation to match the majority of the literature, however the reader should be aware of the alternate
IRAS 4 was binary in nature based on its association with two maser sources, some-
thing which has since then been conﬁrmed through higher resolution mid/far-infrared
and (sub)millimeter observations (see Sections 3. and 5.3.).
2.2. After 1990; Near/Mid-IR Wavelengths
The early surveys suffered from poor resolution, a particular issue in regions such as
NGC 1333 where the source density is high. The continued development of near-
infrared ground based detectors allowed for a number of deep ground based surveys
of NGC 1333 at near-infrared (J,H, and K) wavelengths up through the 1990s and
Aspin et al. (1994) mapped 10′×10′of the southern region of NGC 1333 using
the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) and identiﬁed 134 sources complete
down to a Kmagnitude of 16.0. Cross referencing this list with that of Strom et al.
(1976), they found 13 overlapping sources. Based on near-infrared and optical color-
color diagrams (speciﬁcally J−Hvs. H−K), Aspin et al. identiﬁed 55 likely pre-main
sequence stars from this sample along with another 14 candidates. The remainder of
the sample were likely reddened background stars. Of the possible pre-main sequence
stars, only a small group (3) showed colors consistent with Class I YSOs, about 25%
showed colors and magnitudes consistent with T-Tauri stars and the remainder were
consistent with low-mass T-Taurilike pre-main sequence stars with masses <0.2M⊙.
A subset of this region was surveyed in L-band (3.42 µm) by Aspin & Sandell (1997)
conﬁrming the nature of the infrared excess sources and aiding in the classiﬁcation of
some of these candidates.
Lada et al. (1996) covered a somewhat larger region of NGC 1333, also at J,
H,K, but slightly shallower (completeness at Kof 14.5 magnitudes). They found
that the infrared sources in the region were non-uniformly clustered into two groups,
one centered around the reﬂection nebula around BD +30◦549 and the other around the
southern part of the cluster studied by Aspin et al. (1994). They also found that the bulk
of the stars (61%) associated with this “double cluster” showed infrared excesses, in-
dicative of these clusters being young (∼106years) and thereby signiﬁcantly different
from the other prominent cluster in the Perseus region: IC 348 (see chapter by Herbst
in this volume). Aspin (2003) performed infrared spectroscopy of a subsample of the
sources in the southern cluster. Based on HR diagram classiﬁcation of these sources and
comparison to theoretical evolutionary tracks, it was suggested that the ages of young
stars in NGC 1333 covered a wide range from a few×105years up to sources close to
the Zero Age Main Sequence at 5×107years.
A deep J,H, and Ksurvey (to a Kmagnitude of 16) of the northern cluster was
performed by Wilking et al. (2004). From the near-infrared colors of the objects based
on this survey, they identiﬁed 25 brown dwarf candidates. These sources were targets
for follow-up observations using low resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to spectrally
conﬁrm the very low-mass nature of these sources.
Greissl et al. (2007) examined the core of the NGC 1333 cluster using NICMOS
on HST and determined the IMF of the cluster to be consistent with a ﬁeld IMF.
2.3. Spitzer and Beyond
As a prelude to the Spitzer observations, Rebull et al. (2003) surveyed a small number
of the more embedded objects in N(10.8 µm) and Q(17.9 µm) using the MIRLIN
camera on the Palomar 5 m telescope and the NASA IRTF. They detected eight sources
Walawender et al.
at these wavelengths and, together with SEDs compiled from the literature, classiﬁed
them according to their embedded nature.
The NGC 1333 region was surveyed with the Spitzer Space Telescope, under a
number of programs including the “Cores to Disks” legacy project (as part of Perseus;
see Jørgensen et al. 2005b and Rebull et al. 2007) and the GTO Spitzer Young Clus-
ter Survey. From these combined data, Gutermuth et al. (2008) found 137 members
associated with NGC 1333 itself, 39 protostars and 98 pre-main sequence stars with
disks. Class I objects were found to have a spatial distribution similar to that of dense
gas found in the region, as traced by Sandell & Knee (2001), while Class II objects
accounted for the “double-cluster” morphology seen by Lada et al. (1996). The two
density peaks of this morphology are anticorrelated with locations of dense gas. De-
spite this difference, the nearest-neighbor distance distributions of both classes each
peak at 0.045 pc, suggesting the Class II population is both very young and has a low
overall velocity distribution. They further argue that the cavities in the center of NGC
1333 were thus dispersed by the Class II populations and not by outﬂows. Overall,
NGC 1333 was revealed to have a roughly uniform density distribution within a 0.3 pc
radius, and a steep decline at larger radii, possibly reﬂecting original cloud structure.
Relative to the IC 348 cluster (also in Perseus but at the opposite end of the cloud),
NGC 1333 shows a larger fraction of Class I objects vs. Class II objects, suggesting
a signiﬁcant age difference between these clusters. Indeed, NGC 1333 may be more
similar in age to the smaller, very young groups in Perseus, e.g., L1448, L1455, or B1.
Interestingly, before Spitzer, a small fraction of the deeply embedded protostars
in the region were known to have mid-infrared counterparts, but the high sensitivity
and high angular resolution of the Spitzer observations identiﬁed a number of these
sources at wavelengths as short as 3.6 µm, making it possible to characterize them.
To establish a relatively unbiased sample of such sources, Jørgensen et al. (2007b)
combined surveys by Spitzer and the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array
(SCUBA) at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) and studied the separation
between the mid-IR sources and the SCUBA clumps and the characteristics of both
(see Fig. 3). About half of the dust condensations in NGC 1333 were found to have
associated mid-infrared sources and these cores were forming stars with an efﬁciency
of 10−15% (not including the efﬁciency of forming the cores in the ﬁrst place), similar
to what is observed in the larger scale cloud.
3. Submillimeter, Millimeter & Radio Observations of NGC 1333
NGC 1333 has long been known to harbor many embedded protostars. In particular,
its southern half contains many bright Class 0/I objects, including SVS 13, IRAS 2,
IRAS 4 and their individual components, which have been closely observed over the
last twenty years.
In this section, we describe notable continuum observations made at submillimeter
through centimeter wavelengths of these objects and their dense environments. Such
observations are sensitive to high column density dust associated with embedded pro-
tostars. A general trend seen from such data has been that observations of increased
sensitivity, map extent or resolution have revealed new embedded objects in the re-
gion. Identiﬁcations of objects, especially at the lower brightness ends of samples, can
be biased depending on the method used (e.g., by eye or CLUMPFIND), leading to
differences between object lists found in different studies.
Figure 3. Comparison between Spitzer IRAC image (Jørgensen et al. 2005b;
Gutermuth et al. 2008) and SCUBA 850 µm (contours; Sandell & Knee 2001; Kirk
et al. 2006). For further details about the comparison across these wavelengths see
Jørgensen et al. (2007b) and Gutermuth et al. (2008).
3.1. Single-Dish Observations
Early surveys with single element bolometers targeted individual known protostars in
the NGC 1333 region (e.g., Sandell et al. 1990, 1991, 1994), but with bolometer ar-
rays in the late nineties it became possible to map larger (&10 square arcminute sized)
The higher angular resolution provided by large single-dish submillimeter tele-
scopes made it possible to explore the dust envelopes of the IRAS objects and in some
cases resolve them into multiple sources. For example, Sandell et al. (1990) and Sandell
et al. (1994) observed SVS 13 and IRAS 2 with the UKT14 bolometer system on the
JCMT at 1.1 mm, 800 µm, or 450 µm respectively (with respective resolutions of 19′′,
∼14′′, and 8.5′′ FWHM), revealing extended continuum emission associated with each
Walawender et al.
source, but no deﬁnitively identiﬁed new objects. Sandell et al. (1991), however, ob-
served IRAS 4 and resolved it into two objects, 4A and 4B, with a ∼30′′ separation
oriented NW-SE. A third object, 4C, was seen in these images at a position ∼50′′ NE
of 4A, but its existence was only conﬁrmed later by the VLA data of Rodr´ıguez et al.
