Article

Understanding the Relationship between Mood and Creativity: A Meta-Analysis

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Abstract

A meta-analysis of 62 experimental and 10 non-experimental studies was conducted to evaluate the positive-mood-enhances-creativity generalization. While the results demonstrate that positive mood enhances creativity, the strength of that effect is contingent upon the comparative or referent mood state (i.e., neutral or negative mood) as well as the type of creative task. Further, the pattern of effect sizes supports a curvilinear relationship between affective intensity and creative performance. In general, a contextual perspective of mood-creativity relations is supported.

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... Creativity is a complex construct that has a plethora of definitions (e.g., Collard & Looney, 2014;Davis, 2009;Isen, 1999;Kozbelt, Beghetto, & Runco, 2010). The core element of all these definitions is generation of new ideas (Amabile, 1996;Davis, 2009;Runco & Chand, 1995). ...
... Creativity is a complex construct that has a plethora of definitions (e.g., Collard & Looney, 2014;Davis, 2009;Isen, 1999;Kozbelt, Beghetto, & Runco, 2010). The core element of all these definitions is generation of new ideas (Amabile, 1996;Davis, 2009;Runco & Chand, 1995). Thereby, the creative problem-solving process includes three different aspects: fluency in the production of ideas, originality and uniqueness of these ideas, as well as flexibility in this idea generation (Davis, 2009;Leikin & Lev, 2013;Runco & Acar, 2012, see also the definition of mathematical creativity of Livne, 1999 andWagner &Zimmermann, 1987). ...
... The core element of all these definitions is generation of new ideas (Amabile, 1996;Davis, 2009;Runco & Chand, 1995). Thereby, the creative problem-solving process includes three different aspects: fluency in the production of ideas, originality and uniqueness of these ideas, as well as flexibility in this idea generation (Davis, 2009;Leikin & Lev, 2013;Runco & Acar, 2012, see also the definition of mathematical creativity of Livne, 1999 andWagner &Zimmermann, 1987). ...
... Meanwhile, ideation and evaluation are used to achieve both standards of creative outcomes, i.e., novelty and usefulness 5) . 19) defined ideation as a process to produce a number of ideas (fluency) , varieties of ideas (flexibility) , and unique or novel ideas (originality) . ...
... 19) defined ideation as a process to produce a number of ideas (fluency) , varieties of ideas (flexibility) , and unique or novel ideas (originality) . The ideation process is the most salient and relevant approach to the creative process 5) . This process is associated with divergent tasks. ...
Article
This study investigates how the type and order of creative tasks may influence the affective states and group work satisfaction of people engaged in creative group work. The experiment was a mixed design, with the type of creative tasks and the order of the task as fixed factors, and the students nested in groups as random factors. Groups of five to six participants performed two kinds of conventional creative tasks: the alternative uses test as a divergent task and the remote associates test as a convergent task. Five groups started with the divergent task and then performed the convergent task, while the other five groups started with the convergent task and then performed the divergent task. The affective states and group work satisfaction were measured repeatedly after each of the two tasks. The results show that the convergent task produced a more positive effect on the affective state and group work satisfaction than did the divergent task. Furthermore, the task order had an impact on affective experience. The second task induced a higher valence than the first task. This study provides a better understanding of the design of creative group tasks to yield better affective experiences.
... In the current paper, moods and emotions are used interchangeably. There is solid agreement that creativity benefits from a positive mood (e.g., Ashby et al., 1999;Davis, 2009). The effect of a negative mood on creativity is, however, plagued with inconsistent results showing the co-existence of the facilitating, inhibiting or noneffect of negative moods on creativity (for a review, see Baas et al., 2008 developed a dual pathway model to account for the mood-creativity link, conceptualizing affect through two underlying dimensions: valence (positive vs. negative) and activation (activating vs. deactivating). ...
... This relationship was more pronounced in creative activities involving learning or idea generation. These findings are to some extent contrary to the existing body of literature emphasizing the positive mood-creativity relationship (e.g., Baas et al., 2008;Davis, 2009); however, they are in line with past findings that suggest the beneficial influence of positive mood is not equal for every person and situation (Akbari Chermahini and Hommel, 2012). Moreover, our findings empirically validate the recommendations by researchers (e.g., Kaufmann, 2003a) to consider a wider variety of positive moods when examining complex situations. ...
Article
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For much of 2020, countries around the world fought against the COVID-19 pandemic. Many countries went into lockdown to control the fast spread of the virus. The unusual restrictions and confinement of the lockdown brought about new challenges for people’s everyday lives. With flexibility, adaptability, and problem-solving at the core of its nature, creativity has the potential to help people cope with harsh and uncertain circumstances. Were people more, the same, or less creative in their everyday life during the period of lockdown, and in which ways? What are the emotions and motivations underlying their creative or non-creative behaviors? The current study aims to explore these questions from a cross-cultural perspective. A total of 754 comparable employee samples from three Chinese and three German cities were asked about their moods during the lockdown period, their self-rated level of creativity in daily lives before and during the lockdown, and their motivations behind their creative activities. Significant increases in creativity were observed in all everyday activities in both countries with only two exceptions in the German sample. Despite minor differences, a common pattern was found across cultures: whereas the activating positive mood could directly lead to the increase in creativity in some everyday activities, such a direct Mood-Creativity link was limited in the activating negative mood circumstances. In such circumstances, motivation intervened to enable the link to creativity. It was also found that this indirect effect of motivation between mood and creativity was more pronounced with the German participants.
... However, emotions-creativity relations are much more complex and contingent upon contextual factors, such as the problem or situation at hand (Davis, 2009;Kaufmann, 2003). When people perceive the task as fun, they generate more creative ideas while being in a positive mood. ...
... Consistently with findings that show links between positive mood and creativity (Baas et al., 2008;Davis, 2009), on days when participants experienced positive and activating emotions, their creativity was elevated. Feeling happy, joyful, excited, curious, and interested was related to a higher level of subjectively assessed creativity and engagement in creative activities across everyday and scholarly domains. ...
... Intrinsic motivation is an essential component of creative behavior (Amabile, 1983(Amabile, , 2018Amabile and Pillemer, 2012;Mastria et al., 2018;Benedek et al., 2019;Fischer et al., 2019) and drives involvement, intensity, and perseverance in activities. Affective states influence creativity, as it has been demonstrated by several studies which have shown that creative thinking tasks are mood-sensitive (Davis, 2009). Positive mood (such as joy) is often reported as facilitating creativity, and negative mood (such as stress, anxiety) as hindering creativity. ...
... Positive mood (such as joy) is often reported as facilitating creativity, and negative mood (such as stress, anxiety) as hindering creativity. However, whether positive or negative moods facilitate or inhibit creativity is still debated and may depend on contextual factors De Dreu et al., 2008;Davis, 2009). Finally, creative activities and achievements are influenced by our environment, at home or in the workspace (living conditions, cultural, and professional contexts), our social context (Amabile and Pillemer, 2012;Benedek et al., 2019), and by the standards, needs, and values of the society (Lubart et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 took us by surprise. We all had to face the lockdown and pandemic that put us in a new context, changing our way of life, work conditions, and habits. Coping with such an unprecedented situation may have stimulated creativity. However, the situation also restricted our liberties and triggered health or psychological difficulties. We carried out an online survey (n = 380) to examine whether and how the COVID-19 related first lockdown period was associated with creativity changes in French speaking population. Despite a global negative subjective experience of the situation, participants reported that they were more creative during the lockdown than before. Positive changes were linked with more time availability, more motivation, or the need to solve a problem while negative changes were related to negative affective feelings or a lack of resources or opportunities. This study documents the effects of the first lockdown period on creativity and the factors that influenced it.
... A very high level of external stimulations would likely impair inner creative thoughts stemming from the calm and relaxed state of mind associated with serenity. The meta-analyses of Davis (2009) and Byron et al. (2010) suggested that an average level of arousal stemming from job demands is probably optimal for developing novel ideas. Relatedly, research has shown that empowering leadership may not only energize but also drain mental capacities (Cheong et al., 2016(Cheong et al., , 2019. ...
... Interestingly, albeit non-significant, we found a pattern of result that suggest serenity could be negatively relate to PB in this condition. This result is compatible with results of previous research suggesting that external arousal can distract or impede the inner mental processes that could facilitate the envisioning of new solutions to work situations (Byron et al., 2010;Davis, 2009). Further, it is in line with the proposition that empowering leadership could not only stimulate but also tax employees' resources (Cheung et al., 2016(Cheung et al., , 2019. ...
Article
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The aim of this article was to investigate the conditions under which the dimensions of work-related wellbeing (i.e., serenity, social harmony, and involvement) can be beneficial for employee proactive behavior (PB). Based on theories of activation and theorization about the influence of wellbeing on performance, we proposed that the contribution of the wellbeing dimensions to PB depends on the type of challenge (i.e., knowledge job demands; KJDs) and level of stimulation (i.e., empowering leadership) that employees experience in their jobs. Data were collected from Canadian employees (N = 602) through a two-wave study. As predicted, findings indicated that KJDs and empowering leadership jointly interacted with serenity and involvement to predict PB. High levels of empowering leadership were found to strengthen the effect of the interactions between serenity and KJDs and between involvement and KJDs, and to intensify the positive relationship between involvement and PB among employees with high KJDs. We discuss the implications of these findings for theory and management of wellbeing and PB in workplaces.
... The creative game experience has been seen to increase when the game does not specify any right or wrong paths [36]. This can foster creativity because players collaboratively generate new ideas beyond what they could have come up with on their own [46][47][48]. Following this, the given level of freedom in the creative game is likely to initiate and increase communication (about game-related activities and thoughts) and social interaction (joint decision-making) among players. ...
Article
Background: Maintaining social relationships is a basic human need and particularly essential in old age, including when living in a retirement home. Multiplayer video games can promote positive social interactions among players from different generations while playing. Yet, such facilitation of positive social interactions depends on specific game design. To systematically investigate the effects of game design on social interaction between seniors and their coplayers, the game Myosotis FoodPlanet was developed in this study, and the impacts of 3 different game modes on social interaction were compared in a controlled field trial. Objective: This study aims to compare the effects of 3 different game modes (competitive, cooperative, and creative) on social interactions (verbal and nonverbal communication) between seniors and their younger coplayers. Methods: This study was conducted in a Swiss retirement home as a controlled field trial. Participants were residents of the retirement home (N=10; mean age 84.8 years, SD 5.9 years) and played in pairs with their caregivers. Each pair played 3 game modes in random order. This resulted in 30 game sequences of 20 minutes each. A within-subject design was applied with game mode as the within-factor and social interaction as the outcome variable. To assess the quality of social interaction, 30 video-recorded game sequences were analyzed based on an event sampling method. Results: Analysis of variance for repeated measurements revealed significant effects: there was significantly more verbal communication in the creative mode than in the cooperative mode (P=.04) with a strong effect size (Cohen f=0.611). An examination of verbal communication revealed more game-related communication in the creative mode than in the cooperative mode (P=.01) and the competitive mode (P=.09) with marginally significant effects and strong effect sizes (Cohen f=0.841). In addition, significantly more biography-related communication occurred in the creative mode than in the cooperative mode (P=.03), with a strong effect size (r=0.707). Regarding nonverbal communication (eg, laughing together), analysis of variance for repeated measurements showed significant differences among the game modes (P=.02) with a strong effect size (Cohen f=0.758). Results showed that there was significantly more laughing together in the competitive mode (competitive>cooperative>creative). Conclusions: The results show that game mode can be an important factor for shaping the social interactions of players playing together. Compared with other modes, creative game modes can increase verbal communication. In contrast, competitive modes may stimulate more laughing together. This has important implications for game design and the use of computer games to promote social interaction between seniors and their coplayers in practice.
