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Towards Ambient Assisted Shared Living for the Elderly

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As of today, the number of elderly people living alone in their homes and needing care taking is growing steadily in the whole western world. One state-of-the art approach is to exploit homes enriched with a multitude of sensors, actuators, and multimedia equipment, but the problem of loneliness is not sufficiently tackled. We envision homes enriched with sensors, but also audio-visual components such as cameras, microphones and beamers that allow opening the boundaries of one single home to interact with remote relatives and friends, here of course minding issues such as privacy and non-intrusiveness. To decrease loneliness, our system supports social services like playing cards with one another or having dinner together. Additionally, the sensory equipped home supports remote help with everyday activities, such as finding reading glasses, controlling the heating or preventing accidents (e.g., a person forgot to switch off the oven). Finally, the system also includes anomaly detection and emergency detection based on home sensor information and computer aided reasoning. In contrast to many existing smart home solutions, our system includes the relatives in the loop and - thus - avoids increased isolation usually fostered by a fully automated home. In this position paper, we describe the technical concept of the solution as well as the evaluation methodology we apply to rate experimental results of system test deployment.
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Towards Ambient Assisted Shared Living for the
Elderly
Karin A. Hummel1, Helmut Hlavacs1, Anneliese Lilgenau2, Hanna Mayer2, Verena
Moser-Siegmeth3
1University of Vienna, Institute of Distributed and Multimedia Systems
{karin.hummel | helmut.hlavacs}@univie.ac.at
2University of Vienna, Institute of Well Care
{anneliese.lilgenau | hanna.mayer}@univie.ac.at
3Research Institute of the Red Cross, Vienna, Austria
Verena.Moser-Siegmeth@w.roteskreuz.at
Abstract. As of today, the number of elderly people living alone in their homes
and needing care taking is growing steadily in the whole western world. One
state-of-the art approach is to exploit homes enriched with a multitude of
sensors, actuators, and multimedia equipment, but the problem of loneliness is
not sufficiently tackled.
We envision homes enriched with sensors, but also audio-visual components
such as cameras, microphones and beamers that allow opening the boundaries
of one single home to interact with remote relatives and friends, here of course
minding issues such as privacy and non-intrusiveness. To decrease loneliness,
our system supports social services like playing cards with one another or
having dinner together. Additionally, the sensory equipped home supports
remote help with everyday activities, such as finding reading glasses,
controlling the heating or preventing accidents (e.g., a person forgot to switch
off the oven). Finally, the system also includes anomaly detection and
emergency detection based on home sensor information and computer aided
reasoning. In contrast to many existing smart home solutions, our system
includes the relatives in the loop and – thus – avoids increased isolation usually
fostered by a fully automated home. In this position paper, we describe the
technical concept of the solution as well as the evaluation methodology we
apply to rate experimental results of system test deployment.
Keywords: Social isolation, inclusion, multimedia communication, shared
living, ambient assisted social support
1 Introduction
The number of elderly people living alone in their homes and needing care taking
is growing within Europe and the whole western world. Providing smart homes to
support every day activities of elderly people is targeted in many related IT solutions
and a necessary prerequisite to support living at home, but it often neglects the
loneliness of the elderly which will only increase when being surrounded by a fully
automated household.
Hence, the overall aim of our interdisciplinary work is to include elderly people
into the lives of their relatives and friends possibly living abroad or far away and vice
versa. Technology ranging from sensors to audio-visual input and output as well as a
reliable (tele) communication should therefore be exploited and used to create an
Ambient Assisted Shared Living (AMASL) space. Hereby, the impression of intuitive,
almost physical presence of remote relatives and friends should evolve supported by
non-intrusive technological solution which can be afforded by households with
medium income. In this new field of research, the remaining challenging open
research questions range from technical and economical feasibility evaluations and
proposing new technologies (including privacy provisioning) to user acceptance and
well-care studies.
The technological challenges result from the economic requirements to use low-
cost and off-the-shelf multimedia equipment, like consumer cameras, easy-to-use
input devices, and beamers but still providing the impression of directly interacting
with remote relatives and friends. Hereby, intuitive interfaces and new, high quality
remote multimedia services will be provided. Similar to being physically present, the
system should make the remote relatives aware of important conditions of the
household of the elderly person, like the current room temperature (important to
estimate whether the elderly person feeling cold suffers because of malfunctioning of
the heating or illness). The necessary sensors should be non-intrusive up to
“invisible”, low-cost, robust, energy-efficient. Together with anomaly detection
services, the system will also be able to recognize emergency situations (e.g., a person
has fallen and is lying on the floor). To assure privacy, the technical solution follows
the design principle to keep sensor data local at the households and just send
necessary status information to “third parties”, like the communication network
service provider. As cameras are commonly rated as intrusive technology, we will not
use cameras for observing every day activities.