(1999) and the SCUBA data of Smith et al. (2000).
Leﬂoch et al. (1998) mapped the southern region of NGC 1333 at 1.3 mm using
the IRAM 30 m telescope (11′′ resolution): they detected six dust peaks in the region,
four associated with protostars, SVS 13, IRAS 2, IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B. They further-
more identiﬁed two cavities in the region, coinciding with similar cavities from line
observations (e.g., Warin et al. 1996). They suggested that these cavities were related
to the action of the outﬂows from the newly formed stars.
Bolometric arrays at single-dish millimeter/submillimeter telescopes allowed wider
ﬁelds in star forming regions to be surveyed at high sensitivity and resolution, reducing
the biases of earlier studies that forced observations toward previously identiﬁed ob-
jects. Figure 4 shows an 850 µm continuum map made from data obtained by Sandell
& Knee (2001) with SCUBA on the JCMT, covering a 13′×18′region centered near
SVS 13. Sandell & Knee (2001) observed both 850 and 450 µm at 14′′ and 9′′ FWHM
resolution respectively. These maps revealed further multiplicity in some sources, they
resolved IRAS 2 into three objects, 2A, 2B and 2C, with ∼30′′ separation oriented
NW-SE. They identiﬁed 33 submillimeter sources associated with NGC 1333. They
also pointed toward the importance of outﬂows for the distribution of the matter in
NGC 1333, suggesting that triggered star formation is a common mode there. IRAS
4A was found to be the brightest object at 850 µm with a ﬂux of ∼9 Jy, or ∼3×that of
the next brightest objects, SVS 13, 4B, and 2A. Such maps revealed even more embed-
ded objects within NGC 1333.
Chini et al. (1997) resolved SVS 13 into three sources, MMS 1, MMS 2 and MMS
3 (later identiﬁed as SVS 13, 13B and 13C2), with ∼15′′ separation oriented NE-SW.In
addition, these maps revealed dust ridges or ﬁlaments bordering on possible cavities in
the central part of the region, e.g., see Leﬂoch et al. (1998). More recently, NGC 1333
has been included in larger-scale continuum maps of the inner regions of the Perseus
cloud, e.g., at 850 µm with the JCMT by Hatchell et al. (2005) and Kirk et al. (2006)
(see also Ridge et al. 2006) and at 1.3 mm with the CSO by Enoch et al. 2006 at 31′′
3.2. Interferometric Observations
Embedded objects in NGC 1333 identiﬁed in single-dish maps have been observed at
higher resolution using various interferometers to improve understanding of the small-
scale structure of their dust envelopes and circumstellar disks and to look for further
multiplicity. A signiﬁcant number of the deeply embedded objects were targeted by
Looney et al. (2000) in their large subarcsecond millimeter wavelength interferometric
survey, revealing the multiplicity of many of these deeply embedded sources on arcsec-
ond scales. A number of the embedded sources in NGC 1333 have also been the target
of continuum surveys at longer (centimeter) wavelengths.
Rodr´ıguez et al. (1999) surveyed an 8′×8′region centered on SVS 13 using the
Very Large Array (VLA) at 3.6 cm and 6 cm at 4′′-5′′ FWHM resolution, detecting
2SVS 13 is coincident with VLA 2, a radio continuum source identiﬁed by Haschick et al. (1980),
Rodr´ıguez & Canto (1983), and Snell & Bally (1986) as corresponding to the water maser H2O(B).
Figure 4. A map of 850 µm continuum emission from NGC 1333, as observed
with SCUBA by Sandell & Knee (2001). The grey scale extends from 0.005 to 1.0
Jy beam−1. The resolution is ∼14′′ FWHM. Triangles denote the peak positions of
the 33 objects identiﬁed by eye by Sandell & Knee. Stars denote the positions of
HH 12 IR (VLA 42), SVS 3, and BD+30◦459, each associated with submillimeter
44 sources of which 26 were believed to be associated with young stellar objects in
NGC 1333. Reipurth et al. (2002) followed up on those observations with deep, higher
resolution images of a number of some of the deeply embedded outﬂow sources in
the region. These surveys identiﬁed most of the known far-infrared and submillimeter
components of the embedded protostars at these long wavelengths. For most of the
sources this was attributed to the action of thermal jets on small scales - although a
few sources, including the two components in the IRAS 2 binary, showed evidence
Walawender et al.
for continuum from thermal dust emission extending from submillimeter to these long
wavelengths (see also Fig. 5 of Jørgensen et al. 2005a).
Detailed discussions of the interferometric observations of the SVS 13, IRAS 2
and IRAS 4 source regions can be found in Sections 5.1., 5.2., and 5.3., respectively.
4. Protostellar Outﬂows
The large number and area covering factor of shock excited Herbig-Haro objects (see
Fig. 5) and near-infrared H2emission associated with dozens of overlapping outﬂows
distinguishes NGC 1333 from other nearby star forming regions. Figure 6 shows the
Spitzer IRAC 4.6 µm image of the NGC 1333 region. The cluster and the 1 degree-
long ridge of molecular cloud extending south are covered with ﬁlaments, bow shocks,
and irregular clumps of H2emission. Near the central part of NGC 1333, the covering
factor of shock-excited H2emission and Herbig-Haro objects is greater than 50% at
low ﬂux levels.
Figure 5. Hαimage from the survey of Walawender et al. (2005) of the southern
half of NGC 1333.
Bally et al. (1996) found over 30 groups of HH objects associated with over a
dozen and perhaps many more currently active outﬂows. They describe the region as a
“microburst of star formation” of duration less than 1 Myr within a radius of less than
Figure 6. NGC 1333 as imaged by Spitzer IRAC in band 2 at 4.5 µm showing the
same ﬁeld as in Fig. 2 (Courtesy the c2dteam).
First noted by Herbig (1974) on photographic plates, the objects HH 5, 6, 7-11,
and 12 are the brightest HH objects in the region. HH 5 and 6 are relatively compact
clusters of bright knots. HH 7-11 is a chain of very bright shocks propagating southwest
from the general vicinity of SVS 13 (to be discussed in more detail in Section 5.1.).
HH 12 (see Section 5.4.) is a complex shock structure located north of HH 7-11 at the
northern end of a complex of H2ﬁlaments which line the walls of a roughly 5′long
conical cavity in the NGC 1333 cloud. The HH 7-11 cavity is evident in deep I-band
and infrared images, and in sub-millimeter dust continuum and molecular line maps.