... For attention regulation, this switch can make individuals more inclined to habitual motor responding, but not innovative behavior (Arnsten, 2009;Arnsten and Goldman-Rakic, 1998). Moreover, the activation of amygdala function also leads to the experience of negative emotions and the inhibition of emotional regulation (Banks et al., 2007), which can weaken creativity performance indirectly (Davis, 2009;Ivcevic and Brackett, 2015). Taken together, the weakening effect of acute stress on creativity may be closely linked to the down-regulation of PFC structure and function. ...
Article
The creativity impairment under acute stress may be closely related to the down-regulation of the prefrontal cortex function caused by stress-related neurotransmitters and hormones. In the current study, we explored whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) eliminated stress-induced creativity impairment and the potential mechanism from the perspective of stress response recovery. Seventy participants were randomly allocated to a group undergoing the activation of right DLPFC and the deactivation of left DLPFC (R+L−; N = 35), and a group of sham stimulation (sham; N = 35). Participants received tDCS after the stress induction, and then completed the Alternative Uses Task (AUT) and the Remote Association Task (RAT) during the stimulation. The stress response was indicated using heart rate, cortisol, and emotion changes. Results showed that R+L− stimulation facilitated the recovery of anxious state compared to sham stimulation. We also found that the decreased value of AUT scores after stress in the R+L− group was significantly lower than that in the sham group. Moreover, further analysis revealed state anxiety mediated the effect of tDCS on the flexibility component of the AUT. We concluded that bilateral tDCS over the DLPFC is efficient in alleviating stress-induced creativity impairment, which may correlate with greater recovery of state anxiety. Our findings provide causal evidence for the neurophysiological mechanisms by which stress affects creativity, as well as clinical suggestions for stress-related psychiatric disorders prevention and intervention.
... It also restructures the action command system to encourage individuals to pursue novel and creative thoughts and action paths, thereby generating positive "emotion-cognition-behavior" spiraling forces (Fredrickson, 2001). The ideas and behaviors triggered by positive emotions are more creative and flexible, whether spontaneous or induced positive emotions (Davis, 2009;Talarico et al., 2009;Johnson et al., 2010). Compared with negative and neutral emotions, positive emotions significantly impact individual creativity (Baas et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Under the background of “mass entrepreneurship and innovation,” entrepreneurship and innovation for college students not only alleviates the current social employment pressure but also sets off the upsurge of their entrepreneurship. It is a significant field to research the entrepreneurial intention of undergraduates as potential entrepreneurs, which covers the study of entrepreneurial intention from the perspective of personal traits and entrepreneurial cognition. This article studies entrepreneurial intention from two aspects: irrational positive emotions and rational entrepreneurial cognition, which aims to reveal the mechanism of positive emotions and entrepreneurial cognition on entrepreneurial intention. After investigating 288 college students participating in entrepreneurial competitions, establishing structural equations, and using SmartPLS software for data analysis, the research result showed that positive emotions significantly positively impact the three scripts of entrepreneurial cognition: arrangement scripts, willing scripts, and ability scripts. The arrangement, willing, and ability scripts positively influence entrepreneurial intention, while positive emotions do not affect entrepreneurial intention. Arrangement scripts and ability scripts have a full mediating effect between positive emotions and entrepreneurial intention. Based on these findings, we provide suggestions for the government and society, schools, and individual students on innovation and entrepreneurship.
... Empirical evidence shows that positive feeling states can stimulate creativity Davis, 2009) predominantly after activating positive feeling states such as happiness and gratification To et al., 2012). Vigor at work facilitates employee creativity because it is a positive feeling moderate in activation that is contextualized in the work situation (Shirom, 2011). ...
Article
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We use the Work-Home Resources (W-HR) model to investigate how daily positive experiences in the sports domain may spill over and enrich the work domain. We hypothesize that satisfaction with sports performance during the lunch break generates momentary vigor (i.e., cognitive liveliness and emotional energy) immediately after the lunch break and is indirectly related to creativity at work in the afternoon. Furthermore, we predict that positive work reflection during the sports activity strengthens the relation between satisfaction with sports performance and vigor when back at work. To test this positive spillover process, we collected diary data from 59 employees who engaged in sports activities during their lunch break. Data was collected at two time points per day for three days (total number of observations, n = 177). Multilevel analyses revealed partial support for our hypotheses. We found that satisfaction with sports performance was positively related to momentary cognitive liveliness and emotional energy, but only when employees reflected positively on their work during the sports lunch break. Further, cognitive liveliness was positively related to employees’ creativity. However, formal mediation analyses did not support the idea that cognitive liveliness and emotional energy mediate the link between satisfaction with sports performance and creativity. We discuss how these findings contribute to the W-HR literature by showing the potential of sports to improve employees’ feelings and functioning at work.
...  Positive affect fosters creativity (Davis, 2009).  Games can be used to reduce negative emotions (Kleimann et al., 2020). ...
Presentation
COVID-19 accelerated the trend towards virtual teamwork. However, without face-to-face collaboration, teams may fail to build relational links necessary for effective collaboration. Furthermore, in a volatile world, individuals need the capacity to solve challenges creatively. Building on previous research, we suggest that online escape rooms (OER) could serve as means towards teambuilding and creativity. We designed an OER that required participants to solve puzzles by thinking out-of-the-box to escape within an hour. Data was collected from 130 subjects, nested in 40 groups. We measured cohesion, creative self-efficacy, and affect before and after the OER. 96 of 130 participants successfully solved the OER within sixty minutes. Pairwise t-tests showed that cohesion (t(129) = 2.80, p = .003), creative self-efficacy (t(129) = 4.84, p < .001), and positive affect (t(130) = 4.63, p < .001) increased after the OER. Analysis of variance indicated no main effect of successful completion on the dependent variables. We lacked a control group and the majority of our sample were adhoc teams. Results support the notion that OER are an immersive tool that fosters cohesion, creative self-efficacy, and positive affect. We suggest that OER should be applied regularly to boost team climate and especially when new members enter a team to smoothen the onboarding process. To our knowledge, this is the first study that examines the effects of an OER. It thereby offers an engaging possibility how the “social glue” necessary for successful teamwork can be established in virtual environments.
... As there are factors that enhance creativity, there can also be mental blockages than work against it (Groth & Peters, 1999). At this point, there is also considerable research in the way of "breaking" these blockages, like the use of alcohol to disinhibit (Norlander, 1999), the use of "mindless work" for breaking the routine (Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006), reaching positive mood (M. A. Davis, 2009;Vosburg, 1998), or the use of sense of humour (De Napoli et al., 2018). ...
Conference Paper
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Previous studies have demonstrated that humour as external stimulus, applied before the idea generation phase, leads to more creative results. This paper explores how to integrate humour into the design method itself, beyond using it as an external factor, with the aim of encouraging creativity. For this reason, the set of generative questions QuChaNe has been chosen as a design method. The guidelines identified to integrate humour are: selection of a humorous theme that fits with the design method and the designers, obtaining the unexpected and transforming the serious requirement foreseen into a humorous one, keeping the intention. Considering these guidelines, a new version of the QuChaNe questions has been generated. The study compares the creativity, understood as the combination of novelty, usefulness and feasibility, of the final ideas obtained when applying the original set of questions with the questions with the integrated humour. The results point to more novel results when humour is integrated, but less feasible, leading to no significant differences in creativity in general, although it would be interesting to replicate the experiment with other humorous themes in different populations in order to make the conclusions more robust.
... Creativity has typically been measured by examining the results of the creative process and the work leading to the creation of the creative results (Amabile 1982;Davis 2009). Concretely, this often means that participants, 96 undergraduate students in Foregeard's (2011) study, create creative solutions to rare problems (Foregeard 2011;Kaufman et al. 2007). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Over the last 20 years, a very large number of startups have been launched, ranging from mobile application and game providers to enormous corporations that have started as tiny startups. Startups are an important topic for research and development. The fundamentals of success are the characteristics of individuals and teams, partner investors, the market, and the speed at which everything evolves. Startup’s business environment is fraught with uncertainty, as actors tend to be young and inexperienced, technologies either new or rapidly evolving, and team-combined skills and knowledge either key or fatal. As over 90% of software startups fail, having a capable and reliable team is crucial to survival and success. Many aspects of this topic have been extensively studied, and the results of the study on human capital are particularly important. Regarding human capital abilities, such as knowledge, experience, skills, and other cognitive abilities, this dissertation focuses on design skills and their deployment in startups. Design is widely studied in artistic and industrial contexts, but its application to startup culture and software startups follows its own method prison. In the method prison, old and conventional means are chosen instead of new techniques and demanding design studies. This means that when a software startup considers design as a foundation for creativity and generating better offerings, they can grab any industry with a disruptive agenda, making anything software-intensive. The concept of design can be expanded and deepened to a new level. Business can escape the method prison if it adopts artistic design to help stagnant industries and uses disruptive methods with realistic self-efficacy. Through five partially overlapping articles with varying details, this dissertation clarifies the daily themes and interests of startups required to survive and succeed. This dissertation is a reflective practitioner’s investigation of startup practices using a mixed-methods approach. With design-based creativity, startups will be stronger and more successful in the future. They can cause or protect themselves from disruption. Startup can retain customers and its self- efficacy strengthen.
... Creativity and affect. Affect is widely studied in relation to creativity, with positive 170 affective states being significantly and consistently linked to enhanced creative thinking and 171 output Davis, 2009). In their meta-analysis of 102 studies 172 on this topic, Baas et al. (2008) observed that positive, as compared to neutral but not 173 negative, affect was significantly linked to creative products. ...