With respect to user- and well-care studies, it is most important to develop a best
fitting evaluation method for assessing user acceptance and an improvement in well-
being. The proposed evaluation method relies on intensive testing carried out by a
selected group of elderly test users who will use the AMASL installations for a couple
of month. During this time, the test persons will be accompanied by the research
team, periodically visited, and interrogated to answer the crucial questions about
acceptance and (subjective) well-being. We will evaluate the general idea of ambient
assisted shared living along the following use cases: (i) joint activities (like playing
cards, having dinner together), (ii) remote help (like, helping to find out why there is a
particular noise or smell in the house, why it is so cold in the house, or where the
wallet or reading glasses are situated1), and (iii) emergency detection (like a person
who has fallen down the stairs).
This position paper gives an overview of related work in Section 2, introduces the
technical solution in Section 3, and discusses the setup of the field study in Section 4.
1 We assume that elderly persons are not as familiar with new technologies as their relatives are
and therefore prefer to ask a trusted person rather than to interact with an automated smart
home directly. However, the system will be designed that way that elderly people will be also
informed about the status of their household and can make use of this information.
We conclude this position paper with a summary and an outlook of work that is
planned for the near future.
2 Related Work and State of the Art Technology
As the proposed concept for ambient assisted shared living is based on
telecommunication-based solutions, smart home support, and ICT for elderly persons
in general, we will summarize related work in these domains.
2.1 Telecommunication-based solutions to foster shared living
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an IP-based protocol meant for managing
communication sessions between two parties [14]. In the last years, SIP became very
popular in the area of Voice-over-IP (VoIP), i.e., telephony over the Internet, but SIP
can be used to manage sessions of any type, including VoIP, video conferences,
gaming, CSCW, etc. SIP offers five categories of functions: (i) User location
determines the current location or address a caller can find the callee, (ii) user
availability determines whether a callee is currently reachable, (iii) user capabilities,
(iv) session setup is meant for determining and exchanging communication
parameters that, e.g., describe the used codecs, and finally (v) session management for
creating, adapting, and tearing down communication sessions. For exchanging data
describing important properties of the session and session parameters, the Session
Description Protocol (SDP) [16] is used by SIP. It is important to note that neither SIP
nor SDP themselves transport any media data. Once a session is established, the
clients then may exchange media data either directly, or via proxies, here again using
other protocols, e.g., the Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) for audio and video
data [15], or any non-standardized protocol designed by the application programmers.
As said, real-time data like speech or video usually is transported by RTP. Such
continuous data requires a very smooth and regular transport by the network, and both
sender and receiver are tightly synchronized. RTP is not suited well for discrete
communication, where single events must be transported, like communicating that
one user has just clicked on a button. For such cases, a set of protocols enabling so-
called Web services fit much better. Web services have been defined by the World
Wide Web Consortium (W3C) [24] in order to support interoperable machine-to-
machine interaction over IP networks. Web services are comparable to other
approaches like the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) [25] or
Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) [26], but are based on techniques known from the
World Wide Web. Similar to SIP, Web service protocols enable registering and
finding services (Universal Description Discovery and Integration, UDDI), describing
services (Web Service Description Language, WSDL), and finally calling services
(Simple Object Access Protocol, SOAP). All of these protocols are based on XML
[24].
For AMASL a realistic visual presentation of each person is very important.
Basically, persons can be shown in several ways. The most basic way is to use a
common TV set. Due its limited size and the fact that TV sets are often put at fixed
locations this limits using the TV in the living room is not an ideal solution. A similar
way would use a possibly large computer monitor. Since monitors are usually much
cheaper than TV sets, several of them could be put into a household with affordable
costs. However, similar to TV sets, monitors do not come in overly large sizes and
thus they do not create a realistic impression of a shared living space. Another way of
visualizing persons realistically is to use so-called Head-Mounted Displays (HMD).
These are like eyeglasses, but show the output of a computer instead. Unfortunately,
HMDs are rather bulky and using them usually prevents people from seeing the real
surrounding (so-called see-through HMDs are extremely expensive and often limited
in their capabilities), and thus HMDs are not useful at all in the context of AMASL.
