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Towards a Definition and Methodology for Blended Learning

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Abstract

Blended learning is known roughly as combining the traditional instructor-led classroom learning and technology-based e- learning. Although there have been attempts to define the term blended learning, and to understand how to make blended learning work best, considerable further research and experimentation are needed. This paper offers a precise definition of blended learning and blended learning program, and proposes a methodology for making blended learning work best.

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... Whereas, traditional learning that students participate in the classroom and book reading are still major modalities of learning and has its unrivaled advantages. Researchers [2] [3] report that besides the aspect of the difference in knowledge transmitting methods, the traditional learning is more important for its cultural effect on the learners. Students learning at school or in the campus form tighter social relationship with each other. ...
... It has been proven to be an effective and pervasive mean of learning for years. Besides conveying the knowledge to the students, traditional learning has a cultural effect more importantly: people interact and learn from one another [2] and students have full opportunities to communicate with the instructor and other students , forming strong relationship with others [3]. Additionally, traditional learning still uses real-paper textbook for students. ...
... Cultural benefits are great, whereas teaching thousands of students consumes larger classrooms (reducing effectiveness greatly) and lots of travel (very expensive). The second challenge of traditional learning is lack of equipments in the classroom that sometimes makes the instructor difficult to teacher certain topics effectively [3]. Moreover, because of the limitation of the classroom and the paper-based textbook, the teaching is of less fidelity than multimedia-based e-learning to a certain extent. ...
Conference Paper
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Nowadays Internet-based multimedia learning has been entered into our daily life over various end user devices including mobile phone. Whereas, participating in the classroom and book reading are still major modalities of learning. Pervasive computing technologies will accelerate the progress and help to build a more convenient learning environment for learners. Smart Space technologies can augment real classroom to help teachers and students having class with the support of natural tangible UIs and context aware aids where teaching is still in a similar fashion with what happens in traditional classroom. Books can also be fabricated with bits for browsing multimedia learning materials. Bits from cyberspace and atoms from real world will be more and more blended into each other. And learning will be pervasive and blended which is beyond today's e-learning.
... Blended learning may be defined as a combination of classroom learning and e-Learning (Won, K., 2007). There have been also several earlier attempts to define blended learning (Bersin &Associates, 2003, Wikipedia, Oliver, M. andTrigwell, K., 2005). ...
... Implementation of blended learning may not be seen as a simple injection of e-Learning elements into a traditional course. (Won, K., 2007) describes a methodology for created blended learning that should include elements such as: ...
... 1. Introduction [1] provides rigorous definitions of hybrid learning and hybrid learning programs, and shed light on the many possible types of hybrid learning. Further, it outlines a methodology for creating and managing hybrid learning programs. ...
... The profile of the learners includes the knowledge prerequisites for taking the program. 2. The objective of the program may be a combination of increased learning effectiveness for the learners; and any combination of revenue generation, cost savings, space (classroom) savings, reduced congestion on or near the campus, relief in parking space, etc. for the organizations that create and/or manage the program [1]. The strategy is the strategic means of achieving the objectives. ...
Conference Paper
A hybrid learning program is a mixture of traditional in-class learning components and e-learning components. A learning program may be a single course or an entire curriculum. A learning program and courseware must be designed to help learners learn. As such, a hybrid learning program is a rather complex artifact. Commercial software is in general a very complex artifact that has a clearly defined lifecycle for planning, development, deployment, maintenance & upgrade, and termination. Although learning programs and courseware are not nearly as complex as commercial software, adapting the lifecycle process for the creation and managing of commercial software to hybrid learning programs and courseware should make it possible for the learning program managers and courseware developers to take a holistic and disciplined approach to the creation and management of hybrid learning programs and courseware. This paper proposes a lifecycle process for hybrid learning programs and e-learning courseware.
... " …the use of different internet-based tools including chat rooms, discussion groups, podcast and selfassessment tools to support a traditional course " [1]. " …a combination of two or more of all possible formal and informal learning types, " including both face-to-face and online instructions [11]. " Blending involves a planned combination of approaches, such as coaching by a supervisor; participation in an online class; breakfast with colleagues; competency descriptions; reading on the beach; reference to a manual; collegial relationships; and participation in seminars, workshops, and online communities " [17]. ...
... " Blended learning addresses many of the shortcomings of traditional physical classroom or pure e-learning courseware models by combing self-paced, collaborative, and human mentoring approaches, which lead to higher learning completion rates " [19]. Although many definitions of " blended learning " share the same criteria, there are some differences in the emphasis given to student involvement, use of multimedia, synchronicity, and learning environment [1][11][17] [19][21]. In sum, the main objective of BL is to enhance the learning outcome by combining two kinds of learning environments, one associated with online learning and the other conventional teacher-led classroom learning. ...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to study one application of blended learning in a large, multinational organization. The focus is on understanding what blended learning means in the context of workplace learning, what advantages and disadvantages can be identified and, based on empirical findings, to discuss how courses are set up with the objective of enhancing learning outcome through a combination of social interaction and individual learning at the same time taking into consideration critical factors such as cultural diversity. A sociocultural perspective guides our analysis, in particular Vygotsky's notions of "duality of learning" and "zone of proximal development." The sociocultural perspective helped us to choose one interpretation of blended learning among the multiple approaches available.
... People need to learn every now and then to enrich their experience and to add new skills to the shelf of their knowledge. In terms of academic leaning, Won Kim (2007) thinks that traditional learning can be divided into "classroom-based or virtual-based, formal or informal and scheduled or self-paced". Also, Rossett, Douglis and Frazee (2003) classify it into "technology-based or people based, independent or dependent and directive or discovery oriented". ...
... This type of learning has a cultural effect because students are able to interact and learn from one another. Also the relationship between the students and the teacher is very strong [12]. But lack of efficient classroom equipments, accessibility of the location, and the limitation of class rooms are the major disadvantages of traditional method. ...
Article
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The need for usage of technologies which removes the boundaries of time and location increases day by day today when information and accession to information gains importance. Effect of mobile learning to education is an issue to be researched in order to provide lifelong learning. Learning through mobile devices has enhanced a lot with the advent of pervasive computing technologies. The mobility of the individual increases the capabilities of the individuals to adapt to new learning environments. This paper the first introduce mobile learning methods then has been studied pervasive computing in learning .Finally check the importance and usage of pervasive approach in mobile learning and mention limitations of pervasive mobile learning.
... It is possible to state that the level of integration of these typical learning methods will increase in future with the advancement of learning technologies. Kim (2007) describes blended learning as -a combination of two or more of all possible learning types‖ and he proceeds in his study with the following: ...