Article
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Experience of nature is widely linked to wellbeing, including psychological restoration. Benefits to creativity have been explored in a limited number of studies which refer to theories of restorative environments as frameworks, but it is unclear which aspects of the environment and person-nature transactions are implicated in these processes. In this study, N = 20 members of the British public were interviewed regarding the relevance of natural environments for their personal and professional creative activities. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts revealed that cognitive, affective, and aesthetic appraisals were reported as directly relevant to creativity in nature, while environmental properties, sensory experiences, and the self were reported as informing these appraisals. Similarities to theories of restorative environments were observed in terms of the relevance of affect, cognition, and aesthetics. However, divergences also occurred, especially with regard to perceptions of arousal as beneficial for creativity, the importance of change in the environment, and the relevance of the self. Studies and theoretical modelling of relationships between nature and creativity should include these concepts, as well as those from theories of restorative environments.
... Mindfulness and Creativity: As one of the most wellknown practices, mindfulness has shown to have many beneficial effects, such as emotional regulation, increased response flexibility, interpersonal as well as intrapersonal benefits 10 . Increased mindfulness has been linked to creativity 11,12 ; pecifically to creative achievement as well as creative thinking 13,14,15 . Certain abilities that are linked to mindfulness are also related to creativity, such as an increase in the capacity to provide novel responses 16 , increased ability to change perspectives 17 , increased working memory capacity 18 as well as an improvement in management of stress 19 . ...
Article
Existing literature has explored the role of mindfulness and mind-wandering on creative processes. However, it has overlooked the diversity in the creative domains as well as the experience of the artist while accounting for their relationship. In the present study, mindfulness and mind wandering- deliberate and spontaneous were explored among performing artists, i.e. musicians, theatre artists, and dancers. The study also looked at the artists’ experience in their field. After an initial screening using a creativity tool, 66 performing artists were recruited, following which two self-report indices that assessed mind wandering and mindfulness were administered. The data collected was subjected to quantitative data analysis in SPSS. A Oneway ANOVA showed significant effect of the creative domain on mindfulness for the three groups, with a significant difference between musicians and dancers. Among the musicians, a significant negative relationship between mind wandering spontaneous and years of experience was seen. Among the dancers, there was a significant positive association between mind wandering spontaneous, mind wandering deliberate and years of experience. The current study highlighted the need to approach the study of creativity using a contextual perspective. Keywords: Creativity, Dance, Music, Theatre.
... The potentially wide-ranging impact of creativity is further supported by diverse metaanalytic studies that reported consistent effects in a range of developmental domains, including positive mood (Baas et al., 2008;Davis, 2009), mindfulness (Lebuda, Zabelina, & Karwowskia, 2016), intrinsic motivation (Neves de Jesus, Rus Babeş, Lens, & Imaginário, 2013), innovation (Sarooghi, Libaersa, & Burkemper, 2015), selfefficacy (Haase, Hoff, Hanel, & Innes-Ker, 2018), divergent thinking (Gralewskia & Karwowski, 2019), emotional intelligence (Xu, Liu, & Pang, 2019), leadership (Koh, Lee, & Joshi, 2019), social competence (Gråstén, Kokkonen, Quay, & Kokkonen, 2019), academic achievement (Gajda, Karwowski, & Beghetto, 2017), and career success (Raine & Pandya, 2019). ...
Chapter
The present chapter advances PYD scholarship by introducing a newly developed 7Cs model of PYD among youth and emerging adults in three Asian LAMICs (Low-And Middle-income Countries) such as India (n = 218), Indonesia (n = 234), and Pakistan (n = 400). The 7Cs model expands on the 6C indicators of PYD (competence, confidence, character, caring, connection and contribution) to include creativity conceived as a novel and adaptive, problem-solving ability meaningful within social and cultural contexts. The chapter provides solid evidence for (a) the reliability and effectiveness of the 7Cs model in terms of measurement invariance (psychometrically reliable measurement across different populations), utility (appropriate use of measures), universality (applicability to various populations) and (b) structural relations between the 7Cs and the developmental assets models that jointly promote thriving of young people. In conclusion, the 7Cs model has the potential to move forward a PYD priority in research, policy and practice agenda. With this priority in mind, the chapter offers unique conceptual and methodological contributions to the PYD field with relevant applications in international, cross-cultural, developmental, community psychology, and applied developmental science.
... Creativity has typically been measured by examining the results of the creative process and the work leading to the creation of the creative results (Amabile 1982;Davis 2009). Concretely, this often means that participants, 96 undergraduate students in Foregeard's (2011) study, create creative solutions to rare problems (Foregeard 2011;Kaufman et al. 2007). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Over the last 20 years, a very large number of startups have been launched, ranging from mobile application and game providers to enormous corporations that have started as tiny startups. Startups are an important topic for research and development. The fundamentals of success are the characteristics of individuals and teams, partner investors, the market, and the speed at which everything evolves. Startup's business environment is fraught with uncertainty, as actors tend to be young and inexperienced, technologies either new or rapidly evolving, and team-combined skills and knowledge either key or fatal. As over 90 per cent of software startups fail, having a capable and reliable team is crucial to survival and success. Many aspects of this topic have been extensively studied, and the results of the study on human capital are particularly important. Regarding human capital abilities, such as knowledge, experience, skills, and other cognitive abilities, this dissertation focuses on design skills and their deployment in startups. Design is widely studied in artistic and industrial contexts, but its application to startup culture and software startups follows its own method prison. In the method prison, old and conventional means are chosen instead of new techniques and demanding design studies. This means that when a software startup considers design as a foundation for creativity and generating better offerings, they can grab any industry with a disruptive agenda, making anything software-intensive.
... Scholars have long acknowledged that affect-an umbrella term for flitting emotions and longer-term mood-plays an important role in creativity (Amabile, Barsade, Mueller, & Staw, 2005;Baas, De Dreu, & Nijstad, 2008;Bledow, Rosing, & Frese, 2013;Davis, 2009;Harrison & Dossinger, 2017;Harrison & Rouse, 2015). However, the findings regarding whether and how affect enhances creativity are somewhat conflicting. ...
... Several studies have examined the interdependencies of these two phenomena and how they contribute to creative ideation. Sowden and Dawsen show the effect of mood on creative ideation and evaluation in (Sowden and Dawson 2011), and a direct correlation between positive mood and creative output is shown in (Davis 2009). Feist examines several theories about affect and creativity in artists, and valuable insight illustrating that both positive and negative affect can contribute to increased levels of creativity in artists (Feist 1999). ...
... A research (Davis, 2009) also found that a positive mood influences ideational tasks, whereas a negative mood could also help with the problem-solving activities that requires evaluation. ...
Thesis
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To navigate the increasingly uncertain business environment, human-centric design and innovation is becoming a necessity. The ability to think creatively and come up with new solutions is needed to thrive in the future. This requires a shift of mindset from scalable efficiency of the industrial age to sustainable creativity of the digital age for corporate India. While change is hard, it need not be painful. What if there was a more intrinsically motivating and nourishing way to deal with change? This thesis explores the potential of play as a catalyst of co-creation for design-led innovation in organizations struggling to accelerate transformation. First, through the qualitative, interpretative research method, the practical implications of infusing play into work for serious organizational outcomes are discussed using four single case studies that cover empathy, vulnerability, divergent thinking, and creative agility – four integral skills for managers and leaders to rehumanize business, build creative confidence and accelerate change using the human-centric design process. Second, through the cross-case content analysis, this paper quantitatively identifies key micro-behavioral patterns discovered in the co-creation of play-enabled, design-led innovative solutions from six case studies, that result in building design thinking mindsets. Lastly, the within-case and cross-case analysis are compiled and structured to build a conceptual model of skills, behaviors and mindsets resulting from play-infused co-creation, and key implications are provided for organizations struggling to shift mindset and accelerate innovation in the post-pandemic world. Keywords: play, serious play, creativity, creative thinking, co-creation, design thinking, design, innovation, innovation management, transformation, leadership, psychology, empathy, vulnerability, divergent thinking, agility, organization development, organization culture, organization change, organization behavior, learning and development.
... Other studies have shed light on various aspects of how intrinsic motivation can enhance creativity. For example, some researchers have shown that employees' intrinsic motivation improves 'positive affect' (Davis, 2009;Grant and Berry, 2011;Silvia, 2008). The positive affect then increases the scope of cognitive information available, and enhances cognitive flexibility for identifying associations between ideas (Fredrickson, 2001), which leads to the development of more creative solutions (Amabile et al., 2005;Hennessey, 2019;Levasseur et al., 2020;Rego et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Purpose Employees’ creativity is critical for the growth and survival of firms. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a motivational model of creativity to address the effect of an autonomy-supportive climate on employee creativity. This study investigates whether this effect is mediated by intrinsic motivation in employees and depends on company support for creativity. Design/methodology/approach This study used a quantitative approach to collect data by conducting a survey in a developing country using paper-based questionnaires. From 220 questionnaires distributed, 151 usable survey responses were gathered for this study. In addition, structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis. Findings The results suggest a motivational contingent path through which employees’ creativity would be promoted. The findings indicate that employees in autonomy-supportive climates are more intrinsically motivated and more creative only when the company supports creativity. Practical implications The findings suggest that managers should provide employees with an autonomy-supportive climate. Furthermore, rewarding, recognizing and encouraging creativity in employees should be considered by companies. Originality/value This research integrates Amabile’s (1996) model of creativity and basic needs theory to empirically shed light on the inconsistent findings of the mediating role of intrinsic motivation in the relation of contextual factors to creativity. This study extends Amabile’s (1988) model to include an autonomy-supportive climate and explain how and when this kind of interpersonal climate contributes to enhanced creativity in employees. This research contributes to the basic needs theory by demonstrating that satisfaction of basic needs can also enhance creativity. The findings also add to the interactionist perspective of creativity because this study examines the interaction effect of company support for creativity and intrinsic motivation.
... For instance, compared to students engaging in face-to-face brainstorming, those who took part in electronic brainstorming reported significantly higher satisfaction with the interaction process (DeRosa et al., 2007). Positive affect is known to enhance creativity through cognitive flexibility (Baas et al., 2008;Davis, 2009). Another example is VR. ...
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Creativity is essential for the sustainable development of both individuals and organizations. The constant permeation of technology into everyday life is expected to facilitate the cultivation of creativity. To date, no consistent answer has been reached regarding the effect of technology on creativity. This study conducted a three-level random-effects meta-analysis to explore this question. An examination of a sample of 50 studies with 322 effect sizes yielded a moderate positive effect (g = 0.59, 95% CI [0.38, 0.81]). Moderation analysis revealed that the effect was moderated by human–computer interaction, domain, measures of creativity, study design, intervention time, and randomization. Specifically, technologies requiring human–computer interaction led to a greater effect size than those requiring only passive watching. A larger effect was found for creativity in math than in other domains. Effects on originality, elaboration, and overall creativity were greater than those on fluency and flexibility. The effect was larger for studies using a pretest–posttest control group design than those using a posttest control group design. Experiments using a quasi-experimental rather than a randomized experimental design resulted in a lower effect size. Technology interventions spanning a medium or long period displayed a greater positive effect than short-term interventions. These findings confirmed the positive effect of technology on creativity, providing practical implications for creativity educators and researchers.