At least two jets are aimed (in projection against the plane of the sky) towards
HH 12; the northern lobe of the IRAS 2 molecular jet, and the molecular jet emerging
towards the north from the cluster of sources associated with SVS 13 located at the base
of the HH 7-11 ﬂow (e.g. Knee & Sandell 2000). The northern tip of HH 12 is further
confused by alow-excitation ([SII] and H2dominated) outﬂow emerging from IRAS 6
Walawender et al.
towards PA ∼300◦. Thus, the HH 12 shock complex may be driven by any of several
Bally & Reipurth (2001) found several remarkable jets and bent Herbig-Haro out-
ﬂows in the vicinity of NGC 1333. The several arcminute-long HH 333, located north
of the brightest portion of the reﬂection nebula, is one of the most collimated HH ﬂows
known. This roughly east-west oriented jet emerges from an 18th magnitude (i-band)
star whose circumstellar disk casts a faint shadow about 10′′ in extent on surrounding
dust. This feature is oriented orthogonal to the jet axis. The jet consists of a chain of
knots connected by a faint ﬁlament of Hαand S II emission less than 2′′ wide. It is
bipolar (visible on both sides of the source) and is over 3′long. It exhibits a gentle
S-shaped bend indicating that over the dynamical age ofthe most distant shocks, the jet
orientation has changed by about 10◦to 15◦.
The regions north and west of HH12 contain some remarkable C-symmetric, bent
jets emerging from visible stars (Fig. 7). C-symmetric ﬂows include HH 334, 498, and
499. While HH 334 shows only a mild bend, HH 498 and 499 show bends ranging
from 40◦to over 90◦. While the C-symmetric outﬂows in the Orion nebula consistently
bend away from the nebular core, in NGC 1333 C-symmetric ﬂows bend toward the
cluster core. A relative motion of order 10 km s−1is needed to explain the degree of
jet bending observed. Such a large velocity is not likely to be produced by gas infalling
toward the cluster core. Bally & Reipurth (2001) postulated that, in Orion, jets are bent
by a wind ﬂowing away from the nebular core while in NGC 1333 the bends are more
readily explained as being caused by the motion of the star with respect to the surround-
ing cloud. They postulated that the source stars of the bent jets in NGC 1333 have been
recently expelled from the cluster core by dynamical interactions. This scenario is con-
sistent with the relatively low obscuration toward the jet sources, as little circumstellar
material is expected to survive the acceleration of the star in such an interaction.
An S-shaped outﬂow, HH 343, was discovered by Bally et al. (1996) in the south-
ern part of NGC 1333, about 10′south of the main cluster. Hodapp et al. (2005) ex-
amined this outﬂow and its source in detail using near-IR, optical, and submillimeter
imaging and near-IR spectroscopy. Proper motions of the Hαand S II knots showed
some of the shocks moving at more than 100 km s−1. The shape of the outﬂow indi-
cates that the source has precessed by almost 90◦over its ∼6000 yr dynamical age. The
spectroscopy and submillimeter data of Hodapp et al. (2005) indicated that the source
is in a Class 0 or I evolutionary state.
The Hαemission line star SVS 20, located about 10′west of the south-eastern
tip of the HH 7-11 ﬂow and east-southeast of SVS 13, drives an unusual outﬂow,
HH 345/346, towards PA ∼220◦. Although this ﬂow is collimated on scales of several
arcminutes, it isonly poorly collimated within the inner 10′′ of SVS 20. Hαimages ob-
tained between 1997 and 2001 show the emergence of a high velocity (>300 km s−1)
bubble or bow shock with an opening angle of more than about 30◦as seen from the
star. The Herbig-Haro object HH 15 lies on the axis of the SVS 20 outﬂow about 9′
southwest of the star. However, HH 15 also lies on the suspected axis of the IRAS 1
outﬂow which powers HH 338/339.
An extensive complex of HH objects can be seen south and southwest of IRAS 2
(see Section 5.2.) and IRAS 4A (see Section 5.3.). These shocks consist of HH 344,
342, 341 and the various components of HH 13 (see Bally et al. 1996, Fig. 2a). Both
the IRAS 4A and IRAS 2B jets point in this general direction. As discussed below, both
ground-based imaging and Spitzer reveal many additional shocks farther southwest.
Figure 7. An Hα+ S II image of the HH 334, 498, and 499 bent jets. Image from
Walawender et al. (2005).
The infrared source IRAS 7 is located near the bright object HH 6 (displaced and
elongated to the northeast of the IR source). Ground based and Spitzer images show
a parsec-scale chain of shock-excited H2features extending towards the northwest and
southeast (PA ∼340/160◦). Evidently, IRAS 7 is the source of a quadrupolar outﬂow
and may therefore be a multiple star system.
Walawender et al. (2005) reported several new HH objects and jets well outside
the cluster core, at the periphery of the NGC 1333 reﬂection nebula, and beyond the
projected edge of the molecular cloud where confusion is not as signiﬁcant as in the
cluster core. At least two large, parsec-scale ﬂows erupt from the region. The ﬁrst
contains the faint shocks HH 752, 756, and 760 tracing a NW-SE ﬂow located near the
north end of the NGC 1333 reﬂection nebula. The second parsec-scale ﬂow emerges
from the NGC 1333 cloud a few arcminutes south of HH 7-11, propagates due east for
at least 10′into the degree-scale cavity between NGC1333 andBarnard 1, andconsists
of HH 348, 349, HH 766, and 767.
Sandell & Knee (2001) found that outﬂows play an important role in the energy
balance of NGC 1333. NGC 1333 has a ﬁlamentary cloud structure, consisting ofmany
cavities, some of which can be traced to the action of current outﬂows and some which
may be the remnants of past outﬂow activity. Knee & Sandell (2000) also estimate the
momentum and energy injection by outﬂows in NGC 1333 (using an estimated age of
an outﬂow of 0.1 Myr determined by Bally et al. 1996) to be ˙
P∼10 M⊙km s−1
and L∼0.1 L⊙, enough to disrupt the cloud if these rates hold for a typical cloud
lifetime of 10 Myr. Sandell & Knee (2001) ﬁnd evidence that star formation activity
may be triggered in density enhancements at the periphery of these cavities. Thus
Walawender et al.
star formation may be triggered by previous episodes of star formation and associated
5. Individual Objects of Particular Interest
5.1. The SVS 13 Subcluster and HH 7-11 Outﬂow
First discovered by Herbig (1974), the HH 7-11 group (Fig. 8) traces a collimated
ﬂow emerging from a dense cloud core at roughly PA ∼125◦and originates from
the vicinity of an embedded near-IR source, SVS 13 (Strom et al. 1974, 1976), which
is also coincident with H2O maser emission (Dickinson et al. 1974). Haschick et al.
(1980) resolved the H2O maser into 3 components (H2O(A), H2O(B), and H2O(C)), of
which H2O(A) coincides with the SVS 13 protostar. Grossman et al. (1987), using the
3-element Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) millimeter array at 2.7 mm and
∼9′′ FWHM resolution, ﬁrst resolved SVS 13 into SVS 13 and 13B (see also Woody
et al. 1989).
Figure 8. Hαimage of HH 7-11 from the survey of Walawender et al. (2005). HH
objects and nearby protostars are labeled.
Proper motions of the HH knots were measured by Herbig & Jones (1983). While
the motions of HH 7-10 were not well deﬁned, HH 11 was found to be moving at 58
km s−1away from the position of SVS 13. Herbig & Jones (1983) also used the radial
velocity of HH 11 to determine that the ﬂowhas an inclination angle of 158◦, indicating
that we see it nearly end on.
Detection of H2from HH 7-11 was made by Simon & Joyce (1983), who found
the H2peak coincident with HH 7. Subsequent studies found additional H2emission
(Zealey et al. 1984; Lightfoot & Glencross 1986; Stapelfeldt et al. 1991; Garden et al.