The best solution for visualizing other people and spaces seems to use off-the-shelf
computer projectors. In the past there have been various research projects on how to
use projectors for virtual reality human computer interaction, and e-learning [21].
Especially video wall displays have been used for many projects in the area of
collaboration in working environments [23]. People are meant to stand next to such a
display and interact with it, e.g., by moving virtual objects around. Interaction can be
determined by touch-sensitive surfaces or through gesture recognition by video
analysis. Because of the closeness, video wall displays must provide a high resolution,
and shadows caused by front projectors present a problem. Therefore, video wall
displays are usually built by an array of back-projected canvases. This way, no
shadow is cast by people standing in front of the display, and the total resolution is the
sum of the individual resolutions of the single projectors. On the other hand the costs
and the need for space increase significantly. Alternative approaches use a projector
that is mounted above the canvas.
In general using projectors for creating an immersive presentation of real people is
also problematic due to the strict 2D technology. However, technologies for 3D
presentations in principle are available, always requiring that left and right eye of the
observer receive different pictures. One technology for 3D displays is given by LCD
shutter glasses, which must be worn by the users [27]. The glasses must be
synchronized with the display, usually an LCD monitor, which sequentially shows
images for the left and right eye, the other eye being blocked by the shutter glass.
Another technology that is best suited for projectors is to send pictures for the left and
right eye using orthogonal polarization. Again, users have to wear glasses, which have
different polarization filters for left and right eye. Both approaches have drawbacks
and are usually expensive when being used for projectors (e.g., require the use of two
projectors), or require a high amount of skills to be realized [28].
However it is known that when using only one eye (or ear), a pseudo-3D effect can
be emulated by moving the head from left to right, i.e., an observer is able to
construct 3D information from 3D information. By using head tracking this can be
used for increasing the realism without a high overhead [19].
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) can be done with various means, including
dedicated input devices like the computer mouse, keyboard, etc. Additionally,
wearing data gloves or video analysis allows to recognize gestures, here trying to
make HCI more natural. However, gesture recognition demands learning gestures and
requires a significant amount of concentration and skills, which make their use in
AAL problematic. Recently the gaming industry has provided innovative HCI
equipment to make HCI more realistic. This includes the Wii Remote [20], and only
recently the Project Natal [17] and Playstation Eye [18]. While the Wii works like a
mixture between a 3D mouse and a TV remote control, both Project Natal and the
Playstation Eye provide gesture recognition and face tracking through video analysis.
2.2 Smart home approaches
Living in the western world is increasingly assisted by a multitude of sensors and
actuators enabling home services automation supported by local networks and
available broadband access networks. International research projects focused on
investigating new technologies for future smart homes are, e.g., AMBIENTE [1],
AMIGO [2], inHaus [3], EasyLiving [4], AHRI [5], The PlaceLab [6], SmartHOME
[7], T-Com-Haus [8], and MavHome [9]. These research projects demonstrate the
international interest in technologies for future home environments, which are highly
attractive to support in particular elderly people. Research is carried out to explore the
technical feasibility of smart homes, but an increasing interest can be detected in
usage and acceptance studies of these new technologies. For example, the living labs
of the MIT project PlaceLab [11] investigate the behavior of test persons in longer
time periods to derive realistic usage results. Our research for ambient assisted
follows this line of research for elderly people to come up with realistic and helpful
solutions in a field where these factors are not sufficiently clear yet.
The Fraunhofer IST project AMIGO proves that home automation products can be
successfully developed for the market, but complex installations and missing
interoperability or usage scenarios are inhibiting the breakthrough. In the TR-2007
[10], a possible technical realization of smart living is described by integrating home
automation technology based on interconnected sensor- and actuator technology,
entertainment technology, and PCs. For communication, Ethernet and wireless LAN
is used to control heating and air conditioning, access to the house (e.g., using finger
scans), alarming, novel displays integrated into furniture (like tables and walls) to
display home status information of devices like the oven, washing machine, and air
conditioning.
Smart living for elderly people and people needing care-taking envisions a step
into new technology for better well-being and quality of live. Smart homes are
envisioned to take away the burden of difficult every day activities which nowadays,
e.g., often force people to leave their homes and change to an asylum for elderly
people. Pilot projects are, e.g., the sensory equipped homes presented by RALTEC
[12], which aims at detecting important anomalies in the elderly person’s behavior,
such as, dehydration and collapses.
