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Experimental observation and analysis of action of light magnetic monopoles on multilayer surfaces



The mechanism of creation of hollow macroscopic periodic channel formed on a surface and in a volume of a MDS-structure during experiments with a high-current vacuum-tube diode at collapse conditions in anode is studied. It is shown that the reason for the appearance of such a trajectory can be the interaction of a magnetically charged particle with paramagnetic and diamagnetic surface layers of the MDS-structure. Particles with magnetic charge can be formed during the shock action of a high- current electron beam and the subsequent self-compression of the frozen magnetic field of the beam. It is shown that the great specific energy release, dQ tot /dl!"10 6 GeV/cm , spent on the formation of this channel can be due to the processes of nuclear synthesis which are occuring with participation of MDS-structure surface nuclei stimulated by magnetically charged particles. It is shown that these particles have small mass (much less then 10-22 gram) and are, most likely, light magnetic monopoles as proposed
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... These monopoles (or associated secondary particles) leave characteristic tracks on several materials, such as X-ray or nuclear emulsions, metals [5] or silicium [6]. These tracks look very different from what is usually recorded in particle experiments ( [1], [3]) and justify a closer analysis. ...
... As the film has been developed in a liquid solution, one immediately thinks that these rings could be due to bubbles present before the drying process. But they have also been observed on metallic plates exposed close to electric discharges [5], [6] and this explanation seems unlikely. ...
... These elongated tracks may also be discontinuous, as shown on figure 4 below : This discontinuous character has been noted from the beginning by Urutskoev et al. [1] who called them "caterpillar" tracks, and has also been observed on solid Si-AL surfaces [6]. ...
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We review and discuss in some detail tracks recorded on X-ray films, following electric breakdowns in water, as initiated by L. Urustkoev et al. [1]. We suggest that they are the result of the production of light magnetic monopoles, theoretically predicted by G. Lochak [2].
... Возникновение «странного излучения» [4]. В качестве трековых детекторов использовались МДП-структуры. ...
... Обнаружены треки, характерные для так называемого «странного излучения», традиционно возникающего в ходе экспериментов по исследованию низкоэнергетических ядерных реакций (LENR-реакций) [5]. В работе [4] отмечается, что обнаруженное излучение можно рассматривать как легкие магнитные монополи Ж. Лошака [6]. ...
The article describes experiments carried out on the high-current pulsed electron accelerator Terek-2. The experiments, in their main features, reproduce the results obtained earlier in the Proton-21 laboratory. The incentive to carry out the experimental studies described in the article was an attempt to experimentally confirm the idea of a “hyperbolic lens” described in [1].
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The present theory is closely related to Dirac's equation of the electron, but not to his magnetic monopole theory, except for his relation between electric and magnetic charge. The theory is based on the fact, that the massless Dirac equation admits a second electromagnetic coupling, deduced from a pseudo-scalar gauge invariance. The equation thus obtained has the symmetry laws of a massless leptonic, magnetic monopole, able to interact weakly. We give a more precise form of the Dirac relation between electric and magnetic charges and a quantum form of the Poincare first integral. In the Weyl representation our equation splits into P-conjugated monopole and antimonopole equations with the correct electromagnetic coupling and opposite chiralities, predicted by P. Curie. Charge-conjugated monopoles are symmetric in space and not in time (contrary to the electric particles), an important fact for the vacuum polarization. Our monopoles are magnetically excited neutrinos, which leads to experimental consequences. These monopoles are assumed to be produced by electromagnetic pulses or arcs, leading to nuclear transmutations and, for beta radioactive elements, a shortening of the life time and the emission of monopoles instead of neutrinos in a magnetic field. A corresponding discussion is given.
We consider the peculiarities of the fundamental nuclear transformations running both in the shell of a heavy star compressed by the strong gravitational field and during the laboratory electron-nucleus collapse where the compression occurs at the expense of the electron-nucleus interaction in a volume occupied by a degenerate electron gas, define their analogs, and analyze the differences. It is shown that the account of relativistic and nonlinear corrections to the Coulomb electron-nucleus interaction gives the possibility to realize two alternative ways for the evolution of the star matter which depend on both the rate of compression upon the gravitational collapse and the initial isotope composition of a star on the stage preceding the collapse. Upon the relatively slow compression of a heavy star in the process of gravitational collapse after the attainment of the threshold electron density, there occur the stage-by-stage neutronization of nuclei and the formation of a neutron star with a great concentration of neutrons and a low concentration of protons and electrons. This process is characterized by the presence of a bounded interval of the density of a relativistic degenerate gas of electrons (“the neutronization corridor”), in the scope of which the neutronization runs with a decrease in the Fermi energy and the release of energy in the form of fast neutrinos. At a higher electron density, the process of protonization becomes energy-gained. In this case, an increase in both the charge of nuclei and the concentration of degenerate electrons causes the continuous increase in the binding energy of electrons and nuclei which turns out to be more significant than the increase in the Fermi energy of electrons. The transition of nuclei through “the neutronization corridor” into “the protonization zone”, which ranges up to the nuclear density of a substance, is possible only in the case of a very fast compression of a heavy star. Such a process leads to the possibility of the formation of proton stars with a very small residual concentration of neutrons and a great (nuclear) concentration of protons and electrons. It is shown that analogous effects can be realized during the laboratory electron-nucleus collapse. Due to a microscopic size of the collapse zone, a great velocity of its formation, and a relatively low rate of neutronization, the passage of the electron-nucleus substance through “the neutronization corridor” weakly affects its state. In this case, the main mechanism of transformations is the process of protonization with a simultaneous increase in the concentration of degenerate electrons.