1990; Aspin et al. 1994; Hodapp & Ladd 1995). Garden et al. (1990) detected awestern
(redshifted) jet in H2and found that its axis is offset north of the eastern ﬂow axis by
about 25′′, consistent with the morphology of the CO outﬂow lobes.
The CO outﬂow corresponding to HH 7-11 was ﬁrst studied by Snell & Edwards
(1981) and Edwards & Snell (1983). Liseau et al. (1988) found that the blueshifted
(eastern) lobe contains knots, while the redshifted lobe is more extended. HCO+ob-
servations by Rudolph & Welch (1988) and Dent et al. (1993) found clumps coincident
with the HH knots. This ﬂow is one of the few which has been detected and mapped in
the 21 cm line of HI (Lizano et al. 1988; Rodr´ıguez et al. 1990).
Eisl¨offel et al. (1991) discovered that SVS 13 underwent an outburst between De-
cember 1988 and September 1990 as evidenced by a ∼2.5 magnitude brightening. The
brightening was observed at optical and near-IR wavelengths and tended to decrease
with increasing wavelength out to N-band. Eisl¨offel et al. (1991) found that the pho-
tometry and spectroscopy of the source suggest that SVS 13 underwent an EXor type
outburst. Further monitoring from October 1990 to December 1993 by Aspin &Sandell
(1994) showed smaller brightness ﬂuctuations and support the conclusion of an EXor
The region was found to be even more complex with the detection of additional
nearby sources. High-resolution VLA observations of SVS 13 at 3.6 cm by Rodr´ıguez
et al. (1997) at 0.3′′ FWHM resolution, detected three further objects: VLA 3, located
6′′ WSW of SVS 13, and VLA 2(a) and 2(b), oriented NNE-SSW with a 1.5′′ separation
and later found to be coincident with SVS 13C. The SVS 13 group was further imaged
at 3.5 mm and 1.3 mm by Bachiller et al. (1998) at 4.1′′ ×3.0′′ FWHM and 1.9′′ ×
1.2′′ FWHM resolutions respectively with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer.
In these data, VLA 3 was not detected as a distinct object at either wavelength, and 13C
was only detected at 3.5 mm. Sandell & Knee (2001), however, detected 450 and 850
µm emission from the 13C location, suggesting little compact emission is associated
with that object.
The radio studies of Rodr´ıguez et al. (1999) show that the SVS13 region contains
a 3′long chain of over a dozen radio continuum sources which are embedded in a ridge
of dense molecular gas and sub-mm cores extending along PA ∼20◦(Hatchell et al.
2005). The 40′′ long dense core containing SVS 13 (VLA 4) includes VLA 20, VLA 3,
VLA 17 (also known as SVS 13B), and VLA 2 (H2O(B), see Fig. 8). In addition,
Rodr´ıguez (1999) showed that SVS 13 is a binary with a separation of 0.3′′ (65 AU).
Thus, it is perhaps not surprising that multiple outﬂows originate from this region. For
example, the Class 0 protostar SVS 13B is known to drive a highly collimated molecular
outﬂow along a roughly north-south direction (PA ∼170◦; Bachiller et al. 1998).
Looney et al. (2000) observed SVS 13 at 2.7 mm and ∼0.5′′ FWHM resolution,
resolving SVS 13 into four components 13A1, 13A2 (VLA 3), 13B and 13C (VLA 2).
Finally, very high resolution VLA observations of SVS 13 by Anglada et al. (2000)
and Anglada et al. (2004) at 3.6 cm and 0.20′′ ×0.18′′ FWHM resolution and at 7 mm
and 0.18′′ ×0.16′′ FWHM resolution resolved SVS 13 (VLA 4) into two components,
VLA 4A and VLA 4B, separated by 0.3′′ oriented E-W. In the latter study, however,
Walawender et al.
Anglada et al. (2004) argued, using the spectral indices measured between 3.6 cm and
7 mm, that only VLA 4B emits thermal radiation from dust.
Rodr´ıguez et al. (1997) suggested that VLA 3, which lies 6′′ southwest of SVS 13
(VLA 4), is the driving source of the HH 7-11 outﬂow based on the alignment of the
apparent ﬂow axis and the source’s elongation along that same position angle. Knee &
Sandell (2000) and Bachiller et al. (2000), however, found that high resolution CO ob-
servations showed that the CO lobes align well with SVS 13and not VLA 3, conﬁrming
that SVS 13 is indeed the source of the HH 7-11 outﬂow. Knee & Sandell (2000) also
found the same offset in the red- and blue-shifted lobes as had been seen in the H2jet.
Neufeld et al. (2006) used Spitzer to map HH 7-11 in the 5.2-37 µm regime, mapping
emission from the S(0)-S(7) rotational lines of H2and from NeII, SiII, S, and FeII.
Bergin et al. (2003) found evidence of H2O emission excited by shocks in the HH 7-11,
IRAS 2, IRAS 4, and IRAS 7 outﬂows.
Near-IR images show clear evidence of multiple outﬂows emerging from the dense
sub-cluster of sources embedded in the cloud core associated with SVS 13 (Hodapp &
Ladd 1995). A highly collimated H2jet emerges towards the south (PA ∼170◦) from
the vicinity of SVS 13B (VLA 17). The counterﬂow (towards the north) is aimed
towards the large and bright shock complex HH 12 located several arcminutes north.
A second H2jet aimed to the south appears to emerge from the vicinity of VLA 2
(H2O(B)). The CO maps of Knee & Sandell (2000) provide supporting evidence for
the interpretation that HH 12 is, at least in part, powered by the outﬂow from VLA 17
(as discussed in Section 5.4., one of the bipolar outﬂows emerging from the binary
source IRAS 2A is also pumping energy and momentum towards HH 12).
Noriega-Crespo et al. (2002) imaged the HH 7-11 system using NICMOS onHST.
They found a short (1.24′′) H2jet emerging to the South of the SVS 13 source. Smith
et al. (2003) use H2imaging and shock models to conclude that the HH 7 bow shock is
a C-type shock with a speed of 55 km s−1. The relatively low speed is consistent with
the proper motion measurements by Khanzadyan et al. (2003).
5.2. NGC 1333 IRAS 2
IRAS 2 was ﬁrst identiﬁed as a candidate young star by Strom et al. (1976), who as-
sociated it with the visible star BD +30◦547 (later found to be incorrect, see Fig. 5).
Jennings et al. (1987) detected infrared emission from this source in IRAS maps. The
source was detected in the near-IR by Aspin et al. (1994) who also catalogued several
candidate H2shocks in the area.
Blake (1996) ﬁrst mentioned two sources associated with IRAS 2, called 2A and
2B, from undescribed 2.7 mm observations, as two cores separated by ∼32′′ in the
NW-SE direction. Looney et al. (2000) also observed IRAS 2 at 2.7 mm at the same
high resolution as their observations of SVS 13, also resolving it into 2A and 2B, and
ﬁnding no new components. Using submillimeter observations, Sandell & Knee (2001)
resolved IRAS 2 into three distinct components (IRAS 2A, B, and C).
Very high angular resolution VLA observations of 2A and 2B by Reipurth et al.