... This curvilinear relationship between sEBR and AUT performance has also been confirmed from Akbari Chermahini and Hommel (2012), who investigated more closely the association between flexibility and sEBR by means of mood induction (positive or negative). Based on the assumption that positive moods may improve creativity (see, e.g., Baas et al., 2008;Davis, 2009), and that DA may mediate this relationship, authors have demonstrated that a positive mood induction (but not a negative one) increased sEBR, and that this effect was associated with enhanced flexibility scores. Interestingly, low-sEBR individuals benefitted more in terms of flexibility from a positive mood induction than medium or high-sEBR individuals. ...
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The neurotransmitter dopamine plays a crucial role in human creative behaviour. Specifically, striatal dopamine seems to be associated with specific dimensions of divergent thinking performance, especially with categorical diversity (flexibility) of ideas. In experimental contexts, spontaneous Eye Blink Rate (sEBR) has been used as a proxy for striatal dopamine, and an inverted U-shape relationship between sEBR and flexibility has been demonstrated, such that a medium sEBR level predicts highest flexibility levels. The present study aimed at carrying out further investigations about the relationship between sEBR and idea generation through divergent thinking, specifically focusing on the relationship between idea originality and dopamine level, since originality is a key element for creativity. We asked 80 participants, whose sEBR at rest was measured , to perform an Alternative Uses Task (AUT) to measure their divergent thinking performance. Results revealed that the relationship between sEBR and originality, as measured through subjective ratings of external raters, followed an inverted U-shape function with medium sEBR being associated with highest originality scores. Moreover, and most importantly, we demonstrated that sEBR predicted originality through the mediation of flexibility. Our results provide further insights on the possible role of dopamine on divergent thinking performance, demonstrating that an adequate dopamine level may facilitate the generation of original ideas through the exploration of diverse conceptual categories (higher flexibility).
... The second reason may due to the level of difficulty of retention tests. Perhaps positive emotions enhance performance on tasks that mostly require divergent thinking (e.g., think about the various uses of the pencil) [35]. In addition, the retention test largely examined the students' knowledge through memory and repetition; it did not require much positive emotion input, but negative emotions impaired students' memory [36]. ...
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Emotions exist widely in the entire process of learning and affect students’ motivation as well as academic performance. In multimedia learning, academics usually focus on the impact of teachers’ emotions or the emotional design of multimedia learning materials on students’ emotions and learning results. Few studies have investigated how to enhance learning by regulating students’ pre-learning emotions. This study focused on whether playing funny videos before learning could promote students’ positive emotions to enhance their motivation, satisfaction, and learning outcomes. We randomly divided 81 elementary school students into two groups: experimental group and control group. While the experimental group watched funny video clips, the control group watched neutral video clips before starting the video learning. The experimental group had more positive pre-learning emotions than the control group. After the course, the emotion of the experimental group declined while that of the control group enhanced. However, positive pre-learning emotions still promoted students’ understanding and transfer of learning materials. Moreover, no significant differences were observed between the two groups in learning motivation, satisfaction, and retention tests. Furthermore, this paper analyzed the causes of the experimental results and discussed the insights for teaching.
... Consistent with the RH3 hypothesis, science teaching anxiety significantly and negatively correlated with science interest. This finding is consistent with the literature that views interest as a variable that motivates teachers to spend more time doing science with their students (Osborne et al., 2003;Senler, 2016) and anxiety as a variable that inhibits that interest (Davis, 2009;Pekrun, 2006). Taken together, these findings provide strong empirical evidence of the STAS criterion-related validity. ...
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Science teaching anxiety is negative emotion that inhibits a teacher's ability to start, proceed, or finish a science teaching task. Despite its detrimental effects on teachers' science teaching quality and practices, there is limited research on science teaching anxiety. To advance research in this area, there is a need for a psychometrically sound instrument assessing teachers' science teaching anxiety. This study presents the development and psychometric properties of the Science Teaching Anxiety Scale (STAS) in preservice elementary teachers (N = 191) using a Rasch analysis. In addition, it examines the relationships among science teaching anxiety, science interest, and science teaching efficacy (self‐efficacy and outcome expectancy). Results indicated that the STAS has promising validity and reliability for use in future research. Moreover, science teaching anxiety and science interest were significant predictors of teaching self‐efficacy in preservice elementary teachers. Implications for researchers, teacher educators, and individuals who work with new teachers are discussed.
... Third, individuals are happier and more positive if their basic psychological needs are fulfilled (Hahn & Oishi, 2006;Tang et al., 2020). Positive emotion has been confirmed as a key driver of individual creativity (Binnewies & Wornlein, 2011;Davis, 2009), including in the way that teachers vary their teaching (Frenzel et al., 2016). Based on SDT and empirical studies, we postulate that the positive association between the satisfaction of individuals' psychological needs and creative performance also applies to the teacher population, and we advance the following hypothesis. ...
Article
This study investigated the mediating role of teachers' job crafting in the relationship between the satisfaction of their basic psychological needs and self-reported performance in teaching for creativity (TfC). The participants were 1886 teachers from China. The structural equation modelling and bootstrapping results revealed that the association between teachers' basic need satisfaction with self-reported TfC were mediated by teachers' behaviour in increasing structural job resources, optimising demands, and decreasing demands. Teachers’ behaviour in increasing challenging job demands was related only to product-oriented TfC, and behaviour that increased social job resources was not linked to either product- or process-oriented TfC.
... Because the writing process requires the writer to use memory and executive functioning to plan and construct paragraphs effectively and to make decisions about which ideas should be pursued, it could be expected that any major increase or decrease in physical arousal could induce an episode of writer's block by pushing a writer over that threshold, leading to overstimulation and a failure to apply an appropriate amount of concentration, or compelling the writer to return below the minimal threshold, resulting in a lack of stimulation and boredom. Davis (2009) found a curvilinear relationship between affective intensity (exaggerated emotional states like joy or grief) and creative performance. He performed a meta-analysis on the relationship between mood and creativity using 62 experimental and ten nonexperimental studies. ...
... "Broaden" refers to the phenomenon that when individuals experience positive emotions in a nonthreatening situation, they tend to engage in nonspecific actions and become more focused and open (Fredrickson, 2004;Fredrickson and Branigan, 2005). Performance in tasks tapping divergent thinking (e.g., brain storming) can be reliably improved by inducing positive moods (Baas et al., 2008;Davis, 2009), as people experience innovative impulses with positive emotions, by (1) increasing the number of cognitive elements available for the association; (2) paying attention to broader elements relevant to the problem; and (3) enhancing cognitive flexibility (Isen et al., 1987). In this way, positive emotions expand the scope of an individual's attention, cognition, and action. ...
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Research on the relationship between emotions and job performance is ubiquitous, yet few scholars have examined the combined effects of different emotions. Drawing on the broaden-and-build theory and conservation of resources (COR) theory, we propose that employees’ daily emotion fluctuations (positive emotions vs. negative emotions) will affect their service performance in opposite directions. Furthermore, we propose these effects will be moderated by psychological [i.e., regulatory emotional self-efficacy (RESE)] and physiological (i.e., sleep quality) characteristics of the employees. Based on the experience sampling method (ESM), data ( N = 810) obtained from 187 frontline employees of 35 bank branches over 18 consecutive days supports our hypotheses.
... Mood stories provide a method for investigating the impulses that precede agency by exploring how intuitive assessment lays a fragile foundation for what can subsequently be known. They constitute epistemic conjectures through which actuality is apprehended through the kind of creative speculation commonly associated with intuition (Davis, 2009;Forgas, 1995). ...
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What does it mean to speak of a society being nervous, a demos angry, a polity depressed or a population exhausted? Are these merely frothy terms of journalistic description or can such moods be captured in meaningful ways? This article responds to two tendencies: the dismissal of mood as affective blur and claims to represent mood through scales of empirical measurement. The argument presented here is that mood is a definable phenomenon, relating to perceptual confusion between objectivity and subjectivity; diffuse affective sources and cumulative sensations rather than temporally containable events. To speak of the mood of a social situation is to acknowledge this ambiguous juncture between subjective determination and objective constraint. More like background feelings that persists over time, moods frame not only immediate situational experience but scope for future thought and action. In this sense, moods frame political agency. This framing is primarily intuitive rather than conventionally cognitive. This article explores one method for capturing the ways in which mood shapes agency. In interview-based mood stories, interviewees are invited to focus upon how the mood affect them as political actors. Mood stories are neither traditional representational narratives nor simple impressionistic portraits of feelings, but accounts of how people find meaningful ways of constituting their own experience. Mood stories aim to get at the intuitive work involved in forming political experience. The empirical context for the mood stories examined here are 42 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with British citizens aged between 18 and 80 with a view to understanding how Brexit made them feel.
... Notably, moods can change based on emotions. Both moods and emotions can have a positive effect on individual-level outcomes, such as flexibility or creativity (Davis, 2009), and team-level outcomes, such as team cooperation and task performance (Barsade, 2002;Sy, Côté, & Saavedra, 2005). However, being highly intertwined with cognitive processes, emotions can also affect beliefs and judgments in such a way that it disrupts activity, resulting in performance deficits. ...
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Complex work in teams requires coordination across team members and their technology as well as the ability to change and adapt over time to achieve effective performance. To support such complex interactions, recent efforts have worked toward the design of adaptive human‐autonomy teaming systems that can provide feedback in or near real time to achieve the desired individual or team results. However, while significant advancements have been made to better model and understand the dynamics of team interaction and its relationship with task performance, appropriate measures of team coordination and computational methods to detect changes in coordination have not yet been widely investigated. Having the capacity to measure coordination in real time is quite promising as it provides the opportunity to provide adaptive feedback that may influence and regulate teams’ coordination patterns and, ultimately, drive effective team performance. A critical requirement to reach this potential is having the theoretical and empirical foundation from which to do so. Therefore, the first goal of the paper is to review approaches to coordination dynamics, identify current research gaps, and draw insights from other areas, such as social interaction, relationship science, and psychotherapy. The second goal is to collate extant work on feedback and advance ideas for adaptive feedback systems that have potential to influence coordination in a way that can enhance the effectiveness of team interactions. In addressing these two goals, this work lays the foundation as well as plans for the future of human‐autonomy teams that augment team interactions using coordination‐based measures.
