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... The expectation is that the client will successfully complete the task. If the task is unsuccessful, then the counselor explores with the client what kept him or her from having a successful experience (Carlson et al., 2006;Watts, 2003;Watts, Peluso, & Lewis, 2005). ...
... A more reflective approach to acting as if asks clients to take a "reflective" step back prior to stepping forward to act as if (Watts, 2003;Watts et al., 2005). This reflective as if process extends the Adierian technique by having clinicians ask clients to take a "reflective" step back prior to stepping forward to act as if. ...
... In Step 2, the client and counselor co-construct an action plan based on the clients' reflective thinking. In Step 3, the final step, clients implement the as if behaviors and they discuss their experience in session with the counselor (Watts et al., 2005). ...
... 9). This view of looking at an individual within the context of a social network is congruent with Individual Psychology (Watts, Peluso, & Lewis, 2005). In fact, Watts et al. (2005) provide the following quote in their article from Jones and Butman (1991) to articulate this view: ...
... This view of looking at an individual within the context of a social network is congruent with Individual Psychology (Watts, Peluso, & Lewis, 2005). In fact, Watts et al. (2005) provide the following quote in their article from Jones and Butman (1991) to articulate this view: ...
... Examples of encouragement skills that instill hope include telling stories of how others have successfully coped with similar problems, expressing confidence in the client's ability to change, pointing out to the client the positive consequences of change, and asking questions about the client's strengths (Main & Boughner, 2011;Perman, 1975;Watts & Pietrzak, 2000). One innovative Adlerian technique is to ask clients to act as if they can do something they fear doing (e.g., speaking assertively; Watts, Peluso, & Lewis, 2005). The rationale for this technique is that when clients begin to act differently, regardless of their level of confidence, they tend to become more confident of their abilities. ...
... The rationale for this technique is that when clients begin to act differently, regardless of their level of confidence, they tend to become more confident of their abilities. This technique can be expanded to include the use of encouragement to instill inspiration and confidence by inviting clients to imagine how their lives would be more positive if they were acting "as if" and then by collaborating with clients to select behaviors that would increase the likelihood of success in acting "as if" (Watts et al., 2005). ...
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Despite the frequent use of encouragement in everyday social life, encouragement remains an understudied topic in positive psychology and counseling psychology. To address this gap, this article resolves ambiguity in terminology and synthesizes diverse streams of theorizing and research to propose an integrative psychological science of encouragement. The author offers a definition of encouragement, delineates its conceptual boundaries, and proposes a conceptual model that provides a taxonomy of encouragement processes. Known as the Tripartite Encouragement Model (TEM), this model charts the foci, features, and levels of encouragement. Encouragement is conceptualized, at different levels, as an act of interpersonal communication, a character strength, as well as an ecological group norm. The author explains how encouragement can enhance the quality of counseling practice as well as practical applications in other areas of psychology. Finally, the author delineates how the TEM can guide future research on the psychology of encouragement.
... Constructivism views human beings as active agents creatively involved in co-constructing their own reality. Reality is, for the individual, a matter of perception, and perception is a function of a mind that is seen as an interactive system, operating on the world to organise sensory information in terms of existing cognitive structures (Blatner, 1997;Scott et al., 1995;Watts, Peluso & Lewis, 2005). Adler's view of the centrality of cognitive structures such as guiding fictions, as well as his use of such concepts as the schema of apperception and the antithetical schema of apperception that organise perception and experience, place him very close to the constructivist position. ...
Thesis
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A PSYCHOBIOGRAPHY OF OLIVE SCHREINER FROM AN ADLERIAN APPROACH
... In some conceptual articles, the literature review precedes the presentation ofthe new model or position. For example, in many articles describing new procedures or techniques (e.g., Juhnke, Coll, Sunich, & Kent, 2008;Watts & Garza, 2008;Watts, Peluso, & Lewis, 2005), the detailed description ofthe procedure or technique follows a theoretical rationale. In fact, this format is often required by joumals that encourage submission of irmovative procedures or techniques (e.g., ACES, 2010;Balkin, 2009;Watts, 2004). ...
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This article seeks to help authors better understand the purpose, process, and procedures for developing a conceptual manuscript for publication in counseling journals. The author explains the basis of a conceptual article, discusses how authors may generate ideas for writing such articles, and describes a process for developing a conceptual article.
Book
Empathy and Mental Health: An Integral Model for Developing Therapeutic Skills in Counseling and Psychotherapy. The text features a multiple perspective model of empathy in the context of developing a wide-range of therapeutic skills in counseling and psychotherapy.