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The goal of every passionate educator is to ensure that his or her students adopt a deep learning approach to the material being taught so that they can apply these concepts in their lives beyond the classroom. This is particularly true for entrepreneurship students who are expected to establish their own businesses after graduating from university. In order to achieve this very important objective, it is vital that the educator does everything in his or her power to ensure that the students‘ learning experiences are made as enjoyable and as memorable as possible. This paper presents the achievement of this objective amongst a group of entrepreneurship students in Nigeria through the introduction of a team learning competition concept in an Organizational Behaviour course over two years. Students were required to form same-gender groups of five and establish companies. Each group was then required to make thirty-minute oral presentations explaining their company‘s organizational culture and the strategies adopted to ensure that the culture permeated every aspect of the business. The team with the best presentation was awarded a monetary prize at the end of the semester. Observations of the students‘ behaviours before, during and after the presentations revealed that the students‘ engagement in the course was exponentially enhanced as evidenced by their unbridled enthusiasm and creative approaches to the presentations. It is recommended that entrepreneurship and business educators adopt a similar approach so as to elevate the students‘ learning experiences, and make the university career a fun, memorable and effective one as opposed to the current tortuous grind that it is now, particularly from a Nigerian context.
... Bilgi ve iletiĢim teknolojilerindeki, özellikle internet teknolojisi, son yıllardaki hızlı geliĢmeler toplumun günlük yaĢamının neredeyse her alanında değiĢiklikler meydana getirmiĢtir. DeğiĢimlerin yaĢandığı alanlardan birisi de eğitimdir (Nam & Smith-Jackson 2007;Kim 2007). Teknolojik geliĢmelerin çok hızlı yaĢandığı ve eğitime yansımalarının olduğu günümüzde eğitimde teknoloji kullanımıyla ilgili olarak öğretmenlere mesleki geliĢimleri konusunda destek * Bilim Uzmanı, Gazi Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, BÖTE Bölümü, e-Posta: hatyil05@gmail.com ...
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Organization of in-service training activities for teachers' professional development will contribute to teachers' adaptation to changes, new duties and efficiency. For, well-qualified teachers and educational activities require continuous support for professional development (in consideration of lifelong learning philosophy). It could be argued that the provided support should be assessed in terms of certain standards so that the flaws in the system can be determined. The present study aims to evaluate the contributions of in-service training delivered within the scope of FATIH project to teachers' professional development in terms of ISTE teacher standards. In this respect, some analyses were made concerning the practices in secondary level educational institutions where FATIH project was administered. To this end, 40 teachers from 8 schools where in-service training was delivered within the scope of FATIH project were given "FATIH Project In-service Training Activities: Teacher Opinions" questionnaire. Data collected by means of this questionnaire were compared with that of ISTE teacher standards and interpreted in terms of teachers' professional development levels.
... In the literature the terms " e-learning " and " blended learning are variously defined. For example Kim [1] stresses that elearning is pure virtual class-based learning, without the need for students and lecturers to be present (p. 3). ...
Conference Paper
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The department of e-learning at the Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt – Wien – Graz (AAU) offers lecturers the possibility to get support from qualified e-tutors for the successful implementation of e-learning and blended learning elements in their courses. The aim of the ‘mission e-tutor’ is that they train lecturers to get used to the learning management system “Moodle” and to find tailor-made e-learning and blended concepts that support their courses and didactical conceptions in a sustainable way. Over a period of three years (starting in the summer semester 2009), a total of 41 e-tutors evaluated courses that received elearning assistance and we received data from 364 lectures that implemented blended learning strategies. Therefore, the current paper provides a first glance at the research results and enables us to start to consider the evaluation of e-tutors blended learning courses at the AAU.
... Approach definition physical class-based type and the other one must be e-learning type [101]. ...
... This type of learning has a cultural effect because students are able to interact and learn from one another. Also the relationship between the students and the teacher is very strong [14]. But lack of efficient classroom equipments, accessibility of the location, and the limitation of class rooms are the major disadvantages of traditional method. ...
Article
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Today the growth of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has completely reshaped the area of education. Even though the traditional form of education exists today, there is a fast expansion of web based learning. It facilitates the learners to access the learning sources from anywhere, at any time. Web based learning environments includes e-learning, mobile learning and pervasive learning. Mobile learning is the union of mobile computing technologies and e-learning. This type of learning environment enables the learners to access the learning materials from anywhere at any time. Pervasive computing, also named as ubiquitous computing is a rapidly developing area of ICT. The term refers to the integration of ICT into people's lives and environments. It enables authorized access to anytime-anywhere-any device-any network-any data. Devices used in mobile learning cannot obtain the context of learners. Pervasive mobile learning is learning enhanced with intelligent environment and context awareness. While the learner is moving with his/her mobile device, the system dynamically supports his/her learning by communicating with the embedded devices in the environment. So by the integration of pervasive computing and mobile learning technologies, users are enriched with a great learning experience. This paper study about how mobile learning technologies can utilize the technology of pervasive computing so that the learning process can be made very efficient and productive. The integration of mobile learning with pervasive computing may offer great innovations in the delivery of education in the coming years.
... There are various potential objectives for implementing an elearning program, as suggested by [15]: ...
... Procter (2003) points out that blended learning is an effective integration of various modes of delivery, teaching models and learning styles. Kim (2007) defines it as "combining the traditional instructor-led classroom learning and technology-based e-learning "(p.1). He also proposed a methodology to make blended learning more efficient. ...
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the effect of instructional techniques (blended learning, jigsaw, and scaffolding) on Iranian EFL learners' self-regulation and critical thinking. To this end, 171 male and female intermediate-level Iranian EFL learners were selected based on cluster sampling. Initially, the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP) was administered to the participants to make sure that there were no significant differences among the participants in terms of their language proficiency level. The participants were in five groups; each group was randomly assigned to a different treatment condition. Two questionnaires were used twice in this study, at the beginning of the course as a pretest and at the end of the course as a posttest. The ANCOVA (Analysis of Covariance) procedure was used to analyze the obtained data. The results indicated that these techniques have more or less the same effect on learners' self-regulation both in conventional and computer-based contexts. It was also found that the conventional scaffolding technique is significantly more effective on critical thinking than the conventional jigsaw and the blended learning groups. However, in the computer-based context, blended learning turned out to be more effective on critical thinking than computer-based jigsaw, which was, in turn, significantly more effective than computer-based scaffolding. These findings may have pedagogical and theoretical implications for language learners, teachers, educational systems and policy makers.