Thesis
Die vorliegende kumulative Dissertation beschäftigt sich mit der Fragestellung, welches Potenzial sich aus der Berücksichtigung von Embodiment-Theorien für die Pädagogik ergeben kann. Embodiment bzw. Embodied Cognition (dt. verkörperte Kognition) beschreibt eine Sammlung interdisziplinärer Ansätze innerhalb der neueren Kognitionswissenschaften, die kognitive Prozesse nicht rein geistig verorten, sondern als ein Zusammenspiel aus Geist, Körper und Umwelt betrachten. Im Rahmen der Einleitung findet zunächst eine kurze Darstellung des Forschungsbedarfs und eine Erläuterung der Untersuchungsgegenstände statt. Um eine theoretische Basis für die vorliegende Arbeit zu schaffen, werden im Anschluss die Grundgedanken von Embodiment-Ansätzen kontrastierend zu klassischen Kognitionstheorien vorgestellt. Nach einer allgemeinen theoretischen Einführung zu Embodiment erfolgt eine Überleitung zum Bereich der Pädagogik und damit eine Untersuchung der Thematik hinsichtlich ihrer Relevanz für Lehr- und Lernprozesse. Vor dem Hintergrund der Fragestellung, ob Embodiment zu einem Paradigmenwechsel in der Pädagogik führen kann, bestand das Ziel der Arbeit zum einen darin, bisherige (aus pädagogischer Sicht relevante) Erkenntnisse zu Embodiment aufzubereiten und basierend darauf, anhand zweier empirischer Untersuchungen, konkrete Effekte von Embodiment zu erfassen und hinsichtlich ihrer Bedeutung für Lehr- und Lernkontexte zu diskutieren. Dieses Ziel wurde schrittweise anhand dreier Publikationen verfolgt, welche den Kern der vorliegenden Dissertation bilden und inhaltlich aufeinander aufbauen. Publikation 1 („Embodiment – Die unterschätzte Rolle des Körpers im Lernprozess: Ein Paradigmenwechsel in der Schulpädagogik?“) umfasst eine Sammlung und Systematisierung ausgewählter Einzelbefunde der Embodiment-Forschung auf Theorieebene, wobei der Fokus auf der Beleuchtung bisheriger Forschung aus schulpädagogischer Perspektive liegt. Publikation 1 schließt mit dem Fazit, dass sich aus der Berücksichtigung von Erkenntnissen zu Embodiment wichtige Optimierungsmöglichkeiten für Lehr- und Lernprozesse ergeben können. Publikation 1 ist außerdem der Ausgangspunkt für Publikationen 2 und 3, zwei in Kapitel 3.2 dargelegte empirische Untersuchungen. In Publikation 2 („I sat, I felt, I performed: Posture Effects on Mood and Cognitive Performance“) erfolgt eine theoretische und empirische Auseinandersetzung mit Effekten von Stimmungen und Körperhaltungen auf Aspekte kognitiver Leistung (Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit und -genauigkeit in einem Aufmerksamkeits- und Konzentrationstest). Hierbei liegt der Fokus auf einer vergleichenden Betrachtung aufrechter und gebeugter Körperhaltungen. Entgegen den meisten bisherigen Untersuchungen bestand der Anspruch unter anderem in einer weitgehend impliziten Manipulation der Körperhaltung. Basierend auf vorangegangener Literatur, galt es die Hypothesen zu testen, dass 1) aufrechte Körperhaltungen mit positiverer Stimmung korrelieren, 2) aufrechte Körperhaltungen zu einer höheren Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit in einem Konzentrationstest führen, 3) gebeugte Körperhaltungen hingegen eine genauere Bearbeitung fördern sowie, dass 4) Effekte von Körperhaltungen auf kognitive Leistung durch Stimmung mediiert werden. Die Teilnehmenden bearbeiteten hierfür einen Konzentrationstest sowie einen Fragebogen zu ihrer Befindlichkeit. Es zeigte sich, dass Personen in der aufrechten Bedingung eine positivere Stimmung empfanden und verglichen mit der gebeugten Bedingung bei dem Konzentrationstest schneller arbeiteten. Effekte auf die Bearbeitungsgenauigkeit ließen sich jedoch in der vorliegenden Stichprobe nicht beobachten. Auch eine Mediation der Effekte von Körperhaltung auf Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit durch Stimmung ist in den Daten nicht zu erkennen. Es werden daher mögliche Limitationen und alternative Erklärungen diskutiert. In Publikation 3 („Offene Haltung, offenes Denken? Effekte von Körperhaltungen auf kreative Leistung“) galt es, basierend auf dem Studiendesign von Publikation 2, Effekte aufrechter und gebeugter Körperhaltungen auf kreative Denkprozesse zu untersuchen. Zur Erfassung des kreativen Denkens wurde sich für einen Test zu divergentem Denken entschieden. Die Daten lassen darauf schließen, dass aufrechte Körperhaltungen nicht nur positive Auswirkungen auf die Befindlichkeit zeigen, sondern außerdem auch förderliche Effekte auf die Ideenflüssigkeit und Originalität bei kreativem Denken haben. Auch hier ließ sich jedoch keine Mediation durch Stimmung erkennen, mögliche alternative Hintergründe werden diskutiert. Zusammenfassend wird, basierend auf den Ergebnissen der vorliegenden Dissertation, postuliert, dass Ansätze des Embodiments im Rahmen von Lehr- und Lernprozessen stärkere Berücksichtigung finden sollten.
Article
Though previous research has established a strong link between resilience and cognitive creativity, few studies have extended this association to social creativity. The underlying mechanisms of the influence of resilience on social creativity remain unknown. Therefore, the current study introduced sense of humor and positive mood to explore the influence of resilience on social creativity. We established a chain mediation model with data from 186 Chinese college students. The results showed that resilience was associated with social creativity. The sense of humor and positive mood were serial mediators in this relationship. The results have demonstrated that student participants with higher levels of resilience are more likely to use humor in their study, which may help them get a more positive mood than their counterparts with lower levels of resilience. Then, positive mood is conducive to students' performance of social creativity.
Article
Research has recognized that people regulate their emotions not only for seeking pleasurable experiences but also for receiving instrumental gains. We draw on the theoretical framework of instrumental emotion regulation (IER; Tamir, 2005, 2009) to shed new light on the relationships among creativity, emotion, and psychological well‐being. We outline propositions that explain why there are concurrent creative and well‐being benefits when people experience emotional states that are consistent with their personality trait (e.g., worrisome emotions being consistent with trait neuroticism) even if such trait‐consistent emotions are negative. The IER perspective offers new interpretations of the creativity—well‐being relationship through motivating a more holistic view of emotion regulation and well‐being. We present an integrative theoretical model explicating that instrumental regulation toward trait‐consistent emotions engages people in emotional states that feel affectively right (affective path), motivate them intrinsically (motivational path), and boost cognitive efficiency (cognitive path), thus yielding potential downstream benefits on creativity and well‐being.
Article
Tea consumption has been extensively shown to be closely related to physical health and cognitive abilities. However, there are no definite conclusions on the relationship between tea consumption and convergent thinking. Convergent thinking requires top-down cognitive processing, which focuses on searching for an appropriate idea based on well-defined criteria. It is a necessary part of the creative process and is inextricably linked to divergent thinking that requires people to search for many different ideas with less defined criteria within a wider search span. It has been found that tea consumption is beneficial to divergent thinking in creativity. Given that convergent thinking is related to divergent thinking, we hypothesized that drinking tea may also promote convergent thinking. This research was to investigate the enhancing effects of tea on convergent thinking and test its possible mediating mechanism (i.e., the role of positive emotions) and marginal conditions (e.g., the moderating roles of intelligence and tea preference). In Experiment 1, participants completed the Remote Associates Test (RAT) which requires the solver to create a meaningful link (word association) that mediates three seemingly unrelated cues (e.g., Same–Tennis–Head is mediated by Match) after drinking tea or water. The results showed that the type of drinks and tea consumption habits had a significant interaction effect on RAT scores. The participants who drank tea (v.s. water) performed best in the RAT. A “split half effect” was found. That is, participants' performance in different groups was significantly different in the second half of the RAT, suggesting that drinking tea leads to persistent problem-solving convergent thinking. Experiment 2 aimed to replicate the findings in Experiment 1 using a different convergent thinking task, namely, riddle tasks, where participants needed to solve riddles with different levels of difficulty. The results revealed that performance in the tea group on the difficult tasks was significantly higher than that in the water group; after controlling for knowledge level and intelligence, the differences in the performance in the medium- and high-difficulty riddle tasks between the two groups were significant. Although no experiments found a mediating effect of positive emotions, Experiment 2 showed that the participants in the tea group were happier and more interested in the task than those in the water group. To conclude, the positive effects of tea drinking on convergent thinking was demonstrated, and the moderating effects of knowledge level, intelligence, and tea drinking habits were elaborated. The results have important practical significance for those who are engaged in creative work or those who are prone to fatigue.
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Covid-19 is an ongoing pandemic worldwide that started in the year 2019 from the city of Wuhan China. As the spread of this virus was rapid, people were suggested to wear masks and maintain social distance to avoid the same. This fell like a big challenge in a country like India with a high density of population. The number of restrictions and lockdowns affected the livelihood of almost all the professions. The artist community was one among them. This study aims at understanding the impact of the above-mentioned situation on the Indian Traditional Artist community. An online survey was conducted through Google Forms and collected responses using the COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI) questionnaire from 188 artists along with other demographical and professional details. This study shows that the artist community underwent a considerable amount of distress, with creative block being the topmost difficulty faced, followed by financial and Health issues (Physically and mentally). The study also shows that the digitalization of the Art form has been well accepted and adapted, leading to the opening of new boundaries to the traditional art forms of India.
Article
This research aims to examine whether social venture founder’s entrepreneurial passion can increase employee creativity via creative process engagement and the moderating role of employee mindfulness. A survey was conducted by asking employees of 109 social ventures in Vietnam to evaluate the founders’ entrepreneurial passion and the supervisors to evaluate employees’ creativity as well as employee creative process engagement. Drawing on the broaden-and-build theory, this study found that employee creativity increases when the employees perceive that the social venture founders have strong entrepreneurial passion as explain by higher creative process engagement. In addition, we revealed that the indirect influence of entrepreneurial passion on employee creativity remains significant regardless the employees’ mindfulness. Theoretical and practical contributions are further discussed.
Chapter
This chapter describes a single-objective, multi-facility, location model for a logistics network, whose aim is to support the economical aspect. In this work, a new variant of the facility location model is presented to ask the optimum positions of the new facilities with the target that the aggregate logistics cost from the endure facilities to the new facilities along with the fixed-charge cost will be reduced. A new approximation approach is incorporated for solving the proposed model for extracting results. An experimental design is consolidated to demonstrate the proficiency and viability of the proposed consideration in connection with reality. The novel contributions of this study have introduced a way to connect the facility location problem and fixed-charge transportation problem using a new approximation approach with minimizing the conveyance cost. The chapter ends with conclusions and perspectives on future studies.