The AMASL project goes one step further to integrate relatives actively in such
every day activities and to research, to which extend a telecommunication-based
solution can integrate both smart home and communication for social inclusion (e.g.,
playing cards together), providing help for daily activities (e.g., controlling the
heating), and assistance in cases of emergency while still providing privacy to a high
degree.
2.3 ICT for elderly persons and their well care
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) characterises today’s society.
Within the next few years, we will have to face an increased number of elderly people
side by side with technological developments and it is not clear how to best use ICT
for elderly persons.
The Norwegian Board of Technology has carried out investigations related to two
major topics in this context. These topics are: (i) Use of ICT in the daily lives of the
elderly persons, and (ii) Use of ICT in health care and welfare services for old people
and people with dementia.
Hereby, it has to be noted that elderly people are a heterogeneous group. They have
different needs for help, different capabilities, and different learning abilities.
However, in many of these cases, smart home technology may be used for the benefit
of the elderly persons as argued below:
(i) Mastering the daily life. For elderly people the use of smart home technology
is expected to make them feel secure (e.g., warning in case of an oven
overheating). ICT may aid elderly people to memorize things and, thus, to
master their own housing situation. As a consequence, it becomes possible to
remain living at home for a longer time.
(ii) Increase Social contact. Social contact may be increased by user-friendly
communication technology, including more human care from relatives, nurses
and others. On the other hand, elderly people often have objections to ICT.
Information and knowledge about ICT will be important to increase user
acceptance (see, e.g., conference ICT for elderly people 2000).
Because of age-related changes of potential test persons, multidisciplinary
research on the technology-gerontology interface is important for better understanding
how to adapt technology to the needs of older people and how to train the elderly to
use technology [32, p.133].
3 Technological Concept
The aim of the project is to provide a system for social interaction, communication
and remote help. Social isolation should be decreased by giving the impression that
relatives, friends, or professionals are physically near, within the same physical space.
This impression should be achieved by an audio/visual presentation, which on the one
hand should be as realistic as possible, but on the other hand also affordable.
Furthermore, the whole system should be simple to be used, since elderly people
cannot be supposed to be able to master complex user interfaces.
The AMASL system architecture is shown in Figure 1. The audio/video equipment
is built into the homes of elderly people and their relatives. The canvas and projector
should be installed at a convenient place where people plan to spend time with their
relatives/friends. The main component is the settop box, which is planned to be a
Linux based computer. Interaction is planned to be done in an intuitive way, currently
we are focusing on the Wii Remote as a simple controller which is very similar to TV
remote controls, something elderly people are likely to be used to. Currently it is not
planned to add 3D capabilities, since this would increase the price of such a system
significantly. However, we plan to apply face tracking by using the open source
library OpenCV [22], and use it to emulate a kind of window into the home of the
communication partner. We expect that this simple technique adds a considerable
amount of realism to the presentation.
Homes are additionally equipped with sensors that measure the state of the home,
track items or the inhabitants themselves. The main task of the sensors is to support
communication and cooperation between people, enabling for instance relatives to
help their parents remotely. Tracking of objects, e.g., the key, the reading glasses, or
the TV remote control should make it possible to find such things that are regularly
lost. Additionally, relatives should be able to remotely check the states of the houses,
like whether windows or doors are open, whether water is flowing, or whether the
oven is on. Finally, sensors should also be used to detect alarm situations, that are
situations where elderly people require help but are not able to call for help
themselves. Basically, alarm detection can be done in two ways. First, sensors can
record normal behavior of the inhabitants, and learn what is to be expected. Any
behavior that is abnormal in some way can then, in principle, trigger an alarm. This
approach requires some time for training what is normal. This system detects alarms
implicitly and is likely not to trigger an alarm immediately after an accident has
occurred. Sensors can also be used for detecting accidents explicitly, for instance by
measuring the acceleration of an arm. In our project we will mainly focus on implicit
accident detection, but also experiment with explicit detection using various sensor
technologies. However, the sensors are not meant for direct surveillance, i.e.,
audio/video is only used for calls, but not for alarm detection. If no calls are going on,
the inhabitants must have the guarantee that they are not recorded.
At the center of AMASL we will use the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), which is
a collection of IP-based protocols defining the core of the next generation telecom
networks, allowing telephony, video conferences, and general telecom services to be
run in an all-IP packet switched network. IMS is currently standardized by the 3rd
Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) [13], an industrial forum in charge of all
specifications of 3G-wireless communication. However, IMS can be used for wireline
access networks as well, including ADSL or cable. Signaling in IMS is done using
SIP, and requires from the client only little more information like authentication.