... Converged delivery is difficult to define as many other terms in educational literature describe the concept or parts of the concept for example; Blended learning 12,13,14 , Blended online learning 15 In 2010/2011, the university, using an action based research framework, conducted the 'Converged Delivery Project' this unit was selected as one of the 39 pilot units to be redeveloped within this framework 23 . Since this point in time, additional learning resources have been added to the unit to compliment the work completed. ...
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This paper focuses on the use of technology, assessment strategy, rubrics and a proactive approach to enhance student engagement. This strategy, encourages students to join in discussions with their peers (regardless of locations), in an attempt to break the sense of “isolation” suffered by distance learning students. This approach meets the definition of converged delivery in that it allows all students, regardless of mode of enrolment, the flexibility to study in a manner that balances with their other life commitments. The paper presents a case study of an undergraduate information technology unit, which has undergone continuous improvement over a five-year period.
... In the traditional classroom, attention is centered on the teacher who has various tools and equipment on hand (sometimes enabled with Internet access) to aid in teaching. In this model, the learning process is reinforced by the students' interaction with each other and with their teacher [13]. ...
Conference Paper
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The 21st century has seen some emergence new and innovative learning trends. Among these; P-Learning (Pervasive Learning) is becoming a dominant learning method due to handheld devices’ price reduction, technological support and smartness of smartphone technology. Learners are now no more limited by time or place – they can learn whenever and wherever they are. Thus, P-learning has the potential to take learning beyond the limits of the traditional educational setup. This paper presents the idea of P-learning which is not limited to a single geographic location or mobile or location based technologies; rather, it facilitates learning from anywhere and at any time with any handheld device means 24*7. The purpose of this paper is to propose how this digital learning paradigm helps physically disabled, geographically scattered, learners through recorded or live audio / video lectures without physically attending academic classes.
... Bu gelişim ve dönüşümler toplumun günlük yaşamı üzerinde birçok önemli etkiler oluşturmakla birlikte yaşamın tüm alanlarını etkilemektedir. Üretim, hizmet, ticaret, eğlence, öğrenme ve yönetim biçimlerinde çok önemli değişimler yaşanmaktadır (Kim, 2007;Akgül, 2008 (Meb, 2012). FATİH Projesi ile öğrenme faaliyetleri sadece sınıf ortamında kalmayıp çevrimiçi ortamlara da taşınacaktır. ...
Article
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The aim of this research is to analyze effect of blended learning environment on secondary (middle) school student's motivation and attitude in social studies class. Pretest-posttest control group quasi experimental design was utilized in this study. The study was conducted with 52 students in experimental group and 55 students in control group studying in grade 7. According to the study’s findings, the increse of the attitudes towards the course in blended learning environment group was significantly larger than the increase observed within face-to-face group. In addition, the blended learning approach was found to have "medium" effect size on students' attitudes towards the course (d= .66, η2= 0.1). No meaningful statistical differences were detected for students’ motivation between blended learning and face-to-face learning environment. However, in blended learning approach, average development of student motivation toward the course showed a meaningful rise when compared to face-to-face learning approach. At the same time blended learning environments have a medium level effect size on students develop of motivation toward the course (d= .51, η2= .08).
... In recent years, the rapid development of information and communication technology has facilitated a convergence between face-to-face and technology-mediated learning environments. Won Kim (2007) has defined a variety of learning methods as follows. ...
Article
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Blended learning combines multiple delivery media that are designed to complement each other and promote learning and application-learned behavior (Smith&Dillon, 1999). This article re-ports on a study conducted in the College of Information Technology to evaluate levels of stu-dent' satisfaction with blended learning. The particular blend of learning modalities used at the college combines an equal balance of traditional face-to-face and videoconference learning, com-plemented with the use of a learning management system (Moodle). Recently, discussions of blended learning have begun to examine the benefits derived from learn-ing situations characterized by face-to-face education and mixed modalities of instruction. Re-gardless of comparisons made by researchers and developers, those studying blended learning have agreed that student satisfaction is a baseline requirement for successful implementation. Student satisfaction is considered an important factor in measuring the quality of blended learn-ing. It results from a combination of factors. In this study a model is proposed by the aggregation of these factors into five groups: instructor, technology, class management, interaction, and in-struction. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an instrument that can be used to measure perceived student satisfaction with blended learning and explore whether satisfaction differs according to gender. The results indicate that the Student Satisfaction Survey Forms (SSSF) used were a valid measure of student satisfaction. They also show that students were sat-isfied with all components, although the level of satisfaction varied according to gender.
... One of the areas that has been highly affected by ICT is education. Technological advances and wide availability of personal computers, Compact Disks (CDs), the web, broadband access to the Internet, etc, have been used as supporting tools in e-Learning [19]. E-Learning is the use of ICT for supporting learning processes. ...
Conference Paper
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E-Learning plays an important role in our society today; hence, higher institutions now offer courses through distance learning. Several studies and methodologies towards improving e-Learning have been proposed and provided. However, not too many works are dedicated to the design and implementation of e-Learning for the visually impaired learners. Sight challenge is a serious form of disability, yet, the existing e-Learning platform (web, mobile, etc) have not devoted enough attention to the plight of the visually impaired particularly in the area of usability. The objective of this paper is to present an intelligent speech-based e-Learning system with dual interface – Voice User Interface (VUI) and Web User Interface (WUI). Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) was engaged to provide intelligent services. Voice Extensible Markup Language (VoiceXML) was used to develop the VUI, Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) for the WUI and Apache as the middle ware. The VUI and WUI are accessed through mobile phone by dialing a telephone number and the WUI using the Internet respectively. The e-Learning system will especially be useful for students who are visually impaired and those with dyslexia ailment that make reading, writing and spelling difficult. The application will complement the existing e-Learning systems such as web-based learning, m-Learning and others.
... In fact, technology is used in almost all everyday tasks (Muir-Herzig, 2004). The reflections of the intensive use of information technologies have made it necessary to make certain changes in the use of technology in education (Nam & Smith-Jackson 2007;Kim 2007). This process of change in the use of technology in education is carried out by the Ministry of National Education [MoNE] within the scope of the FATİH project. ...