(2002) (see Fig. 9) at 3.6 cm and 0.30′′ ×0.27′′ FWHM resolution detected constant
emission from each over four days. Although again 2C was not detected, variable emis-
sion was detected from VLA 9 (i.e., see Rodr´ıguez et al. 1999) located 4′′ NW of 2B
and coincident with the foreground star BD+30◦547. Jørgensen et al. (2004) detected
2A and 2B at 3 mm with the OVRO (3.2′′ ×2.8′′ FWHM resolution) and BIMA (6.1′′
×5.0′′ FWHM resolution) arrays. They speciﬁcally mentioned not detecting 2C, in-
dicating it is not centrally concentrated and likely has not formed a protostar. Further
high resolution continuum data of 2A were obtained with the SMA by Jørgensen et al.
(2005a) at 850 µm and 1.8′′ ×1.0′′ FWHM resolution, and by Jørgensen et al. (2007b)
at 1.3 mm and 2.5′′ ×1.2′′ FWHM resolution and at 850 µm and 1.5′′ ×0.71′′ FWHM
resolution. In these studies of 2A, its inner envelope and disk were probed and no
further multiplicity was seen.
Figure 9. VLA map of the IRAS 2 region from Reipurth et al. (2002).
The ﬁrst discovery of an outﬂow from IRAS 2 was by Liseau et al. (1988) using
CO observations. More detailed observations by Sandell et al. (1994) detected IRAS 2
in the submillimeter and found 2 CO outﬂows: a larger, north-south ﬂow (PA ∼25◦)
whose redshifted lobe merges with the red lobe from SVS 13 and an east-west outﬂow
(PA ∼104◦) which is highly collimated and also seen in their CS maps.
Hodapp & Ladd (1995) identiﬁed a well collimated outﬂow in their H2observa-
tions corresponding to the north-south CO outﬂow, the brightest components of which
were seen by Aspin et al. (1994). They also found H2shocks which they associate
with the east-west outﬂow. Bachiller et al. (1998) found methanol associated with the
outﬂow lobes of the north-south outﬂow. High resolution interferometric observations
resolved the methanol emission into two knotty, highly collimated, jet-like structures.
Knee & Sandell (2000) used CO observations to associate the north-south outﬂow
with the IRAS 2C source. Thier North-South outﬂow coincides with the H2jet of
Hodapp & Ladd (1995). The position angles of the H2and CO differ by 14◦, perhaps
indicating precession of the source. Knee & Sandell (2000) also detected blueshifted
emission near IRAS 2B, but it could also be an overlapping outﬂow lobe.
Walawender et al.
Jørgensen et al. (2004) detected the east-west outﬂow in SiO and CO and asso-
ciated it with IRAS 2A. They also found a north-south velocity gradient which may
indicate that the north-south outﬂow is driven by an unresolved companion of IRAS 2A
and not by IRAS 2C as suggested by Sandell & Knee (2001). Wakelam et al. (2005)
observed IRAS 2A region in SO, SO2, and CS emission and examined the chemical
properties of the east-west outﬂow.
5.3. NGC 1333 IRAS 4
This source was ﬁrst identiﬁed by its H2O maser emission detected by Haschick et al.
(1980) who designated it source H2O(C). Jennings et al. (1987) detected the source in
IRAS maps, designating it IRAS 4. Submillimeter observations by Sandell et al. (1991)
resolved IRAS 4 into two sources, IRAS 4A with a mass of ∼9.2 M⊙and IRAS 4B
with a mass of 4.0 M⊙. Liseau et al. (1988) found high velocity CO associated with
After the detection of multiplicity by Sandell et al. (1991), 4A and 4B were imaged
by Mundy et al. (1993) with the VLA at 1.3, 2.0, and 3.6 cm, at 0.6′′, 0.4′′ and 0.5-1′′
FWHM resolutions respectively, detecting 4A in all three bands but 4B only at 1.3 cm.
In these images, the 1.3 cm emission associated with each object is centrally peaked
likely due to a disk component, but it also appears extended, likely due to contributions
from partially resolved envelopes. Later, fringes detected by Lay et al. (1995) at 840 µm
with the JCMT-CSO interferometer (∼0.5′′ FWHM resolution) revealed IRAS 4A to be
a binary itself with a 1.8′′ projected separation oriented NW-SE, and 4B to contain >2
components. Looney et al. (2000), observing 4A and 4B in 2.7 mm observations similar
to their data for SVS 13 and IRAS 2, were the ﬁrst to image speciﬁcally 4A1 as well
as 4B2 located 10′′ E of 4B (now 4B1)3. At the highest resolutions, the Looney et al.
(2000) images of 4B1 show suggestions of further multiplicity, though these have not
been seen in other, similarly high resolution images. Millimeter continuum emission
from IRAS 4 was further observed interferometrically (but at lower resolution than
Looney et al. 2000) by Choi et al. (1999) with the BIMA array at 3.4 mm and 12.2′′
×7.8′′ FWHM resolution, Choi (2001) with the BIMA array at 3.4 mm and 4.6′′ ×
3.7′′ FWHM resolution, Di Francesco et al. (2001) with the IRAM PdBI at 3.2 mm
and 2.9′′ ×2.6′′ FWHM resolution and 1.3 mm at 2.0′′ ×1.7′′ FWHM resolution,
Choi et al. (2004) with the NMA at 2.1 mm and 3.7′′ ×3.0′′ FWHM resolution and
2.5′′ ×1.8′′ FWHM resolution, and Jørgensen et al. (2007a) with the SMA at 1.3 mm
and 2.5′′ ×1.1′′ FWHM resolution and at 850 µm with 1.5-1.7′′ ×1.0-0.7′′ FWHM
resolution. Also, centimeter continuum emission of IRAS 4 was observed with the
VLA by Reipurth et al. (2002) at 3.6 cm and 0.30′′ ×0.27′′ FWHM resolution, where
4A1, 4A2, 4B1 and 4C were detected but not 4B2 or any other source near 4B1 (see Fig.
10). Choi et al. (1999) and Di Francesco et al. (2001) saw evidence of infall towards
IRAS 4 from the ”inverse P-Cygni” proﬁles of interferometrically observed HCN 1-0
(4A), CS 3-2 (4A), and H2CO 312-211 (4A and 4B) line emission. Belloche et al. (2006)
examined IRAS 4Ausing theVLAand found signatures of collapse and very high mass
3The object 4B2 is called 4C by Choi et al. (1999) and Looney et al. (2000) but that name is given to the
third IRAS 4 source detected by Sandell et al. (1991); Rodr´ıguez et al. (1999); Smith et al. (2000); Sandell
& Knee (2001). Instead, Sandell & Knee (2001) called this object “4BE,” Smith et al. (2000) called it
“4BII,” and Di Francesco et al. (2001) called it “4B’.”
infall rate of 0.7−2.0×10−4M⊙yr−1. Based on model ﬁtting they conclude that the
collapse is induced by external compression.
Figure 10. VLA map of the IRAS 4 region from Reipurth et al. (2002).
Near-IR observations by Garden et al. (1990), Aspin et al. (1994), and Hodapp &
Ladd (1995) found a “V-shaped” ﬁlament of H2emission south of IRAS 4. Hodapp &
Ladd (1995) associated this feature’s western limb with SVS 13 ﬂow. The eastern limb
points toward IRAS 4A. In addition, they found shocks located along the same line on
the opposite side of IRAS 4A. Some of the near-IR shocks correspond to Hαand S II
shocks seen by Bally et al. (1996).