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Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits and creativity through mediation of social satisfaction, social adjustment and mental health. Method This research is applied in terms of applied research method and descriptive method of correlation study. The statistical population of the study included kidney Student is a gifted girl working in Hamadan province's Somadas schools and their mothers, The sample size was 435 by using a stratified sampling method and considering the use of structural modeling. The data collection tool was a Neo personality questionnaire, Zoujit Afrooz satisfaction, Abedi's attitude of attitude, short form Reiff psychological well-being scale, and social adjustment questionnaire for students in theses and singing. Data analysis: Data were analyzed using the statistical method of structural equations by soft Smart PLS was analyzed. Results The results showed that the causal model of the research had a good fit and all of the paths had a positive coefficient. Apart from the pathway of psychosis, the satisfaction of pairedness and psychological distress on creativity through the intermediate variable of satisfaction of couples. Conclusion Poverty satisfaction, social adjustment and mental health can play a mediator role in the relationship between personality traits an Keywords: Personality traits, mental health, creativity
Thesis
Creativity is a high-level cognitive function at the basis of various domains of human activity. However, this human capacity, while essential to face the challenges of our society as well as our daily lives, is still poorly understood. Previous research indicates that individual differences in semantic memory structure and processes contribute to individual’s creative abilities. In this thesis, we aim to better understand the relationships between semantic memory and creativity and the underlying brain correlates. In the first part of this thesis, we performed two studies to explore how the properties of semantic memory and brain networks relate to creative behavior. First, in a behavioral study, we investigated the relationships between semantic memory organization and creative thinking. By means of network-based methods, we built individual semantic networks as a proxy of the semantic memory structure and explored their properties in relation to creative abilities. We found that individual differences in semantic network properties correlated to divergent thinking and to creative behavior in real life. Then, in a second study, we replicated these findings and explored the brain functional connectivity underlying the semantic network properties predicting real-life creativity. We found that unique brain functional connectivity patterns underlying the modularity of individual semantic networks predicted individual differences in real-life creative behavior. In the second part, we examined the cognitive processes of semantic memory search that allow higher creative abilities and explored their brain correlates. We found two components that reflected 1) attentional focus allowing persistent search behavior and 2) the flexibility in memory. The first component related to divergent thinking while the second one related to convergent creative thinking. Finally, in the last part, by means of the semantic priming approach, we explored the different types of relationships that participate in the organization of semantic memory. We specifically investigated whether the implicit retrieval of a thematic and taxonomic category is facilitated by two words belonging to this category more than by a single exemplar. We found larger and additive priming in the double priming compared to the single priming condition at the behavioral and electrophysiological level. Our findings improved the actual knowledge on the organization of semantic memory into categories and how related concepts implicitly associate to each other in memory. Altogether, these findings shed light on several neurocognitive mechanisms related to semantic memory structure and processes involved in creativity. This work may also provide new tools that could be useful in future research on creativity.
Article
In the design of user-friendly robots, human communication should be understood by the system beyond mere logics and literal meaning. Robot communication-design has long ignored the importance of communication and politeness rules that are ‘forgiving’ and ‘suspending disbelief’ and cannot handle the basically metaphorical way humans design their utterances. Through analysis of the psychological causes of illogical and non-literal statements, signal detection, fundamental attribution errors, and anthropomorphism, we developed a fail-safe protocol for fallacies and tropes that makes use of Frege’s distinction between reference and sense, Beth’s tableau analytics, Grice’s maxim of quality, and epistemic considerations to have the robot politely make sense of a user’s sometimes unintelligible demands.
Chapter
Human Resource management is among the most critical issues of supply chain management. However, in today's rivalry world, the supply chains should be flexible enough to adapt to market changes. In this regard, designers and executive engineers play a crucial role in responding to market needs, affecting the supply chain system reconfiguring and developing sustainable systems accordingly. This study evaluates the impact of individual and social harmful factors on creativity inaction period in supply chains. The subjects consisted of 362 experts in supply chains using clustering sampling. For this purpose, two questionnaires are designed based on Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (MFQ). The reliability showed that Cronbach's Alphas were 0.953 and 0.797 for individual and social questionnaires, respectively. Results show that the harmful individual and social factors impose adverse effects on individual employees that cause different inaction periods named short-term, long-term, and organizational death of individual creativity inertia.
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Background The COVID-19 outbreak has forced teachers to transition to online teaching, requiring them to adapt their courses and pedagogical methods to an online format rapidly without relevant training. This has presented a formidable challenge to higher education teachers. The present study uses a person-centered approach to identify heterogeneity among higher education teachers’ affective experiences and the relationship between this heterogeneity and their psychological adjustment to online teaching. Methods In total, 2,104 teachers in higher education institutions in Southern China were surveyed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the Psychological Adjustment to Online Teaching Scale (a measure developed for this study) between March 25 and March 31, 2020. The collected data were analyzed using latent profile analysis. Results Based on their affective experiences during online teaching immediately after the COVID-19 outbreak, higher education teachers were divided into three latent classes: the common, ambivalent, and positive types. Among them, the positive type accounted for the largest proportion (44.85%), while the ambivalent type accounted for the smallest proportion (23.93%). The rest was the common type, which accounted for 31.15%. Significant differences in psychological adjustment to online teaching were found between the three latent classes. Regarding positive psychological adjustment, teachers belonging to the ambivalent type had significantly lower scores than those belonging to the other two types. Further, the common type had a significantly lower score than the positive type. Regarding negative psychological adjustment, the ambivalent type had a significantly higher score than the other two types, and the common type had a significantly higher score than the positive type. Conclusion Based on a novel person-centered perspective, this study revealed the differences and complexity in higher education teachers’ affective experiences of online teaching immediately after the COVID-19 outbreak. The three different types of affective experiences (common, ambivalent, and positive) had a significant influence on psychological adjustment, with teachers belonging to the ambivalent type showing the worst psychological adjustment. This study provides a new perspective for the discussion of the relationship between teachers’ affective experiences and their psychological adjustment to online teaching.
Article
This experiment was designed to accommodate the diversified verbal, mathematical, and spatial skills of young adults, which have not yet to be collectively evaluated in research projects focused on acute exercise and creativity among college students. While emerging research suggests that acute moderate-intensity exercise may influence human creativity, creativity during and after exercise has not been experimentally investigated. Such differences are plausible, as previous work demonstrates that memory can be differentially influenced based on whether the memory task occurs during or after exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute moderate‐intensity treadmill walking, for 15 min, on verbal, mathematical, and spatial insight creativity performance while considering the timing of the exercise and creativity tasks. Among a sample of 20 undergraduate students, all completed three randomized laboratory visits in this within-subjects design: control condition, insight problem-solving following exercise, and insight problem-solving during exercise. They also completed six insight creativity tasks (two verbal, two mathematical, and two spatial tasks) per visit, with the order of task-presentation randomized and counterbalanced across the three visits. Average insight creativity scores were similar across the three exercise manipulations: That is, verbal insight [F(2, 18) = 0.689, P = 0.51], mathematical insight [F(2, 18) = 0.033, P = 0.97], and spatial insight [F(2, 18) = 1.0, P = 0.38] performance were not statistically significant across the three visits. Thus, moderate-intensity acute exercise may not appreciably influence verbal, mathematical or spatial insight creativity.
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It is plausible to assume that teachers need motivation, emotions, and self-regulation to teach and promote students’ learning. However, as documented in this special issue, extant research is inconsistent and has documented weak effects of these teacher variables at best. I discuss possible reasons for this paradoxical failure to more fully document the importance of motivation, emotion, and self-regulation. Specifically, in addition to conceptual problems, research has focused too much on using between-person designs, variables with truncated distributions and reduced variance, and samples from single Western countries. To better understand the effects of teacher variables on student outcomes, we need to (1) develop and test more fine-grained theoretical models explaining the mechanisms mediating these effects, (2) complement between-teacher research by within-teacher studies, and (3) examine teacher-student processes across cultural and historical contexts. Collaboration with other disciplines may be needed, including economics, sociology, political science, computer science, and history.
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Purpose Within the theoretical frameworks of conservation of resources and job demands-resources (JD-R), the study aims to examine how sleep deficit could be negatively related to creativity at work by depleting critical resources of creativity. Design/methodology/approach The survey data were collected from 368 individuals nested in 40 teams at a call center. The authors conducted multilevel analysis to test the proposed hypotheses to account for the hierarchical nature of the data while simultaneously estimating the effect of predictors at different levels on individual-level outcomes and maintaining the predictors' level of analysis. Findings Through the data, the study presents how the depletion of resource, that is, emotional exhaustion, functions as a mediating mechanism that connects sleep deficit to creativity at work. Further, the study presents that higher job demands can worsen the negative effects of resource depletion on creativity at work because they further deplete resources needed for creative behaviors. Specifically, when sleep-deprived, those working in a high-task-interdependence climate are likely to experience emotional exhaustion more severely than do those in a low-task-interdependence climate. Also, the relationship between emotional exhaustion and creativity is more negative for managers than for non-managers because of managers' higher job demands. Practical implications By presenting sleep deficit-linked inhibitors of creativity at work, the authors highlight the importance of securing sufficient sleep and affective resources when designing jobs and HR practices in organizations. Originality/value This paper addresses the call for attention to examining the mechanisms through which sleep deficit affects employee creative behavior.
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Of the many factors affecting our lives today, the ever-changing landscape of education is at the forefront. Learning is a complex behavior which involves cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. While pedagogy is the art and science of teaching children, andragogy is the art and science of teaching adults. The term pedagogy came into use in the seventh century. It wasn't until the 19th and 20th centuries that what we know as traditional learning theories—behaviorism, humanism, cognitivism, social cognitivism, and constructivism—were recognized. They were derived from the investigative tools of theorists—Pavlov, Skinner, Piaget, Freud, Maslow, Rogers, and Thorndike—to understand the nature of learning. In 1970, Malcolm Knowles promoted andragogy as a model of assumption that serves as a basis for an emergent theory. Today, the way of differentiating adult learners from children learners is through the process of andragogy.
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Two experiments are reported in which relationships between cognitive control and generative as well as evaluative aspects of creativity were studied. Cognitive control was assessed through the interference effects of the Navon and Stroop tasks. Generative and evaluative aspects of creativity were studied with a procedure, called Generation and Evaluation (GenEva). Each participant first generated a number of solutions to a set of divergent problems, and then he or she evaluated solutions provided by another participant, chosen at random. The data suggest that participants scoring high on Urban and Jellen's Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production showed better indexes of cognitive control than participants with lower scores. A similar relationship has been found concerning the originality of participants' productions (GenEva procedure) but not their fluency and flexibility. These findings are interpreted in terms of basic cognitive processes, which are probably responsible for idea production. It also appeared that cognitive control allowed more accurate evaluation of other people's ideas, but only in the case of participants with global cognitive style of information processing.