Article
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This study aims to investigate the effect of technology use in education on classroom management within the scope of the FATİH project, which is a technology integration project. The present study utilizes the descriptive mixed method which involves both qualitative and quantitative methods. “The personal information survey”, “The Effects of Technology Use on Classroom Management Scale” and “the semi-structured interview form” were developed by the researchers for data collection. The scale development study and preliminary applications were carried out before the actual application. The application was conducted in schools which actually used interactive board, tablet computer and software technologies within the framework of the FATİH Project. The study group was made up of 52 teachers serving in various provinces on the secondary education level. The content analysis method was used for analysis of the data obtained using the semi-structured interview form. Quantitative data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis H techniques on SPSS 18.0. According to the results obtained in the study, the average scores of intra-classroom relationship and behavior management sub-scale proportional to item count were higher compared to other sub-scales. Average scores obtained from the management of the classroom order and teaching sub-dimension were the lowest. The effect level of technology use by teachers in the classroom on classroom management was moderate. No statistically significant difference was found in terms of effect levels of technology use by teachers in the classroom on classroom management, except for the variable of daily internet use. Considering the results obtained from qualitative data, the perception that interactive board use in the classroom had positive effects on classroom management stood out. It can be said that this perception resulted from use of interactive board as a presentation tool during classes. In contrast, the teachers stated that tablet computer use in the classroom led to time management issues, negative student behaviors and certain interruptions during the class due to access problems.
... In fact, technology is used in almost all everyday tasks (Muir-Herzig, 2004). The reflections of the intensive use of information technologies have made it necessary to make certain changes in the use of technology in education (Nam & Smith-Jackson 2007;Kim 2007). This process of change in the use of technology in education is carried out by the Ministry of National Education [MoNE] within the scope of the FATİH project. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to investigate the effect of technology use in education on classroom management within the scope of the FATİH project, which is a technology integration project. The present study utilizes the descriptive mixed method which involves both qualitative and quantitative methods. "The personal information survey", "The Effects of Technology Use on Classroom Management Scale" and "the semi-structured interview form" were developed by the researchers for data collection. The scale development study and preliminary applications were carried out before the actual application. The application was conducted in schools which actually used interactive board, tablet computer and software technologies within the framework of the FATİH Project. The study group was made up of 52 teachers serving in various provinces on the secondary education level. The content analysis method was used for analysis of the data obtained using the semi-structured interview form. Quantitative data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis H techniques on SPSS 18.0. According to the results obtained in the study, the average scores of intra-classroom relationship and behavior management sub-scale proportional to item count were higher compared to other sub-scales. Average scores obtained from the management of the classroom order and teaching sub-dimension were the lowest. The effect level of technology use by teachers in the classroom on classroom management was moderate. No statistically significant difference was found in terms of effect levels of technology use by teachers in the classroom on classroom management, except for the variable of daily internet use. Considering the results obtained from qualitative data, the perception that interactive board use in the classroom had positive effects on classroom management stood out. It can be said that this perception resulted from use of interactive board as a presentation tool during classes. In contrast, the teachers stated that tablet computer use in the classroom led to time management issues, negative student behaviors and certain interruptions during the class due to access problems.
... Although there is no one fixed and integrated way that can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of elearning [52], a general convergence on the main efficiency-oriented benefits characterizing e-learning exists. Among these, there are time and cost savings in completing the course activities; a higher time and space flexibility due to the possibility to combine education with other activities and work; a higher number of students can be involved into a program, having fewer time and place constraints; fastest and personalized learning support through email, chat and videoconferencing; a lower cost in course production due to a higher reuse of digital material; a better management of students' workload, thanks to a more flexible time management and collaborations [10,12,43,53,54,55]. ...
Article
Blended Learning (BL) is considered a promising pedagogical approach. Some researches demonstrated that students’ satisfaction is higher for BL courses compared to completely online or face-to-face (F2F) courses. Moreover, the explosion of web 2.0 tools and the success of the ‘‘read-write Web’’ are reconfiguring the individual and collaborative blended learning processes. Based on this assumption, this paper investigates the effectiveness of web 2.0 BL for the design and delivery of a pilot course on e-business topics. Two experimentation have been organized involving undergraduates engineering students of the University of Jordan. According to the obtained results assessing students’ reaction, learning and behavior, the BL model proposed in the article revealed more effective than traditional F2F learning. A survey conducted at the end of the course also showed that students were satisfied with the pedagogical approach, and their academic achievements were also significantly improved. Findings demonstrate that successful BL programs require innovative curriculum design strategy based on new principles such as: a) the involvement of heterogeneous stakeholders in the course’s design phase; b) the focus on competence development rather than on knowledge transfer; c) the choice of team work as an additional component to evaluate individual students’ performances; d) presence of remote and F2F interactions among peers and between teachers and students; e) the usage of web 2.0 tools as enablers of collaborative learning processes and social networking; f) continuous tutoring both for content and technological issues. These findings can help engineering colleges and universities to design and offer more effective learning courses
... But merely injecting some elements of e-learning doesn't classify an education as blended education. The blended education must have some objectives to achieve through blended learning, issues faced and remedies for it and finally measuring the effectiveness(Kim, 2007).Distance education programme for primary teachers (D.El.Ed) itself is a deviant from formal teacher education programme but here an effort was made to combine the traditional learning with online learning by promoting classroom learning through PCP and workshops and providing instructions and contents for learning through the internet. This effort was further taken ahead by the participants of the two study centers with the use of K-Yan which created an environment of cloud-based learning within the traditional step-up of class. ...
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To provide quality education to the mass number of untrained primary and upper primary teachers, diploma in elementary education through distance mode was started in India. Adapting the blended learning approach, face to face practical sessions were organized for the trainees. For the training mainly K-Yan was used, it is a modern tool of educational technology that also incorporates the elements of information and communication technology. A qualitative study was done to go through the experiences of the trainers with K-Yan for revealing the usefulness of K-Yan in transforming the traditional system of education into the modern blended system of education.
... Blended learning is one of the leading trends in the modern era of education. Blended learning combines e-learning with traditional classroom learning to ensure maximum effectiveness (Bersin and Associates 2003;Dziuban et al. 2004;Graham 2006;Kim 2007;Ahmad 2010;Sharma 2017). In this context, the term e-learning refers to learning outside the traditional classroom using information technology for the delivery of the learning materials. ...
Article
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Blended learning is one of the leading trends in education. Blended learning combines computer-assisted learning with traditional classroom learning. The literature shows that the blended learning often helps the students to achieve better learning outcome. However, a majority of the existing learning platforms do not focus on the problems of weak students. Here our objective is to develop a computer-assisted learning platform that focuses on performance improvement of weak students and study the efficacy of the system. This paper presents the proposed system, RemedialTutor, that assists the weak students in effective preparation for an examination. The learning platform performs several tasks on demand; for example, providing the meaning of unknown words, sentence simplification, identification of questionable sentences, extraction of summarized content on a specific topic, preparation of question paper and automatic evaluation, identification of less confident sections, etc. To study the effectiveness of the proposed system, it is tested using a blended learning framework. The system is provided to the students as a supplement to the traditional classroom activities and resources. During the comparative study, the experiment group students used this system during their exam preparation but the control group students relied only on their regular resources. It is found that the experiment group students perform better than the control group. The t-value is 2.3466 and p-value is 0.0243. These values indicate that the difference is statistically significant.