Blake et al. (1995) presented a detailed analysis of the IRAS 4 source. This
hierarchical proto-multiple system launches a highly collimated CO outﬂow with a
blueshifted lobe aimed towards the southwest at PA ∼210◦. The IRAS 4A binary
produces at least two outﬂows visible as highly collimated SiO molecular jets (Choi
2005). The northeastern lobe of the larger, highly collimated northeast-southwest ori-
ented jet is deﬂected by an intervening cloud core. Rodr´ıguez et al. (1999) found cen-
timeter wavelength sources corresponding to IRAS 4A, B, and C (VLA 25, 28, and 29
Choi et al. (2006) observed the IRAS 4 region in H2(2.12 µm) and compared
those images with SiO observations. They found that the northeast-southwest ﬂow may
be drifting or precessing clockwise at ∼0.011◦yr−1.
Park & Choi (2007) observed H2O maser emission around IRAS 4 at an angular
resolution of about 0.08 arcseconds and found masers grouped around the IRAS 4A and
Walawender et al.
4B sources. Six of the sources are within 100 AU of IRAS 4A2 and they conclude that
the masers are part of a circumstellar disk. No masers were detected around IRAS 4A1.
Four maser spots were detected around the IRAS 4B1 source linearly distributed along
the ﬂow axis. More recently, Marvel et al. (2008) used multi-epoch VLBA observa-
tions to measure accurate proper motions of the water maser clusters within 100 AU of
IRAS 4A2 and IRAS 4BW. For both sources there are two groups of masers that move
away from each other at more than 50 km s−1. The directions of the proper motion
vectors suggest that both IRAS 4A2 and 4BW may have further companions.
5.4. HH 12
HH 12 is a large bright Hαand S II shock which lies 4.5′northwest of HH 7-11 (see
Fig. 5). Proper motions by Herbig & Jones (1983) indicate that this shock is moving
to the north. Subsequent authors have suggested candidate sources to the south, e.g.,
SVS 11 (Herbig & Jones 1983), SVS 10 (Cohen & Schwartz 1983), SVS 9 (Cohen
& Schwartz 1983), or other optically visible stars (Strom et al. 1983). HH 12 lies
immediately to the west of SVS 12 leading to suggestions that SVS 12 is driving a
wide angle wind (Simon & Joyce 1983; Stapelfeldt et al. 1991; Garden et al. 1990).
Bally et al. (1996) suggested that HH 12 may be a superposition of shock systems.
Bachiller et al. (1998) found an SiO jet emanating from SVS 13B near HH 7-11.
This jet points toward PA ∼160◦, roughly away from HH 12. The redshifted component
of this jet is much fainter with one peak position symmetrically about SVS 13B. Some
of the H2features of Hodapp & Ladd (1995) coincide with the jet. Knee & Sandell
(2000) found a CO jet coinciding with the SiO jet. Their northern component was
mildly blueshifted, but they suggest that redshifted emission would be confused in this
area making detection of thenorthern component of the outﬂow lobe difﬁcult to detect.
The radial velocities of HH 12 are blueshifted, while the northern SiO jet from
SVS 13B appears to be only slightly redshifted and the northern CO component slightly
blueshifted. This could be due to redirection of the jet, or turbulent mixing, since the
inclination angle of the outﬂow is ∼14◦based on the proper motions of Herbig & Jones
6. X-rays from NGC 1333
The NGC 1333 region was observed in the soft X-ray band for 40 ks with the ROSAT
High Resolution Imager (Preibisch 1997). Only 16 young stellar objects were detected
with this soft X-ray telescope, most with absorptions of 0< AV<9mag and intrinsic
luminosities of LX>1029 ergs s−1. A similar exposure with Chandra with an order-
of-magnitude higher sensitivity and spatial resolution detected 127 X-ray sources. Fig-
ure 11 shows the adaptively smoothed image of the 17′×17′Chandra ﬁeld (Getman
et al. 2002). More than 100 faint X-ray sources are easily discerned.
Figure 12 shows theoptical Hα+[S II] image of the region from Bally & Reipurth
(2001) indicating HH outﬂows with superposed X-ray sources. Two X-ray sources,
HJ 110 and BD +30◦547, are probably foreground stars (diamonds in Figure 12), ∼
30 hard unidentiﬁed X-ray sources uniformly distributed across the ﬁeld are possible
extragalactic contaminants (circles in Figure 12), and the remaining ∼90 X-ray sources
are cluster members (triangles and stars). Among the cluster members, eight are very
young objects (stars in Figure 12): seven are relatively lightly absorbed Class I-II stars
Figure 11. An adaptively smoothed 17′×17′Chandra ACIS-I image of the
NGC 1333 cluster in the full 0.5−8.0keV band. Smoothing has been performed at
the 2.5 σlevel, and gray scales are logarithmic. More than 100 X-ray point sources
are seen. North is up and east is left.
driving jets that may have been dynamically ejected from the cloud, and one is a deeply
embedded Class I object in the vicinity of HH 7-11. It has no optical/NIR detections
but has counterparts in the radio-to-submillimeter bands.
The majority (∼80) of the detected cluster members are T-Tauri stars shown as
triangles in Figure 12. A few of the sub-stellar objects in the cluster may be detected
(Wilking et al. 2004). The C handra T-Tauri population is complete down to K∼
12 mag or ∼0.2−0.3M⊙, assuming the known LX−mass correlation and an age
of ∼1Myr. At the bright end, the K-band luminosity function of the X-ray cluster
agrees well with that obtained from the statistical subtraction of NIR source counts from
nearby control ﬁelds (Lada et al. 1996). With reduced sensitivity for weaker sources
Walawender et al.
Figure 12. X-ray sources are superposed on an 19.5′×17.3′optical Hα+[SII]
image indicating Herbig-Haro outﬂows and their driving sources (Bally & Reipurth
2001). Here the Chandra sources are marked as: outﬂow/protostellar sources (stars),
T-Tauri stars (triangles), possible extragalactic contaminants (circles), and fore-
ground sources (diamonds). XMM-Newton objects are marked by squares. The
Chandra 17′×17′ACIS-I ﬁeld is outlined by the large square.
and lower spatial resolution, the X M M −Newton observation of the region missed
∼20 weak Chandra cluster members and did not spatially resolve 9 Chandra visual
binaries. But there are seven sources only seen with XM M −Newton: the T-Tauri star
LkHα356 in the shared ﬁeld-of-view, and six additional sources outside the Chandra
ﬁeld (two of these may be extragalactic contaminants). The XM M −N ewton sources
are marked by boxes in Figure 12.
No matches of Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray sources are found to any known,
deeply embedded Class 0 or sub-millimeter protostars in NGC 1333. Only two reliable
detections of the youngest protostellar objects have been reported up to date (seereview
in Getman et al. 2007): the Class 0/I protostar SMM 1B inthe R Corona Australis cloud,
and a true Class 0/I protostar BIMA 2 in the IC 1396N cometary globule. The lack of
X-ray detections from most of the known Class 0 objects does not necessarily indicate
that they are X-ray quiet. X-ray observations obtained to date may not be sufﬁciently
sensitive to detect X-rays from these highly absorbed sources.