Presentation
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This presentation briefly addresses (a) key tenets of Adler’s mature theory, including the enormous--but often overlooked-- influence of Adler of contemporary counseling theory and practice, (b) how Adler theory is a pioneering humanistic and positive psychology approach to counseling, and (c) the implications of Adler’s mature theory for contemporary counseling practice. Dr. Watts will also discuss Reflecting As If; a brief, encouragement-focused counseling process he developed that integrates Adlerian, constructivist, and evidence-based perspectives and practices.
Conference Paper
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Reflecting As If (RAI) is an integration of Adlerian and constructivist (e.g., solution-focused, narrative) therapy ideas. It is a perceptual and procedural expansion of Adler’s “Acting As If” technique that employs several evidenced-based procedures. Participants will learn the theory and practice of RAI, see the process demonstrated, and discuss the application of the process in various counseling and leadership settings. LINK: http://www.alfredadler.edu/node/1407
Article
This paper suggests how a patient may be able to give and receive the caring he/she wants with respect to a clinician whose (in)action he/she perceives to be uncaring. The approach suggested draws on the philosophy and psychology of framing and adopting Hans Vaihinger's 'as if' theory. I draw on my own experience as a patient to apply this approach that requires imagining and acting as if an apparently uncaring clinician is caring. This fiction need not be objectively true but nor is it necessarily false because the as if theory assumes that the only world anyone can know is one of appearances. At least when the lack of caring appears objectively minor and uncertain to the person feeling it, the caring fiction can be morally important, both for its own sake and for its utility to the patient, the clinician and the maintenance of their relationship. Lastly I discuss the strengths and limitations of the as if approach for clinical practice.
Chapter
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Publisher Summary Individuals come to “know” their own attitudes, emotions, and other internal states partially by inferring them from observations of their own overt behavior and/ or the circumstances in which this behavior occurs. Thus, to the extent that internal cues are weak, ambiguous, or uninterpretable, the individual is functionally in the same position as an outside observer, an observer who must necessarily rely upon those same external cues to infer the individual's inner states. This chapter traces the conceptual antecedents and empirical consequences of these propositions, attempts to place the theory in a slightly enlarged frame of reference, and clarifies just what phenomena the theory can and cannot account for in the rapidly growing experimental literature of self-attribution phenomena. Several experiments and paradigms from the cognitive dissonance literature are amenable to self-perception interpretations. But precisely because such experiments are subject to alternative interpretations, they cannot be used as unequivocal evidence for self-perception theory. The reinterpretation of cognitive dissonance phenomena and other self-perception phenomena have been discussed. The chapter highlights some differences between self-perception and interpersonal perception and shift of paradigm in social psychology. It discusses some unsolved problems, such as the conceptual status of noncognitive response classes and the strategy of functional analysis.
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An integration of Adlerian and social constructionist ideas, the reflecting "as if" technique asks clients to take a reflective step backward to consider perceptual and behavioral alternatives as a prelude to their acting as if they were the couple they desire to be. This article describes the reflecting as if technique and provides a brief case study demonstrating its use.
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According to R.A. Neimeyer (2000) and Botella and Herrero (2000), an integrative bridge between cognitive constructivist and social constructionist approaches to therapy might be usefully labeled relational constructivism. This article affirms that Adlerian therapy—both explicitly and implicitly—is a relational constructivist approach, and consequently may serve as an integrative bridge between cognitive constructivist and social constructionist therapies. Both theory and practice issues are discussed.
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The authors discuss the overlooked similarities between the therapeutic process of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) and the Adlerian process of therapeutic encouragement SFBT and Adlerian therapy share common perspectives, albeit using different nomenclature, on maladjustment, the client–counselor relationship, and methods of facilitating change. The authors also present conclusions regarding the continuing relevance of Adlerian therapy for contemporary counseling practice.
Article
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This paper examines attributions to the influence of Alfred Adler by primary theorists from contemporary cognitive and cognitive-behavioral theories of personality and psychotherapy. Although Adler's influence is often not recognized by the mainstream of applied psychologists, a number of leading theorists have acknowledged Adler as a major source of their ideas. Circumstances leading to this discrepancy are examined.
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This paper discusses selected areas of common ground and areas for mutual edification and future dialogue between Adlerian and Constructivist psychotherapies.
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This article seeks to contribute to a greater dialogue between Adlerian and constructivist psychotherapies by discussing (a) the many similarities between Adlerian and constructivist camps in terms of philosophical, theoretical, and practical considerations, (b) some unique features of individual psychology that may augment specific approaches in constructivist psychotherapy, (c) some of the unique features of constructivism that Adlerians may find enriching to their approach, and, (d) how this integrative dialogue may relate to the contemporary context of theoretical integration.