... After the problem analysis, the use of technology was recommended to aid face-toface learning and also help in the class administration. This led to consider blended learning approach (Colis & Moonen 2001, see further discussion Kim 2007) which is used to describe learning that mixes event-based activities, including face-to-face classrooms, live e-learning, and self-paced learning. Research on how to incorporate technology was carried out and technology use was initiated to add to face-to-face learning methodology in the second semester. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper highlights the essential matters in adopting technology as an aid to delivering education in higher education institutes in Africa. The key idea of the paper is how to use open source software for teaching and hence for improving interactivity between content, teachers and students i.e. how a well-selected open source software can foster learning processes. The paper also includes a case study in a Mozambican University to reveal a practical example on how technology has been used as an aid to education delivery. Availability of computer infrastructure, computer literacy, competent information technology staff, leadership support and collaboration and sharing culture are some of the identified issues important in using learning management systems (LMS) in African higher education institutes. The paper concludes by noting the need to fit the local environment and circumstances in adopting the use of technology in Africa.
... According to the Oxford dictionary, blended learning (BL) defined as a formal education program which a student learns at least in part through content delivery and instruction via digital and online media with some elements of student control over time, place, pace or path. In a book of "Towards a Definition and Methodology for Blended Learning"; BL is a term gradually used to describe the way of e-learning that combines with traditional instructor-led classroom learning method and technologybased e-learning method to create a new hybrid teaching methodology [10]. BL provides multiple learning strategies that makes learning easier and tends to leverage the student interest [11]. ...
Chapter
In this paper, the study of Blended Learning (BL) for Calculus Course is proposed. Based on the observation, most of first year students of Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) that have taken calculus course failed due to unsuitable learning approach. The traditional classroom learning used for teaching makes students misunderstand the concept and lack of enthusiasm in learning calculus course, since their first impression is to consider the calculus a difficult course in university and college. In order to overcome the problem, three objectives were proposed in this project, which are to identify the suitable media for BL in calculus using quantitative method, to develop the web-based system, namely as WebBLoC, based on selected media using calculus syllabus and finally to evaluate the developed system. For the development, the Waterfall model is used as a system development method to study the BL system. In general, this project expected to decrease the number of students failed in calculus and provide them more understanding the concepts and formulas of calculus by using the developed BL system (WebBLoC).
... Today, eLearning becomes heavily learner-centred, emphasizing pervasive and personalized learning technologies [3]. As both the traditional classroom learning and web-based learning offer strengths and suffer from limitations, it is now a trend for eLearning systems to combine the strengths of the two into blended learning [4]. ...
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This work in progress paper describes collaborative research, taking place on three continents, towards creating a 'mixed reality teaching & learning environment' (MiRTLE) that enables teachers and students participating in real-time mixed and online classes to interact with avatar representations of each other. The longer term hypothesis that will be investigated is that avatar representations of teachers and students will help create a sense of shared presence, engendering a sense of community and improving student engagement in online lessons. This paper explores the technology that will underpin such systems by presenting work on the use of a massively multi-user game server, based on Sun's Project Darkstar and Project Wonderland tools, to create a shared teaching environment, illustrating the process by describing the creation of a virtual classroom. We describe the Shanghai NEC eLearning system that will form the platform for the deployment of this work. As these systems will take on an increasingly global reach, we discuss how cross cultural issues will effect such systems. We conclude by outlining our future plans to test our hypothesis by deploying this technology on a live system with some 15,000 online users.
... Blended Learning (BL) can be defined as a combination of traditional teaching methods with the application of technology for education [9]. Some benefits reported are a higher number of students, less costs, better logistics, and higher learning efficacy [15][16][17]. ...
... Pembelajaran bauran (blended learning) adalah model pembelajaran yang dikembangkan dari keterbatasan pembelajaran kelas konvensional. Pengembangan pembelajaran elektronik (e-learning) dan kurang efektifnya pembelajaran di ruang kelas menyebabkan dikembangkannya suatu model pembelajaran gabungan yang istilahnya bisa disebut sebagai model pembelajaran bauran (blended learning) (Kim, 2007). Pembelajaran bauran bukan hanya suatu irisan tapi penggabungan antara pembelajaran tatap muka dan pembelajran daring (Watson, 2008). ...
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p>This study aims to determine whether distance learning can effectively be implemented. This study compares the blended model of distance learning to traditional learning. The comparison is related to students’ learning outcomes and their perceptions of the two different learning models. This research is a quantitative study using a quasi-experimental research design with a time-series model. The population of this research was all fourth semester students who took digital electronics courses. Data collection was carried out in two ways: first, by using several tests to gather data on learning outcomes and, second, by giving questionnaires to determine student perceptions. Data analysis was performed using the t test for paired (dependent) samples. This study revealed that there were statistical differences between blended learning and traditional learning (p < 0.05). This result also showed that the blended model of distance learning was more effective than traditional learning. BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRACT: Penelitian ini adalah bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah pembelajaran jarak jauh efektif untuk diterapkan. Penelitian ini membandingkan antara pembelajaran jarak jauh model bauran dengan pembelajaran tradisional. Yang dibandingkan adalah hasil belajar mahasiswa dan persepsi mereka pada kedua pembelajaran ini. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kuantitatif yang menggunakan desain penelitian quasi-eksperimen model time-series . Populasi penelitian ini adalah semua mahasiswa semester 4 yang mengikuti perkuliahan mata kuliah Elektronika Digital. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan dua cara yaitu dengan beberapa tes untuk data hasil belajar dan kuesioner untuk data persepsi mahasiswa. Analisa data dibuat dengan menggunakan uji t untuk sampel berpasangan (tak bebas). Hasil analisis uji t dan perbandingan mean diperoleh bahwa terdapat perbedaan pada kedua sampel rata-rata yang diuji dan pembelajaran jarak jauh model bauran memiliki rata-rata yang lebih tinggi dari pembelajaran tradisional (P<0.05). Hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran jarak jauh model bauran adalah lebih efektif dari pembelajaran tradisional.</p
... Time is spent in collaborative experiences, active learning, open dialogue, critical debate, and feedback of their learning with their colleagues and tutor. In F2F session, since the focus of the entire duration is to disseminate the educational content to the students, there is usually significantly less time dedicated to interactive collaboration as compared to that observed in BL. 30 On the other hand, educational content delivered entirely through online sources has been shown to reduce student engagement and motivation. Students require interaction with their tutors and peers to develop deeper understanding of educational content, improved motivation, and better engagement. ...