All Web service based applications are run on a central IMS application server.
Applications may include for instance card games, news, health information, mental
training, remote help, and alarms. For the latter, in AMASL it is planned to run all
sensor inference algorithms locally inside the settop box, and only in case an alarm is
triggered, aggregated information is sent to the application server.
Scientific challenges from the technological side include improving realistic
communication at low cost, experimenting with innovative and intuitive HCI
technologies, and machine learning and inference of sensor data that describe daily
routines, all in the special context of AAL.
DSL
Figure 1: AMASL architecture.
4 Planned Field Study
To evaluate the presented solution, a methodologically advanced field study will be
carried out. In contrast to short term test evaluations lasting up to a few hours
followed by asking the test persons to fill in a questionnaire, we aim at an extended
user study over a few months to derive in depth results about user acceptance and
well-being. The main research questions that should be addressed are:
(i) How does the ambient assisted shared living system influence the social life
of the elderly and their family?
(ii) Is it possible to support social integration of the elderly person in the family
using the ambient assisted shared living services, in particular the
multimedia communication services?
(iii) Is it possible to support the elderly person in daily life activities using the
ambient assisted shared living system?
4.1 Scientific background of field studies including ethical issues
To answer the research questions in the planned field study, a case study design
with a mixed method approach is chosen. Due to the small sample size and the
openness of the questions, the focus is set on qualitative methods. Quantitative
evaluations will be added where they are appropriate.
Case study design
The case study design involves an intensive exploration of a single unit of study,
such as a person, family, group, community, or institution or a very small number of
subjects who are examined intensively. Although the number of subjects tends to be
small, the number of variables involved is usually large. In fact, it is important to
examine all variables that might have an impact on the situation being studied [29 p.
238f].
In a case study, the case itself is central to the researcher. The focus of case studies
is typically on determining the dynamics of why the individual thinks, behaves, or
develops in a particular manner. Data are often collected that relate not only to the
person’s present state but also to past experiences and situational and environmental
factors relevant to the problem being examined [30, p. 251f]. The greatest advantage
of case studies is the investigation depth that is possible when a limited number of
individuals are being investigated.
The study methods
The methods used in the field of this study to answer the research questions are
both of qualitative and quantitative kind. Among the qualitative methods available,
the following, selected methods will be used: (i) notes of qualitative observations, (ii)
in-depth interviews, and (iii) narrative documents such as diary. For quantitative
investigation, structured interviews will be used.
Ethical issues
Ethical issues have to be addressed to base the study on serious ground and to enable
a trust-relationship between the test users and investigating researchers. From an
ethical perspective, the following issues have to be addressed:
(i) Informed consent. To avoid harming participants in a study it is essential to gain
their agreed consent to taking part [31, p. 28]. The participants in this study are
fully informed about the study purpose, participant status, sponsorship,
procedures, type of data, participant selection, their right to withdraw, and
contact information. The researcher presents a summary of essential information
in a short form orally and the full information in writing as well. The researcher
documents the informed consent process by having participants sign a consent
form.
(ii) Right to privacy and anonymity. All research with humans constitutes some type
of intrusion into the people’s personal lives. Researchers need to ensure that their
research is not more intrusive than it needs to be and that the participant’s privacy
is maintained throughout the study. [30, p.139f] To safeguard the confidentiality
of participants, the researchers in this study implement following steps:
o The research information will not be shared with strangers or with
family members. Identifying participant information (name, address)
will only be obtained when it is essential.
o The access to identifying information is restricted to the researcher.
o Identity related information is not entered to computer files.
o Identity related information is destroyed as soon as possible.
o Because of the small number of respondents and the rich descriptive
information it is essential to protect the identities of the participants
adequately [30, p. 140].
(iii) External review. Before the proposed research plan and procedures are
implemented, the ethical dimensions are subjected to external review.
4.2 On selecting test users
For this project, one of the challenges is to find a suitable set of persons willing to
participate in the study. A first step will be the development of a profile description of
the potential test users and a second step will be the advertisement and selection of
participants.
The critical first step in qualitative sampling is the selection of a setting with high
potential for information richness. Hereby, the key in qualitative studies is to extract
the greatest possible information from the few cases. The profile description of the
persons (elderly and relatives) contains (i) age, (ii) physical and cognitive abilities
(e.g., we will focus on test users experiencing some impairments to move easily out of
the house), (iii) living facility (including technology available), and (iv) the fact that
they live alone.