A handful of HH objects outside of NGC 1333 have been recently detected in
soft X-rays, tracing plasma with temperatures of a few 106to 107K produced by high
velocity HH shocks (Raga et al. 2002). X-rays from bow shocks at the jet terminus
are seen in HH 2, HH 80/81, and HH 210 (Grosso et al. 2006, and references therein)
while soft spectral components close to the protostar are seen in L1551-IRS5, DG Tau
and the Beehive in the Orion Nebula. However, none of the numerous HH objects and
outﬂows in NGC 1333 have been identiﬁed with theChandra and XMM-Newton X-ray
sources. This failure can be explained by the relatively low shock velocities; in HH 7-
11, for example, the jet velocities are slow (∼40 −50 km s−1) and correspondingly
the shock has low-excitation in contrast to the considerably higher shock velocities
(∼150 −200 km s−1) and higher excitation in the X-ray emitting shocks of HH 2 and
HH 210. The model by Raga et al. (2002) predicts X-ray luminosity from HH 7-11
of <1027 ergs s−1, which is clearly below the sensitivity limits of the Chandra and
According to Bally et al. (1996) and Bally & Reipurth (2001), a number of rel-
atively lightly absorbed young stellar objects driving jets and outﬂows have been dy-
namically ejected from the cloud core of the NGC 1333. Seven of these sources have
been detected in X-ray band: LkHα351, HJ 109, HJ 8, HJ 12, LkHα270, IRAS f,
and LkHα271 (stars in Figure 12). No signiﬁcant differences are found between X-ray
photometry, spectral and variability characteristics of the seven jet driving sources and
the rest of the young stellar population in NGC 1333. This suggests that the presence
or absence of outﬂows does not produce signiﬁcant differences in X-ray emission of
young stellar objects which arises mainly from violent magnetic reconnection events
near the stellar surface (Feigelson et al. 2007).
Figure 13. No difference in the X-ray luminosity functions for bright cluster
members of NGC 1333 (solid line) and IC 348 (dashed line) is found.
Walawender et al.
Figure 13 compares the absorption-corrected X-ray luminosity functions of the
77 brightest members of NGC 1333 (Getman et al. 2002) and 168 members of IC 348
(Preibisch & Zinnecker 2002). Both X-ray samples have been observed with the similar
limiting sensitivity of LX∼1028 ergs s−1. A two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test
shows no difference in the X-ray luminosity functions. This is consistent with the recent
ﬁndings in the COUP population, that the X-ray luminosity functions are relatively
insensitive to age until stars reach the main sequence (Preibisch et al. 2005).
The optically-invisible infrared source SVS 16 is perhaps the most unusual X-ray
source in NGC 1333. Infrared data show that SVS 16 is a highly obscured (AV∼
26 mag) binary consisting of two M-type PMS stars with a separation of 1′′ (Preibisch
et al. 1998). Mid-infrared photometry shows that both components are very young
transitional “ﬂat spectrum” (Class I/II) objects (Rebull et al. 2003). Both Chandra
and XMM-Newton data, separated in time by more than 18 months, show X-ray ﬂares
from SVS 16, as commonly seen in PMS systems. But, remarkably, both Chandra
and XMM-Newton spectra indicate a relatively low hydrogen column density of NH∼
1.2−2×1022 cm−2. This corresponds to a visual extinction of only AV∼7−10 mag,
considerably below the AV∼26 mag determined from the IR spectrum and photom-
etry. Both IR and X-ray data appear reliable. This inconsistency suggests that the
plasma emitting the X-rays does not originate in the same region as the IR emission
from this source. Scenarios include X-ray emission from jet shocks close to the stel-
lar object, X-rays scattered towards the observer by circumstellar material, and huge
Acknowledgments. The authors would like to thank Luisa Rebull, Colin Aspin,
and Andrew Walsh for their helpful editorial suggestions. JW was supported by the
NSF through grants AST-0507784 and AST-0407005.
Anglada G., Rodr´ıguez L. F., Osorio M., Torrelles J. M., Estalella R., et al. 2004, ApJ 605,
Anglada G., Rodr´ıguez L. F., & Torrelles J. M. 2000, ApJ 542, L123
Aspin C. 2003, AJ 125, 1480
Aspin C. & Sandell G. 1994, A&A 288, 803
Aspin C. & Sandell G. 1997, MNRAS 289, 1
Aspin C., Sandell G., & Russell A. P. G. 1994,A&AS 106, 165
Bachiller R., Gueth F., Guilloteau S., Tafalla M., & Dutrey A., 2000, A&A 362, L33
Bachiller R., Guilloteau S., Gueth F., Tafalla M., Dutrey A., et al. 1998,A&A 339, L49
Bally J., Devine D., & Reipurth B. 1996, ApJ 473, L49
Bally J. & Reipurth B. 2001, ApJ 546, 299
Belloche A., Hennebelle P., & Andr´e P. 2006, A&A 453, 145
Bergin E. A., Kaufman M. J., Melnick G. J., Snell R. L., & Howe J. E. 2003, ApJ 582, 830
Blake G. A. 1996, IAU Symp. 178: Molecules in Astrophysics: Probes & Processes, E. F. van
Dishoeck (ed.), 31
Blake G. A., Sandell G., van Dishoeck E. F., Groesbeck T. D., Mundy L. G., & Aspin C. 1995,
ApJ 441, 689
Cernis K. 1990, Ap&SS 166, 315
Chini R., Reipurth B., Sievers A., Ward-Thompson D., & Haslam C. G. T., et al. 1997, A&A
Choi M., 2001, ApJ 553, 219
Choi M., 2005, ApJ 630, 976
Choi M., Hodapp K. W., Hayashi M., Motohara K., Pak S., & Pyo T.-S., 2006, ApJ 646, 1050
Choi M., Kamazaki T., Tatematsu K., & Panis J.-F., 2004, ApJ 617, 1157
Choi M., Panis J.-F., & Evans, II N. J. 1999, ApJS 122, 519
Cohen M. & Schwartz R. D. 1983, ApJ 265, 877
Dent W. R. F., Cunningham C., Hayward R., Davies S. R., & Wade D., et al. 1993, MNRAS
Di Francesco J., Myers P. C., Wilner D. J., Ohashi N., & Mardones D., 2001, ApJ 562, 770
Dickinson D. F., Strom S. E., & Kojoian G. 1974,ApJ 194, L93
Edwards S. & Snell R. L. 1983, ApJ 270, 605
Eisl¨offel J., Guenther E., Hessman F. V., Mundt R., Poetzel R., et al. 1991, ApJ 383, L19
Enoch M. L., Young K. E., Glenn J., Evans N. J., Golwala S., et al., 2006, ApJ 638, 293
Feigelson E., Townsley L., G¨udel M., & Stassun K., 2007, in Protostars and Planets V, B.