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Objectives Blended learning (BL) combines conventional face to face (F2F) sessions with online educational resources. This method includes the advantages of online course delivery without the omission of conventional F2F interaction. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate students' satisfaction and educational outcomes in a BL course compared to traditionally administered dental anatomy course. Methods A prospective non‐randomized study was conducted to compare the outcomes and perception of BL for teaching dental anatomy to dental students. First year dental anatomy students (n = 98) were included (48 in the conventional F2F learning and 50 in the BL group). Multiple choice questions were used to assess the achievement of learning outcomes and the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) to determine the educational environment during the course. Results There was no significant difference in the pre‐test scores of both groups; however the mean post‐test score for the BL group (31.5 ± 4.5) was significantly higher than the F2F group (27.2 ± 4.9). The post‐test scores were comparable across both genders in the BL group while females secured significantly higher scores than males in the F2F group. The DREEM scores were also significantly higher in the BL group (147.3 ± 15.5) than the F2F group (134.5 ± 15.1) (p < 0.002). A similar pattern was observed in DREEM subscales. Conclusions The BL course is associated with improved students’ satisfaction and learner achievement compared to a conventionally administered dental anatomy course. In addition, BL enhanced students’ accessibility, self‐assessment, and higher level of engagement compared to F2F delivery of the course.
... Today, eLearning becomes heavily learner-centered, emphasizing pervasive and personalized learning technologies [13]. As both the traditional classroom learning and web-based learning offer strengths and suffer from limitations, it is now a trend for e-Leanring systems to combine the strengths of the two into hybrid learning [5]. ...
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The rapid evolution of Information and Communication Technologies has led to new ways of learning and education. In Shanghai, researchers and developers of an online college actively seek technological interventions to provide first-class e-learning services for about 17,000 enrolled students. They developed a cutting-edge pervasive learning platform that provide “always on” education. It aims to support “Learning Anytime, Anywhere”, which is accomplished through extending the real classrooms and also supporting web-based self-paced learning. The platform is composed of three components: a) distributed Standard Natural Classrooms, the smart spaces to provide natural interaction for teachers and students; b) large-scale media streaming for multi-mode terminals delivering fully interactive lectures to PCs and mobile devices; c) dynamic and personalized web-based learning systems. Multi-modal interactions are supported that students learning on this platform change from passive learners to truly engaged learners who are behaviorally, intellectually, and emotionally involved in their learning activities.
... It was found that the experimental group reported a significant improvement in their motivation and achievement with the use of a BL model. Kintu et al. ( 2017a) used multiple regression analysis to exhibit the interdependence Significant content delivered online with a reduced US higher education Allen and number of face-to-face meetings Seaman (2010) 7 A combination of two or more of all possible Overall Kim (2007) learning types with at least one of the learning teaching-learning types must be a physical class-based type and at least one other learning type must be e-learning type 8 ...
... In the first instance it seems like going back to a traditional mode of face-to-face classroom delivery solves some of these problems. Hence one solution might be the popular concept of blended learning [6], whereby face-to-face delivery mixed with online solutions have been shown to improve learning outcomes [7]. However, this paper proposes an alternative solution, and that is the use of MMOG design concepts to improve these aspects, and possibly even increase the value proposition beyond these problems. ...
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Much hype has been centered on MOOCs, or Massive Online Open Courses, in higher education recently. They possess the noble aim of bringing top quality education to the masses, often for free, but suffer from several drawbacks that include student motivation and a lack of team-based activities. Other than to alleviate some of these shortcomings, the main goal of this paper is to explore what the design of Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) can offer for the design of MOOCs. A review of MOOCs is first presented, followed by a dissection of the general structure of MOOCs with a formal game perspective. A comparative analysis with MMOGs is then provided which finally leads to a set of design guidelines for creating more engaging MOOCs.
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Students tend to procrastinate. In particular, Computer Science students tend to reduce the number of hours devoted to study concepts after class. In this paper, a case study on the use of Blended Learning to encourage Computer Science students to study is described. Furthermore, an experiment in which the reaction of 131 Computer Science university students to the proposal is analyzed. The material for the preparation of an exam was produced both in electronic and paper formats. 64 students were asked to study using a free-text scoring system, and 67 students were asked to study with printed documentation in the same class. The students’ reactions, the results of a pre-post-test and the answers to a voluntary and anonymous satisfaction questionnaire were registered. After that, students were given the option to keep studying with the scoring system or with the printed documentation. 99% of the students chose to study with the computer, and a higher frequency of study was registered during the previous month to the exam. KeywordsBlended learning–Computer science–Conceptual study–Automated essay grading
Conference Paper
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The communication is needed anywhere and anytime between students and teachers in the hybrid learning of physical education practice. The architecture of FPEHLP is presented to create an environment in our practice, where the hybrid learning of PE can be accomplished through mix-lightweight communication tools. The core components of FPEHLP are Smart Deliverer and Dynamic Learning Space. The Smart Deliver is to integrate the heterogeneous learning resources of different education platforms. The Dynamic Learning Space is composed with Video-editor and IM Adaptor to realize the visibly and flexibility intercourse in the hybrid learning of PE practice. Adopting IM Adaptor, the student and teacher can communicate with each other anytime and anywhere through the lightweight communication tools, such as QQ, MSN, Fetion and so on. The results of experiment show the number of students of experiment group who like physical exercise is 21.6% higher than ones in contracted group. And 87.5% of students in the experiment group think the FPEHLP can afford their physical exercise.
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This chapter presents a case study of the use of virtual world environment in UK Higher Education. It reports on the activities carried out as part of the SIMiLLE (System for an Immersive and Mixed reality Language Learning) project to create a culturally sensitive virtual world to support language learning (funded by the UK government JISC program). The SIMiLLE project built on an earlier project called MiRTLE, which created a mixed-reality space for teaching and learning. The aim of the SIMiLLE project was to investigate the technical feasibility and pedagogical value of using virtual environments to provide a realistic socio-cultural setting for language learning interaction. The chapter begins by providing some background information on the Wonderland platform and the MiRTLE project, and then outlines the requirements for SIMiLLE, and how these requirements were supported through the use of a virtual world based on the Open Wonderland virtual world platform. The chapter then presents the framework used for the evaluation of the system, with a particular focus on the importance of incorporating pedagogy into the design of these systems, and how to support good practice with the ever-growing use of 3D virtual environments in formalized education. Finally, the results from the formative and summative evaluations are summarized, and the lessons learnt are presented, which can help inform future uses of immersive education spaces within Higher Education.