In the second step, we will use the possibility to advert the research project in one
of the project’s partner’s (Red Cross, one of the biggest NPOs in Austria) newspaper
and journals for elderly people to attract suitable candidates, as well as contacts to
forums of elderly people. Hereby, we will establish a trust-relationship already in the
early advertising and selection steps of the project, since we want to avoid that test
users are dissatisfied and abort participating during the study.
5 Conclusions and Future Work
In this position paper, we described the requirements, the design, and the
evaluation methodology of an ambient assisted shared living space. The approach
aims at using sensory and multimedia communication technology to include elderly
people into the homes of their relatives and friends. While the sensory equipment
should be non-intrusive and nearly invisible, the multimedia communication
equipment should provide high quality and intuitive user interfaces. The technical
solution therefore includes sensors for in-door object location tracking and sensing of
important states of the house (e.g., heating, closing status of doors and windows). The
multimedia I/O system includes components such as cameras, microphones, and
beamers. First prototypical implementations have been carried out using the Wii
Remote for intuitive user interactions. For providing the telecommunication
infrastructure, the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is currently evaluated.
The approach is followed in a recent interdisciplinary research project termed
AMASL which will answer research questions about the feasibility and usefulness of
the envisioned technological solution along three classes of applications: (i)
supporting social contacts, (ii) helping with daily routines, and (iii) emergency
detection. In all use cases, the inclusion of relatives and friends is supported. In future
work, we will provide prototypes and, finally, the results of the field study planned.
Acknowledgments. The work described is partially funded by the Austrian FFG in
the project Ambient Assisted Shared Living (AMASL), an interdisciplinary project
carried out by the University of Vienna (Institute of Distributed and Multimedia
Systems, the Institute of Well Care), Kapsch Carrier Com, and the Research Institute
of the Red Cross, Austria.
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(Eds),Qualitative Research in Health Care, Open University Press, Maidenhead, pp.17-35.
32. Claudia Oppenauer,Barbara Preschl, Karin Kalteis, Ilse Kryspin-Exner: Technology in Old
Age from a Psychological Point of View, LNCS, 2007.
... auch die anfallenden Kosten dafür zu tragen. Weiter ist es wichtig die Angst vor Technik zu reduzieren (Lilgenau 2014), z. B. durch einfache Bedienbarkeit, nutzerfreundliche Anpassung an die spezielle Dorfgemeinschaft im Landkreis Grafschaft Bentheim wie auch die Bedienerfreundlichkeit genau in den Blick zu nehmen. ...
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Unit I: Introduction to Nursing Research. Discovery of the World of Nursing Research. The Evolution of Research in Nursing. Introduction to Quantitative Research. Introduction to Qualitative Research. Unit II: The Research Process. Research Problem and Purpose. Review of Relevant Literature. Frameworks. Objectives, Questions and Hypotheses. Ethics in Research. Understanding Research Design. Selecting a Research Design. Sampling. The Concepts of Measurement. Measurement Strategies in Nursing. Data Collection and Management. Concepts of Statistical Theory. Descriptive and Exploratory Analyses. Bivariate Inferential Data Analyses. Advanced Statistical Analyses. Qualitative Research Methodology. Outcomes Research. Interpreting Research Outcomes. Communicating Research Findings. Unit III: Strategies for Using Research in Practice. Critical Analysis of Nursing Studies. Utilization of Research in Nursing Practice. Unit IV: Seeking Support for Research Activities. Proposal Writing for Research Approval. Seeking Funding for Research.
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This memorandum is a revision of RFC 1889 in preparation for advancement from Proposed Standard to Draft Standard status. Readers are encouraged to use the PostScript form of this draft to see where changes from RFC 1889 are marked by change bars. This memorandum describes RTP, the real-time transport protocol. RTP provides end-to-end network transport functions suitable for applications transmitting real-time data, such as audio, video or simulation data, over multicast or unicast network services. RTP does not address resource reservation and does not guarantee quality-of-service for real-time services. The data transport is augmented by a control protocol (RTCP) to allow monitoring of the data delivery in a manner scalable to large multicast networks, and to provide minimal control and identification functionality. RTP and RTCP are designed to be independent of the underlying transport and network layers. The protocol supports the use of RTP-level translators and mixers. ...
  • Project Mavhome
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MavHome, project URL: http://cygnus.uta.edu/mavhome 10. Technology Review 03/2007, Fokus Haustechnik (pages 62-77)