This paper presents a brief review of the existing approaches to the creation of superheavy nuclei in collisions of heavy nuclei to overcome the Coulomb barrier or through the pion condensation in a nucleus volume. A principally new approach to the creation of superheavy nuclei based on the stimulation of a self-organizing collapse of electron-nuclear systems is analyzed. For a neutral atom compressed by external forces, a threshold electron density is shown to exist. If such a density is reached, a self-organizing process of “electron downfall to the nucleus” starts. This process is exoenergic and leads to the formation of a supercompressed electron-nuclear cluster. The higher the charge of a nucleus, the lower the threshold of the external compression. It is shown that the maximum binding energy shifts during such a self-organizing collapse of the electron-nuclear system from Aopt ≈ 60 (for uncompressed substance) to the area of high mass numbers Aopt ≥ 200⋯ 2000 and could render the synthesis of superheavy nuclei to be energy-efficient. The synthesis proceeds through the absorption of other nuclei by the collapsed nucleus. It is theoretically proved that the synthesis efficiency is ensured by both the width reduction and increased transparency of the Coulomb barrier in the extremely compressed electron-nuclear system. The release of binding energy through the absorption of nuclei by the electron-nuclear collapsed clusters may result in the simultaneous emission of lighter nuclei. It is assumed that just such a mechanism of synthesis explains the creation of superheavy and other anomalous nuclei observed in the experiments carried out at the Electrodynamics Laboratory “Proton-21.”
We considered peculiarities of the evolution of a region with sharp boundaries that is filled with a partially ionized plasma and is a part of the volume of a condensed target. The creation of such a region in the near-surface layer of the target can be related to the action of an external impulse symmetric ionizator or to the action of an intense small-extension shock wave on the target surface. We defined the conditions such that their fulfilment during the establishment of the equilibrium between the Coulomb attraction of electrons and ions with atom ionization multiplicity Z*1 and the kinetic pressure of electrons causes both the compression of this region and its ionization to the state with Z*2 > Z*1. The last leads to a further additional compression and ionization. Under these conditions, the spontaneous avalanche-like ionization of atoms of the target to the state of bare nuclei occurs synchronously with the avalanche-like metallization and the self-compression of the target. We showed that the avalanche-like ionization and the self-compression of the target happen in the case where the gas of degenerate electrons has drift momentum. If the region with initial ionization has the form of thin spherical layer, the process of avalanche-like ionization and self-compression of the target in this region is accompanied by the accelerated movement of the plasma layer to the target center. One of the reasons for the accelerated movement is the surface tension in a bounded domain of the nonequilibrium plasma layer neutralized by ions of the target. With increase in the velocity of movement of this layer to the target center, the additional self-compression of the system of electrons and nuclei to the state of degenerate electron gas occurs. At the leading edge of the running layer with extremely high electron density which is neutralized by nuclei of the target, the formation of a collapse of the electron--nucleus system proceeds, and the binding energy maximum for the electron--nucleus system shifts from A60 to A 60. This result makes possible the fast synthesis of superheavy nuclei. The decay of the collapse state, a partial restoration of the target structure, its rapid cooling, and the condensation of a part of the products of nuclear reactions happen in the target volume at the trailing edge of the moving plasma layer. Upon such a scanning propagation of the wave with high electron density, all the target substance is involved, step-by-step, to the process of nuclear transformations. At the target center, the moving plasma layer is squeezed with the formation of the state of quasistationary collapse under inertial confinement. Then the collapse state decays irreversibly.
  • L I Urutskoev
  • V I Liksonov
  • V G Tsinoev
Urutskoev L.I., Liksonov V.I., Tsinoev V.G. Prikladnaia Fizika (Applied Physics), № 4, (2000), 83 (In Russian).