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We identify the creative requirement of a job as a neglected predictor of employee creativity and propose that it may account for relationships between traditional work factors and creativity. As such, it may represent a more effective means of increasing creativity than changes in job design. Using structural equation modeling, we tested this model against four competing models using a sample of 1,083 health service employees. Creative requirement was found to account for much of the variance by fully mediating the effects of supportive leadership and role requirements and partially mediating those of empowerment and time demands. We conclude that creative requirement is an important proximal determinant of employee creativity and a potentially significant intervention.
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The current study examined the effect of mood and autonomy in problem definition on the idea-generating performance of temporary workgroups. Groups (N=54) were randomly assigned to a mood (positive vs neutral) and autonomy (high vs low) condition and asked to brainstorm ways to improve university student life. It was found that positive mood increased the originality of ideas and that problems that provided low autonomy led to a greater number of ideas. Mood and autonomy interacted to affect group satisfaction. Furthermore, positive mood led to the identification of more important domains for improvement in the high-autonomy condition. Implications for future research using temporary problem-solving groups are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Pearson product moment correlations are often corrected for statistical artifacts such as range restriction and unreliability. Formulas have long existed to make such corrections. However, other effect size estimates are rarely corrected for these artifacts, in spite of the fact that there is an established mathematical link between the correlation and some effect size estimates. Correlations and other effect sizes are therefore vulnerable to the same artifacts. The authors take a common effect size estimate, the standardized mean difference between two groups, and derive (and reaffirm in one instance) correction formulas suitable for use with this statistic. It is demonstrated how these formulas might substantially increase the precision of estimates and decisions made within organizational research and practice, whenever correction factors can be appropriately estimated.
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Workplace creativity has important organizational and individual implications, and workplace affect seems to influence creative performance on the job. Across studies, however, research examining the relationship between affect and creative performance has yielded inconsistent and sometimes contradictory results. Creativity has been found to be significantly related to positive affective states in some research, but has been tied to negative affective states in others. Various moderators and mediators of affective influences on creativity have been examined in 1 or 2 studies, but systematic reviews and integrative models of research on affect influences on creativity are lacking. In this article, we review the existing research on affect and creative performance and present a theoretical model designed to help integrate results across studies. Implications of our model for future research and for the management of workplace creativity are discussed.
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Two experiments are reported in which relationships between cognitive control and generative as well as evaluative aspects of creativity were studied. Cognitive control was assessed through the interference effects of the Navon and Stroop tasks. Generative and evaluative aspects of creativity were studied with a procedure, called Generation and Evaluation (GenEva). Each participant first generated a number of solutions to a set of divergent problems, and then he or she evaluated solutions provided by another participant, chosen at random. The data suggest that participants scoring high on Urban and Jellen's Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production showed better indexes of cognitive control than participants with lower scores. A similar relationship has been found concerning the originality of participants productions (GenEva procedure) but not their fluency and flexibility. These findings are interpreted in terms of basic cognitive processes, which are probably responsible for idea production. It also appeared that cognitive control allowed more accurate evaluation of other people ideas, but only in the case of participants with global cognitive style of information processing.
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This study provides a comparative test of two psychological theories concerning the relationship between affect and performance. Managerial simulations are used to test whether people who are positive in disposition perform better or worse on both decisional and interpersonal tasks. Results are consistent in supporting the happier-and-smarter as opposed to the sadder-but-wiser hypothesis, since they show positive relationships between dispositional affect and performance. The results are discussed in terms of their relevance to both the older literature on links between satisfaction and performance and the more recent controversy over the dispositional approach to job attitudes.
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A theoretical framework for understanding creativity in a complex social setting, such as an organization, is developed. Organizational creativity is defined as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The starting point for the theoretical development is provided by the interactionist model of creative behavior developed by Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1989). This model and supporting literature on creative behavior and organizational innovation are used to develop an interactional framework for organizational creativity. The theoretical framework is summarized by 3 propositions that can effectively guide the development of testable hypotheses.
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reviews research on the impact of affective states on evaluative judgments, presenting evidence that is difficult to reconcile with the assumption that emotional influences on social judgment are mediated by selective recall from memory / rather, the presented research suggests that individuals frequently use their affective state at the time of judgment as a piece of information that may bear on the judgmental task, according to a "how do I feel about it" heuristic extends the informative-functions assumption to research on affective influences on decision making and problem solving, suggesting that affective states may influence the choice of processing strategies / specifically it is argued that negative affective states, which inform the organism that its current situation is problematic, foster the use of effortful, detail oriented, analytical processing strategies, whereas positive affective states foster the use of less effortful heuristic strategies (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Using a mood-as-input model, the authors identified conditions under which negative moods are positively related, and positive moods are negatively related, to creative performance. Among a sample of workers in an organizational unit charged with developing creative designs and manufacturing techniques, the authors hypothesized and found that negative moods were positively related to creative performance when perceived recognition and rewards for creative performance and clarity of feelings (a metamood process) were high. The authors also hypothesized and found that positive moods were negatively related to creative performance when perceived recognition and rewards for creativity and clarity of feelings were high.
Chapter
The process of creation is a cognitive process. Perceiving, learning, thinking, and remembering—this is the stuff of creativity. The creative process involves the acquisition of knowledge and skills, the transformation of knowledge into new forms, and the rendering of these forms into a shareable product. Each stage in the process entails cognition. It seems appropriate, therefore, to inquire about a cognitive model of creativity. In one way or another, the chapters in this part of the book all address this issue. The purpose of this chapter is to examine the creative process from the perspective of one particular aspect of cognition—metacognition.
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Very little discussion of the nature-nurture topic has appeared in the literature, mainly because of the complexities of the problem and the difficulties of collecting objective evidence. A useful attempt was made by Scheinfeld in his book, Heredity in Humans (1972), but this was a popular rather than a scientific treatment. A brief account by Zigler and Farber (1985) can also be recommended. In the absence of hard data from tests, sociological surveys, or controlled experiments, this chapter has to rely very largely on observational and interview studies, historical or biographic information, the opinions of critics or colleagues about creative individuals, and discussions of theories, all of which are liable to ambiguity and subjectivity.
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Emotional ambivalence, or the simultaneous experience of positive and negative emotions, is an underexplored emotional state in organizations. The results from two laboratory experiments demonstrate that individuals experiencing emotional ambivalence are better at recognizing unusual relationships between concepts, therefore showing an ability believed to be important to organizational creativity. Informational theories of emotion suggest that individuals interpret emotional ambivalence, which is perceived to be an unusual emotional experience, as signaling they are in an unusual environment, which in turn increases sensitivity to unusual associations. These results yield important implications regarding how to influence creative performance at work.
Article
Previous research by Hirt, Melton, McDonald, and Harackiewicz (1996) found that mood effects on creativity were not mediated by the same mechanisms as were mood effects on quantitative measures of performance and evaluations of performance, suggesting that mood may simultaneously be working through different processes (dual process view). However, other research (Martin & Stoner, 1996; Sinclair, Mark, & Clore, 1994) supports a single process, mood-as-information model for similar effects of mood on processing. In the present research, we hypothesized that if a single, mood-as-information process accounts for mood effects on both creativity and quantitative performance, then all mood effects should be eliminated if participants are cued that their mood is irrelevant to the task (cf. Schwarz & Clore, 1983). We manipulated participants' moods prior to task performance and presented them with either an enjoyment-based or a performance-based stop rule; half of the participants were cued to the true source of their moods, half were not. Cueing participants eliminated mood effects on quantitative measures of performance (e.g., number generated). However, consistent with a dual-process view, the cueing manipulation did not affect creativity; happy participants generated the most creative responses regardless of stop rule or cue.
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We examined relations between creative performance and the extent to which employees received support for creativity from both work (supervisors/coworkers) and nonwork (family/friends) sources. We also examined whether (1) employees' mood states mediated the support-creativity relations and (2) creative personality characteristics moderated these relations. Results demonstrated that work and nonwork support made significant, independent contributions to creative performance. Positive mood mediated these relations, and employees with less creative personalities responded most positively to nonwork support.
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Humor is a common element of human interaction and therefore has an impact on work groups and organizations. Despite this observation, managers often fail to take humor seriously or realize its numerous benefits. Humor is more than just funny concepts; it represents a multifunctional management tool that can be used to achieve many objectives. This article describes how managers can use humor to reduce stress and enhance leadership, group cohesiveness, communication, creativity, and organizational culture. Specifically, we suggest humor styles that are best suited to realize these outcomes. Additionally, the effect of humor on organizational outcomes is moderated by individual differences such as ethnicity and gender. Much like selecting the proper tool from a tootkit, managers can select the appropriate humor style suitable for the desired organizational outcome, adjust for individual differences, and achieve positive organizational outcomes.
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In this article we develop a theoretical framework for understanding creativity in complex social settings. We define organizational creativity as the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system. The starting point for our theoretical development is provided by the interactionist model of creative behavior developed by Woodman and Schoenfeldt (1989). This model and supporting literature on creative behavior and organizational innovation are used to develop an interactional framework for organizational creativity. The theoretical framework is summarized by three propositions that can effectively guide the development of testable hypotheses.
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A music mood induction was used to induce either elated, depressed, or neutral mood in 71 college undergraduates. The elated group scored significantly higher than the depressed group on mood ratings. Creativity measures administered to each group revealed that subjects in the elated and depressed groups showed significantly greater creativity than subjects in the neutral group. Findings were interpreted in light of existing research on the relationship between mood and creativity. 1995 Creative Education Foundation
Article
To study productive thinking where it is most conspicuous in great achievements is certainly a temptation, and without a doubt, important information about the genesis of productive thought could be found in biographical material. A problem arises when a living creature has a goal but does not know how this goal is to be reached. Whenever one cannot go from the given situation to the desired situation simply by action, then there has to be recourse to thinking. The subjects ( S s), who were mostly students of universities or of colleges, were given various thinking problems, with the request that they think aloud. This instruction, "Think aloud", is not identical with the instruction to introspect which has been common in experiments on thought-processes. While the introspecter makes himself as thinking the object of his attention, the subject who is thinking aloud remains immediately directed to the problem, so to speak allowing his activity to become verbal. It is the shift of function of the components of a complex mathematical pattern—a shift which must so often occur if a certain structure is to be recognized in a given pattern—it is this restructuration, more precisely: this transformation of function within a system, which causes more or less difficulty for thinking, as one individual or another tries to find a mathematical proof.