Reipurth, D. Jewitt, & K. Keil (eds.), University of Arizona Press, 313
Garden R. P., Russell A. P. G., &Burton M. G. 1990, ApJ 354, 232
Getman K. V., Feigelson E. D., Garmire G., Broos P., & Wang J., 2007, ApJ 654, 316
Getman K. V., Feigelson E. D., Townsley L., Bally J., Lada C. J., & Reipurth B., 2002, ApJ
Greissl J., Meyer M. R., Wilking B. A., Fanetti T., Schneider G., et al, 2007, AJ 133, 1321
Grossman E. N., Masson C. R., Sargent A. I., Scoville N. Z., Scott S., & Woody D. P. 1987,
ApJ 320, 356
Grosso N., Feigelson E. D., Getman K. V., Kastner J. H., Bally J., & McCaughrean M. J., 2006,
A&A 448, L29
Gutermuth R., Myers P. C., Megeath S. T., Allen L. E., Pipher J. L., et al., 2008, ApJ 674, 336
Harvey P. M., Wilking B. A., & Joy M. 1984, ApJ 278, 156
Haschick A. D., Moran J. M., Rodr´ıguez L. F., Burke B. F., Greenﬁeld P., & Garcia-Barreto
J. A. 1980, ApJ 237, 26
Hatchell J., Richer J. S., Fuller G. A., Qualtrough C. J., Ladd E. F., & Chandler C. J., 2005,
A&A 440, 151
Herbig G. H. 1974, Lick Observatory Bulletin 658, 1
Herbig G. H. & Jones B. F. 1983, AJ 88, 1040
Herbig G. H. & Kameswara Rao N. 1972, ApJ 174, 401
Hirota T., Bushimata T., Choi Y. K., Honma M., Imai H., et al., 2008, PASJ, 60, 37
Hodapp K. W., Bally J., Eisl¨offel J., & Davis C. J., 2005, AJ 129, 1580
Hodapp K.-W. & Ladd E. F. 1995, ApJ 453, 715
Hubble E. P. 1922a, ApJ 56, 162
Hubble E. P. 1922b, ApJ 56, 400
Jennings R. E., Cameron D. H. M., Cudlip W., & Hirst C. J. 1987, MNRAS 226, 461
Jørgensen J. K., Bourke T. L., Myers P. C., Di Francesco J., van Dishoeck E. F., et al., 2007a,
ApJ 659, 479
Jørgensen J. K., Bourke T. L., Myers P. C., Sch¨oier F. L., van Dishoeck E. F., & Wilner D. J.,
2005a, ApJ 632, 973
Jørgensen J. K., Hogerheijde M. R., van Dishoeck E. F., Blake G. A., & Sch¨oier F. L., 2004,
A&A 413, 993
Jørgensen J. K., Johnstone D., Kirk H., & Myers P. C., 2007b, ApJ 656, 293
Jørgensen J. K., Lahuis F., Sch¨oier F. L., van Dishoeck E. F., Blake G. A., et al., 2005b, ApJ
Khanzadyan T., Smith M. D., Davis C. J., Gredel R., Stanke T., & Chrysostomou A., 2003,
MNRAS 338, 57
Kirk H., Johnstone D., & Di Francesco J. 2006, ApJ 646, 1009
Knee L. B. G. & Sandell G., 2000, A&A 361, 671
Lada C. J., Alves J., & Lada E. A. 1996,AJ 111 1964
Lay O. P., Carlstrom J. E., & Hills R. E. 1995, ApJ 452, L73
Leﬂoch B., Castets A., Cernicharo J., Langer W. D., & Zylka R. 1998, A&A 334, 269
Lightfoot J. F. & Glencross W. M. 1986, MNRAS 221, 993
Liseau R., Sandell G., & Knee L. B. G. 1988, A&A 192, 153
Liu C., Zhang C., & Kimura H. 1981, Chin. Astron. Astrophys. 5, 276
Walawender et al.
Lizano S., Heiles C., Rodr´ıguez L. F., Koo B.-C., Shu F. H., et al. 1988, ApJ 328, 763
Looney L. W., Mundy L. G., & Welch W. J., 2000, ApJ 529, 477
Loren R. B. 1976, ApJ 209, 466
Marvel K. B., Wilking, B. A., Claussen M. J., & Wootten A. 2008, ApJ in press
Mundy L. G., McMullin J. P., Grossman A. W., & Sandell G. 1993, Icarus 106, 11
Neufeld D. A., Melnick G. J., Sonnentrucker P., Bergin E. A., Green J. D., et al., 2006, ApJ
Noriega-Crespo A., Cotera A., Young E., & Chen H., 2002, ApJ 580, 959
Park G. & Choi M., 2007, ApJ 664, L99
Preibisch T. 1997, A&A 324, 690
Preibisch T., McCaughrean M. J., Grosso N., Feigelson E. D., Flaccomio E., et al., 2005, ApJS
Preibisch T., Neuh¨auser R., & Stanke T. 1998, A&A 338, 923
Preibisch T. & Zinnecker H., 2002, AJ 123, 1613
Quillen A. C., Thorndike S. L., Cunningham A., Frank A., Gutermuth R. A., et al., 2005, ApJ
Racine R. 1968, AJ 73, 233
Raga A. C., Noriega-Crespo A., & Vel´azquez P. F., 2002, ApJ 576, L149
Rebull L. M., Cole D. M., Stapelfeldt K. R., & Werner M. W., 2003, AJ 125, 2568
Rebull L. M., Stapelfeldt K. R., Evans, II N. J., Jørgensen J. K., & Harvey P. M., et al., 2007,
ApJS 171, 447
Reipurth B., Rodr´ıguez L. F., Anglada G., & Bally J., 2002, AJ 124, 1045
Ridge N. A., Di Francesco J., Kirk H., Li D., Goodman A. A., et al., 2006, AJ 131, 2921
Rodr´ıguez L. F. 1999, in Star Formation 1999, Editor: T. Nakamoto, Nobeyama Radio Obser-
Rodr´ıguez L. F., Anglada G., & Curiel S. 1997, ApJ 480, L125
Rodr´ıguez L. F., Anglada G., & Curiel S. 1999, ApJS 125, 427
Rodr´ıguez L. F. & Canto J. 1983, Rev. Mex. Astron. Astroﬁs., 8, 163
Rodr´ıguez L. F., Escalante V., Lizano S., Canto J., & Mirabel I. F. 1990, ApJ 365, 261
Rudolph A. & Welch W. J. 1988, ApJ 326, L31
Sandell G., Aspin C., Duncan W. D., Robson E. I., & Dent W. R. F., 1990, A&A 232, 347
Sandell G., Aspin C., Duncan W. D., Russell A. P. G., &Robson E. I., 1991, ApJ 376, L17
Sandell G. & Knee L. B. G., 2001, ApJ 546, L49
Sandell G., Knee L. B. G., Aspin C., Robson I. E., & Russell A. P. G., 1994, A&A 285, L1
Sargent A. I. 1979, ApJ 233, 163
Simon T.& Joyce R. R. 1983, ApJ 265, 864
Smith K. W., Bonnell I. A., Emerson J. P., & Jenness T., 2000, MNRAS 319, 991
Smith M. D., Khanzadyan T., & Davis C. J., 2003, MNRAS 339, 524
Snell R. L. & Bally J. 1986, ApJ 303, 683
Snell R. L. & Edwards S. 1981, ApJ 251, 103
Stapelfeldt K. R., Scoville N. Z., Beichman C. A., Hester J. J., & Gautier, III T. N. 1991, ApJ
Strom K. M., Strom S. E., & Stocke J. 1983, ApJ 271, L23
Strom S. E., Strom K. A., & Carrasco L. 1974, PASP 86, 798
Strom S. E., Vrba F. J., & Strom K. M. 1976, AJ 81, 314
van den Bergh S. 1966, AJ 71, 990
Wakelam V., Ceccarelli C., Castets A., Leﬂoch B., Loinard L., et al., 2005, A&A 437, 149
Walawender J., Bally J., & Reipurth B., 2005, AJ 129, 2308
Walsh A. J., Bourke T. L., & Myers P. C., 2006, ApJ 637, 860
Walsh A. J., Myers P. C., Di Francesco J., Mohanty S., Bourke T. L., et al., 2007, ApJ 655, 958
Warin S., Castets A., Langer W. D., Wilson R. W., & Pagani L. 1996, A&A 306, 935
Wilking B. A., Meyer M. R., Greene T. P., Mikhail A., & Carlson G., 2004, AJ 127, 1131
Woody D. P., Scott S. L., Scoville N. Z., Mundy L. G., Sargent A. I., et al. 1989, ApJ 337, L41
Zealey W. J., Williams P. M., & Sandell G. 1984, A&A 140, L31