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The training of motor skills is a crucial aspect of medical education today. Serious games and haptic virtual simulations have been used in the training of surgical procedures. Otherwise, however, a combination of serious games and motor skills training is rarely used in medical education. This article presents Skills-O-Mat, an interactive serious game for training rhythmic and period motor skills. In its first application the game supports dental students being trained in alginate mixing in a blended learning course. Designed as reusable component, the game follows an effective learning design and uses constant immediate feedback to support students' learning. The effectiveness of the use of the game in learning was compared to learning in a traditional workshop using a randomized controlled trial (N = 30 test group, N = 25 control group). Participants of the evaluation were dental students aged 20 to 23 years in the 2nd year of study (40% male, 60% female; 46.7% with no experience, 50% had little experience in mixing alginate). An analysis of the results of the evaluation gives indications of the positive learning effect of the game. The game was rated a valuable instrument for teaching and developing practical skills.
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The proliferation of mobile phones in Nigeria, particularly among the student community, has continued to inspire the development and delivery of e-Learning applications. Most of the existing web-based e-Learning applications do not support nomadic voice-based learning (i.e. learning on the move through voice), and consequently do not provide a speedy access to information or enquiries on demand. Internet access is required to get every bit of information from most school portal system, which is not directly available to everyone. Lack of provision for voice in the existing web applications excludes support for people with limited capabilities such as the visually impaired and physical disabilities. In this paper, we present a design and development of a prototype telephone-based e-Learning portal that will be used for course registration and examination. This study is part of an ongoing e-Learning project involving the following modules: enrollment, course registration and examination, enquiries/information, messaging/collaboration, e-Learning and library. The prototype application was developed using VoiceXML for the voice user interface(VUI), PHP for database queries, Apache as the middle-ware and MySQL database as back-end. A unified modelling language (UML) was used to model and design the application. The proposed e-Learning system will compliment the web-based system in other to meet the needs of students with a range of disabilities such as visual impairment, repetitive strain injury, etc, that make reading and writing difficult. It also makes multiple platforms available to all users as well as boosting access to education for the physically challenged, particularly the sight impaired in the developing countries of the world. In institutions where students are not allowed to use mobile phones or where cost is an issue, then the alternative is the use of PC-phone.
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New pedagogical approaches are required to prepare future professionals. The educational model must be in consonance with the information and communication technologies. They help to improve knowledge dissemination and reduce space and time limitations between teachers and students. They should also motivate students and stimulate communication and collaboration among students, improving the learning process. Currently, the Institute of Exact and Applied Sciences of the Federal University of Ouro Preto (IEAS/UFOP) has no institutionalized tools of information and communication for teaching support. This allows the identification of some problems and difficulties on the educational process, such as absence of a centralized way to provide and access didactic resources, unavailability of a good communication tool between teachers and students, and lack of easy access to academic performance information for self evaluation. This chapter presents the authors' experience in choosing and evaluating a Learning Management System (LMS) to support classroom teaching at the IEAS. The authors investigate how the use of a LMS may improve teaching in the following aspects: (1) availability of didactic resources; (2) class planning and following up; (3) teacher-student communication; (4) monitoring of the academic performance of students during the course; (5) collaboration among students.
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Our "information-oriented" society shows an increasing exigency of life-long learning. In such framework, online learning is becoming an important tool to allow the flexibility and quality requested by such a kind of learning process. In the recent past, a great number of on-line platforms have been introduced on the market showing different characteristics and services. A series of features should be taken into account when one evaluates e-learning platforms, starting from the function and usability of the overall learning system in the context of the human, social and cultural organization within which it is to be used. Obviously, the analysis of the features of a system is not sufficient: it is also important to understand how they are integrated to facilitate learning and training and what principles are applied to guide the way the system is used. To evaluate them both pedagogical and technological aspects must be carefully evaluated. This paper proposes a model for describing and characterizing on-line learning platform component. The model is then used to evaluate the most known existing commercial platforms.
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To support student learning in a large Metabolism and Nutrition class, we have introduced a web-based package, using a commercially available program, WebCT. The package was developed at a minimal cost and with limited resources. In addition to downloadable (PDF) versions of lecture Powerpoint presentations, tutorial outlines and a practical class exercise, web-based self-directed learning exercises were included to reinforce and extend lecture material in an active learning environment. The web-site also contained a variety of formative and summative assessment tasks that examined both factual recall and higher order thinking. Detailed course information, timetables and a bulletin board were also readily accessible. Student usage of the site was generally high, but varied widely between individual students. Students who achieved a high overall score for the course completed on average three times as many formative assessment items and achieved a higher score for all tests than students who did poorly. Student feedback about the site was very positive with the majority of students reporting that the course material and assessment items that were available were useful to their learning. Administration of the course was also facilitated. © 2001 IUBMB. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Outside pressures, largely governmental, are increasingly forcing universities to change, in line with social changes in the environment in which they are embedded. This paper argues how such changes can be achieved in the particular case of the teaching function of universities, and why such changes so frequently fail to be achieved. The argument is based firmly on well established sociological theory, and it is illustrated by a largely successful change, the Enterprise in Higher Education Initiative. The change strategy which is derived from the theory leads to a number of maxims, and it is argued that while obeying these maxims is not a guarantee of success, disobeying them is an almost certain prescription for failure.
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Just a century ago, John Dewey proposed that pedagogy be recognized as a university discipline. Significant progress is being made on 3 important fronts to promote pedagogy as a platform in higher education, though it is still not a distinct field of study. The first front is pedagogies of engagement - community-service learning, problem-based learning, and collaborative learning. The second is the assessment of student learning. And the third is the preparation of teachers for undergraduate teaching. In combination, these trends show significant potential for enhancing undergraduate education. Their full promise will be realized, however, only if they are linked together - only if preparation for teaching undergraduates includes both the pedagogies of engagement and attention to the assessment of student learning. That linkage would be inevitable if pedagogy were a university discipline along the lines that Dewey proposed. It is worthwhile, therefore, to speculate on what a school of pedagogy would look like if one were to be started today.