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A meta-analysis of 14 studies reporting the effect of argument strength on attitude under various mood states was conducted. The analyses included 39 estimates of effect size that were used to test the predictions of the processing deficit perspectives (i.e., motivational or ability deficits) and the hedonic contingency model. The results were most consistent with the hedonic contingency model, indicating that participants’ processing of messages seemedto be motivated toward attaining or maintaining positive moods.
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This article picks up on the suggestion made by Mumford that the relationship of affect to creativity is an important, new trend in the field. Fuel is added to this argument by pointing to evidence indicating that tasks of creative thinking may be particularly mood sensitive. The main stream argument that positive mood unconditionally and reliably facilitates creativity is characterized as a case of premature closure. Evidence is reviewed that calls this general thesis into serious question. It is concluded that creativity is a multifaceted construct, and that different moods are differentially related to different components of creative thinking.
Article
This study examined how affective states and exposure to diverse information influence figurai divergent thinking using a pretest-posttest design. A total of 148 participants were divided into 4 conditions: positive affect, negative affect, information, and control. In the positive and negative affect conditions, participants respectively listened to the elation and depression statements of the Velten procedure. In the information condition, participants listened to the neutral statements of the Velten procedure. In the control condition, participants listened to word-processing instructions. Divergent thinking was measured using the figurai form of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT), and affect was measured using a mood questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate analyses of covariance were conducted using the TTCT, mood, and state-trait anxiety premeasures as covariates; the TTCT, mood, and state-trait anxiety postmeasures as the dependent variables; and treatment condition as the independent variable. Results showed a significant effect of condition on posttreatment TTCT scores, F(3, 140) = 3.37, p = .0203; mood, F(3, 140) = 7.44, p = .0001; and state anxiety, F(3,140) = 6.27, p = .0005. Comparison tests showed that the information exposure treatment resulted in significantly higher TTCT scores than the control condition, indicating that exposure to diverse information can enhance divergent thinking. Results further indicated that, although the positive affect manipulation was effective in enhancing mood and reducing state anxiety, it did not enhance divergent thinking scores. The negative affect manipulation did not appear to be effective. Possible explanations for these results are discussed.
Article
This study examined how social (group size: two, three, or four persons), appearance (similar or dissimilar dress), and affective (positive or neutral mood) factors can influence social categorization and, consequently, intergroup bias. As expected, positive affect increased the extent to which subjects formed inclusive group representations, anticipating that the members of two groups would feel like one, superordinate group. Also as predicted, subjects in dissimilarly dressed groups expected the memberships to feel less like one group. Consistent with the common in-group identity model, stronger superordinate group representations, in turn, predicted more positive out-group evaluations and lower levels of intergroup bias. The conceptual and applied implications of affect and social representations for improving intergroup relations are considered.
Article
The duration of effects of the Velten mood induction procedure (VMIP) and the effectiveness of a strategy for removing residual negative effects Were experimentally examined. Self-reports of mood taken immediately after the induction indicated that the VMIP successfully induced both elated and depressed moods. Depressed moods were still evident following a JO-minute waiting period; however, they were significantly improved compared to immediately postinduction. Residual negative moods were effectively removed by the reading of a subset of elation statements used during elation induction. Elevated moods induced by' the VMIP were no longer evident at the end of the 10-minute waiting period.
Article
This study examines some specific effects of the Positive and Negative Velten Mood Induction Procedures and of two motion pictures selected for their affect inducing qualities. Results revealed that, despite apparently strong effects on affective state when measured immediately after affect induction, the Velten Statements and one of the films had no discernible effect when measured after a brief, neutral, intervening task. The other film, in contrast, appeared to influence affective state not only when tested immediately, but even after the intervening task. These results were interpreted as shedding additional light on the affect inductions studied, suggesting limitations of some of the techniques, and indicating that induced affect may be measured relatively specifically.
Article
Theoretically, pretend play facilitates cognitive and affective processes important in creativity. Expression of affect states and affect-laden fantasy are affective processes common to both play and creativity. This study investigated the effect of instructing children to engage in happy or angry play on affect in play and on divergent thinking. Eighty 1st- and 2nd-grade children were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups. It was hypothesized that children in the happy and angry puppet play groups would have more affect in their play and that their mood would be congruent with the play instruction. It was also hypothesized that children in the happy and angry groups would have higher divergent thinking scores than children in the free-play and puzzle conditions. One major finding was that children in the angry play group had more expression of negative affect in their play and more self-reported negative mood than children in the other groups. There were no differences among the experimental groups in divergent thinking. However, self-reported mood during the play and puzzle tasks was significantly associated with originality of the divergent thinking responses. Children who experienced more affect as opposed to feeling neutral gave more original responses. The major conclusion of the study is that the play paradigm can be used to study affective processes in children.
Article
Darwinism provides not only a theory of biological evolution but also supplies a more generic process applicable to many phenomena in the behavioral sciences. Among these applications is the blind-variation and selective-retention model of creativity proposed by Campbell (1960). Research over the past 4 decades lends even more support to Campbell's model. This support is indicated by reviewing the experimental, psychometric, and historiometric literature on creativity. Then 4 major objections to the Darwinian model are examined (sociocultural determinism, individual volition, human rationality, and domain expertise). The article concludes by speculating whether the Darwinian model may actually subsume all alternative theories of creativity as special cases of the larger framework.
Article
This study examined the independent and joint contributions of employees' creativity-relevant personal characteristics and three characteristics of the organizational context - job complexity, supportive supervision, and controlling supervision - to three indicators of employees' creative performance: patent disclosures written, contributions to an organization suggestion program, and supervisory ratings of creativity. Participants (171 employees from two manufacturing facilities) produced the most creative work when they had appropriate creativity-relevant characteristics, worked on complex, challenging jobs, and were supervised in a supportive, noncontrolling fashion.
Article
This study examined the independent and joint effects of the nature of a preliminary task, the amount of time devoted to that task, and the amount of information about a subsequent task on individuals' creativity on that subsequent task. In addition, the study examined the possibility that individuals' mood states would explain the effects of the task, time, and information conditions on subsequent task creativity. Data were collected from 149 individuals who completed preliminary and subsequent tasks in a laboratory setting. Results demonstrated that individuals who worked on a complex preliminary task for a short interval or a simple task for a long interval exhibited higher subsequent task creativity than those in other task and time interval conditions (i.e., complex-long interval and simple-short interval). Moreover, these findings were partially explained by 1 positive mood state (enthusiasm) that had been measured immediately after the completion of the preliminary task. Implications of these results for future research and practice are discussed.
Article
The putative importance of analogy in creative insight and intelligence has been repeatedly supported in anecdotal reports of creative scientists and theoretical proposals on creativity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of affect on analogical transfer. For that purpose, three experiments were conducted in which negative, neutral, or positive affect was induced by films. Persons were asked to solve ill‐defined, well‐defined, and insight problems. Analogical reasoning was evoked by base information presented prior to the film and target problem. The first two experiments indicated that positive affect facilitates transfer in ill‐defined problems, but impairs it in well‐defined problems. These findings are discussed in terms of the cognitive strategies used to solve well‐ and ill‐defined problems, and the theoretical assumptions about the impact of positive affect on cognitive organization. The results of the third experiment supported the hypothesis that the influence of positive affect on analogical transfer is related to the form (visual/verbal) of presenting the base analogy.
Article
The hypothesis that the effects of positive and negative mood on creative problem solving may differ as a consequence of the degree of constraint on the solution space of the task was tested. Sixty-eight participants were divided into positive mood, negative mood, and control conditions. Mood was experimentally induced by showing selected film clips, and performance on four different idea production tasks was recorded across a time interval of 4 min for each task. Results showed a significant mood-production time interaction. Positive mood led to the highest number of scores in early idea production and the lowest number in late production, whereas both control and negative mood led to relatively superior task performance in late production. Alternative interpretations of the results are discussed, and suggestions for further studies are offered.
Article
Previous work has shown that positive mood may facilitate creative problem solving. However, studies have also shown positive mood may be detrimental to creative thinking under conditions favoring an optimizing strategy for solution. It is argued herein that the opposite effect is observed under conditions promoting loose processing and satisficing problem-solving strategies. The effects of positive and negative mood on divergent-thinking performance were examined in a quasi-experimental design. The sample comprised 188 arts and psychology students. Mood was measured with an adjective checklist prior to task performance. Real-life divergent-thinking tasks scored for fluency were used as the dependent variables. Results showed natural positive mood to facilitate significantly task performance and negative mood to inhibit it. The re was no effect of arousal. The results suggest that per sons in elevated moods may prefer satisficing strategies, which would lead to a higher number of proposed solutions. Persons in a negative mood may choose optimizing strategies and be more concerned with the quality of their ideas, which is detrimental to performance on this kind of task.
Article
Two positions concerning positive mood and its relation to creative problem solving have been taken. The general position (GP) postulates that there is a consistent positive relation between positive mood and creative problem solving. The qualified position (QP) states that the relation is a contingent one. This study explores one possible limitation to the GP, by testing Weisberg's (1994) suggestion that positive mood facilitates productivity but not quality of ideas. Self-reported mood was measured by positive, negative, and arousal scales. Divergent thinking tasks scored for fluency, flexibility, originality, and usefulness were used as criterion variables. A perfect, theoretically predicted rank order between positive mood and degree of solution constraint measured by the divergent thinking indices emerged. Positive mood was significantly related to an idea quantity factor but not to an idea quality factor. Although this evidence is not conclusive, it supports the QP and indicates that the GP should be modified to include task type and degree of solution constraint.
Article
Three experiments investigated why and when sad moods might inhibit generative thought relative to happier moods. Specifically, sad moods might inhibit generative thought compared to happier moods, because they result in individuals' (a) being less likely to use accessible, old ideas; (b) being less likely to use novel ideas; or (c) having less material available in memory. These three possibilities were investigated by having participants in happy or sad moods completed a task that familiarized them with a set of solutions to an upcoming generative task. In contrast to the hypothesis that participants in sad moods were less likely to use accessible ideas than those in happy moods, mood did not influence the use of old solutions on the generative task. Instead, mood affected how many new responses participants generated, with those in sad moods generating fewer new responses than did those in happy moods. This effect of mood was eliminated when participants were told that all responses were acceptable. Because these instructions affect how individuals use information from memory but could not affect what was in memory, these results suggest that mood alters the use of novel information rather than altering the use of accessible responses or the type of material in memory.
Article
Proposes an interactionist model of creative behavior that incorporates elements of personality, cognitive, and social psychology explanations of creativity. In the model, creative behavior is viewed as a complex person–situation interaction. Antecedent conditions exist as a precursor to the current state of the person and their interaction. Antecedent conditions that affect creativity include past reinforcement history (learning), early socialization experiences, and background characteristics such as gender and socioeconomic status (SES). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)