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Programming has been described by many authors as the new Latin of the school syllabus, a kind of mental whetstone for developing minds. As such, it was assumed that students would develop their general problem-solving skills through learning programming. However, reports from teachers of programming and results from some empirical studies now suggest that the teaching of programming has created significant difficulties for high-school and university students, and has failed to catalyze the development of higher order thinking skills. What has gone wrong? Before reviewing the major points of the three articles that follow, I would like to highlight some of the challenges of both teaching and learning programming. The programmer's objective, for novice and expert alike, is first to specify a detailed plan that can be carried out. That is, the programmer has to decompose the initial task. This is not trivial: Many people are quite unable to say how they perform certain tasks. For instance, many students in introductory programming classes are unable to explain how they are able to select the smallest of a series of integers. Next, the programmer must map this plan into the constructs of the target programming language. There are two points to be made about this mapping process. First, for the process to be "clean," the programmer needs to have a very clear idea of the abstract plan and of the constructs available in the programming language. One study of novice programmers showed that many novices had very fuzzy notions about a programming language—substantial misunderstandings had occurred with regard to virtually every construct in the language. Second, task decomposition and program coding are not as neatly decoupled as we might think. A simple example: If arrays are not available in the target programming language, then a plan that assumes this capability would be badly flawed. A thorough knowledge of the facilities provided by the programming language is needed even at the stage of formulating the task plan. Debugging a program is similarly complex and demands a variety of skills, including an ability to coordinate information derived from sources such as error messages, the program plan, the program specification, and the actual code. The three articles in this special section address different aspects of the challenge of programming. John Anderson and Edward Skwarecki's "The Automated Tutoring of Introductory Computer Programming" demonstrates that intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) technology can be a more effective way of teaching introductory programming courses—for certain populations. Specifically, the authors discuss the pedagogical effectiveness of a Lisp tutor developed at Carnegie-Mellon University. Elliot Soloway's "Learning to Program = Learning to Construct Mechanisms and Explanations" challenges conventional wisdom by taking a fresh look at assumptions about the art of programming. Soloway advocates a more explicit approach to the teaching of problem-solving skills, which is based on the actual skills experienced programmers use in addressing real tasks. Recent experiments have suggested that the domain knowledge of experienced programmers is organized in a radically different way from the domain knowledge of novices; analogous results have also been reported for chess and music. In all cases, experts use larger chunks of knowledge. An important instructional question is how to bring novices up to the expert's level of domain knowledge. Aside from teaching details of the syntax and semantics of a particular programming language, Soloway argues, it is necessary to explicitly and concurrently explain why and how programs work, the goal of any given program, what plan segments are, strategies for decomposing tasks, rules that well-formed programs adhere to, and design strategies. If followed, this approach would produce several radically different types of programming courses. "Boxer: A Reconstructible Computational Medium," by Andrea A. diSessa and Harold Abelson, proposes a radically new kind of computational medium—one that would be highly tailorable, and able to accommodate a wide range of users, from a seven-year-old to an experienced nonprofessional. The authors suggest that students' difficulties may have more to do with the nature of programming than with teaching per se. They describe their current project, Boxer, which is an attempt to provide an environment for a wide spectrum of human activities. The central notion of Boxer is the metaphor of nested "boxes" organized in a hierarchy that gives novices access to explicit and detailed information about the computer environment, but allows proficient programmers to work at the highly abstract and implicit level that is natural to them. All three articles emphasize the need for sensitive experimentation for determining the effectiveness of innovative approaches to the teaching of programming. In the absence of strong and pervasive cognitive theories, it is important to carry out extensive evaluations of all such innovative approaches. We must find out from experience whether well-structured ICAI can be as useful and important as Anderson and Skwarecki suggest; or how we might be able to teach Soloway's high-level problem-solving skills effectively through programming; or how well seven-year-olds will be able to get along with the Boxer system, and for what range of tasks. Any mismatches between observations and expectations will hopefully suggest the next round of new languages and environments, and in turn motivate the next set of observations.
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There are many types of Computer-Based Assessment in use today in higher education, from formative self-tests to summative final exams. CBA is used in various ways as an integral part of many currently used Computer Aided Learning environments. This paper surveys some of the reasons for using computers for assessment and some of the types of test in use, including evidence that coverage can extend beyond first year assessments, where it seems to be stuck in some disciplines. One project and one type are examined in more detail: randomly generated open access tests. With this type of test students are allowed to practise in their own time before sitting the same test for a grade. Evidence from one particular test, in statistics, was taken from computer logs, questionnaires and individual interviews and is used to show that the test style motivated students to study, and, for some students, directed their revision even when they were away from the computer. The results show that random-based tests can have a number of major advantages over fixed assessments, including: increased lifespan, security and flexibility, improved student motivation for study; and use as a learning resource. They also indicate that CBA does not have to be viewed in isolation from the learning environment in which it is situated, but can have an impact upon a student’s study strategy, for example through increased revision. Taken together with previous studies and the survey of uses, there is now a body of evidence to suggest that CBA is an extremely versatile educational tool.
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This paper is concerned with affective issues in learning technologies in a collaborative context. Traditionally in learning there has been a division between cognition and affect: where cognition is concerned with skills and processes such as thinking and problem-solving and affect with emotional areas such as motivation, attitudes, feelings. Affective issues have been viewed as somewhat problematic in studying learning, so although it is well known that learner attitude, motivation, and emotional state are very important, they have often been excluded from the frame of research, or studied separately from cognitive learning. This position is gradually changing and this paper considers what previous research has been conducted in these areas. It discusses the role of affective factors in three main areas of collaboration: in settings where learners are co-located, in on-line communities and to support and develop socio-emotional skills. It considers relevant developments in these areas, what the outcomes have been and suggests important directions for future research.
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Self-regulated learning has emerged as an important new construct in education. Our understanding of self-regulated learning has been informed by three schools of thought: (1) research on learning styles, (2) research on metacognition and regulation styles, and (3) theories of the self, including goal-directed behavior. Based on these schools of thought, a three-layer model is presented. The innermost layer pertains to regulation of the processing modes. The middle layer represents regulation of the learning process. The outermost layer concerns regulation of the self. Educators and researchers would benefit from an integration of these three frames of reference into a comprehensive model of self-regulated learning.
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Key human resource (HR) issues in IS for the 1990s were identified by separate Delphi studies of IS executives and human resource executives in Fortune 500 firms. Three rounds of survey of participants were used to move opinions toward consensus. For IS executives, acquiring a stronger business orientation was the top ranked issue. For HR executives, better HR planning was the top ranked issue. Six issues were ranked in the top ten by both groups: however ranking differed considerably. The article discusses survey methodology, analyzes results, and provides conclusions.
Conference Paper
We present an overview on the AT(x) approach which is ca- pable of automatically analyzing programs with respect to given tests and a reference solution. In the context of small homework assignments with precisely describable tasks, AT(P), a Prolog instance of the gen- eral AT(x) framework, is able to nd many of the errors usually made by students and to communicate them in a manner understandable for beginners in Prolog programming. The system is being used in distance education where direct communication between students and tutors is most of the time not possible.