Article

Diversity and Population of Timber Tree Species Producing Valuable Non-Timber Products in Two Tropical Rainforests in Cross River State, Nigeria

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Abstract

Two tropical rainforest reserves, namely Afi River and Oban West forest reserves in Cross River State, Nigeria, were assessed for the diversity and population density of timber tree species producing economically valuable non-timber products. Species similarity index of the two forest reserves was determined using Sorensen's similarity function. Totals of 12 and 11 tree species were encountered in Afi River and Oban West forest reserves respectively. Population densities of the tree species ranged from 1 to 5 ha -1 and 1 to 11 ha -1 in Afi River and Oban West forest reserves respectively. The species similarity index of the two forest reserves was 0.51, implying some similarity in their constituent tree species. However, all the species in the two forest reserves were endangered, except Allanblackia floribunda and Parkia bicolor found only in Afi River forest reserve. Therefore, there is need to conserve the tree species through participatory and sustainable multiple value management of the forests.

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... Where: F k – frequency, Y i – incidence of species k in site I, n – number of species sampled *In = Natural log The Beta diversity/similarity for the two study areas were determined using Sorensen's index as described by Olajide et al (2008). Sorensen's index (SI) is expressed as: SI = [ ...
... The existence and population density of a plant species in a tract of a rainforest is a function of the availability of its seeds or propagules and the existence of favorable micro-climate for the seed germination and growth (Olajide et al., 2008). Furthermore, the abundance and rarity of a plant species, especially those of great economic value, is a function of the intensity and pattern of exploitation which the forest is generally subjected to (Udo et al., 2009). ...
... Consequently, the identification of 41/ha tree species in the two sites showed that the two community forest is very under stocked in tree diversity. Accordingly, a forest is considered rich in tree species if a hundred different species are found in a single hectare (Nwoboshi, 1982; Pathasrathy and Karthikeyan, 1997 and Onyekwelu et al., 2005)Udo et al., 2009; Olajide et al., 2008). According to Pathasrathy and Karthikeyan (1997), tree species with less than 10 stands per/ha are considered as a rare or endangered species. ...
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Two tropical forest fragments namely Ikot Efre Etak and Asanting community forests in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria were assessed for the population and diversity index of plants producing valuable forest products. Appropriate ecological model were used to obtain the plant population density, Abundance/Richness index, diversity index similarity index. A total of 69 plant species comprising 41 species of trees, 13 shrub, 8 herbs, 4 climbers and 3 palms were encountered in the study areas. Apart from Canarium schweinfurthii (Linn.) and Mimusops heckelii (Linn.) with density of 11and 16 individual/ha respec tively, all other tree species had a density of less than 10 individual/ha. Bambusia vulgaris (Schrad. Ex Wend.) had the highest shrub population density of 31 individual/ha, and in the herb category, Costus afar (Ker - Gawl.) and Hippocratea africana (Willd .) had the highest density of 53 and 11 individual/ha. Furthermore, the result also shows that Ancistrophyllum secondiflorum (P. Beauv and Wendl.) had the highest population density of 23 individual/ha in the palm category. The Sorensen’s similar indexes f or the two sites were Tree (41.46%), Shrubs (46.15%), Herbs (37.5%), Climber (50%) and Palm (33.33%). The study implied that The forest have extensively been degraded as a result of unsustainable exploitation. This has affected the plant population in the area. Community dependence on forest resource for their livelihood has drastically reduce the population of both flora and fauna species in the forest. Enrichment planting should be carried out for ecological restoration of the degraded area.
... The high IVI values recorded by Podococcus barteri may invariably suggest that this species was the most ecologically dominant and adaptive species. This may be attributed to the abundance of propagules or seeds that facilitated ecological succession [36,36]. Furthermore, Olajide et al. [37] stated that the existence and population density of a plant species in a tract of a rainforest is a function of the availability of its seeds or propagules and the existence of favorable micro-climate for the seed germination and growth. ...
... The high IVI values recorded by Podococcus barteri may invariably suggest that this species was the most ecologically dominant and adaptive species. This may be attributed to the abundance of propagules or seeds that facilitated ecological succession [36,36]. Furthermore, Olajide et al. [37] stated that the existence and population density of a plant species in a tract of a rainforest is a function of the availability of its seeds or propagules and the existence of favorable micro-climate for the seed germination and growth. ...
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Aims: Ecological Profile Of Ikot Efre Itak Forest, Akwa Ibom State were accessed to ascertain its phytodiversity and soil physicochemical status. Study Design: Systematic sampling method was used in sampling soil and vegetation parameters. Place and Duration of Study: This study is carried out in Ikot Efre Itak forest in Ikono Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, between two seasons: rainy (April-October) and dry (November-March). Methodology: Systematic sampling method was used in studying the vegetation and soil. A total of thirty plots were sampled in each season. Total area of vegetation sampled was 1500 m 2. Soil samples were analyzed following the standard procedures outlined by the Association of Official Analytical Chemist Results: The result revealed a total of 30 plant species belonging to 18 families were encountered. Family Fabaceae had the highest number of 6 plant species followed by Meliaceae, Arecaceae, and Euphorbiaceae with 3 plant species each. The tallest and shortest species were Berlinia confusa (19.03 ± 3.05 m) and Anchomanes difformis (2.05 ± 0.03). Shannon-Wiener and Simpson diversity indices of 2.71 and 0.89 were recorded respectively. Physicochemical analyses revealed that in IEF Original Research Article Imedimfon et al.; AJRIB, 6(4): 49-58, 2021; Article no.AJRIB.78291 50 the soils were moderately acidic and highly sandy, having low concentrations of some plant nutrients. Correlation analysis indicated significant relationships between plant species and plant nutrients. In this study, soil pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, Zn, and Fe were the most outstanding soil variables influencing the structural properties of these forests. Conclusion: It is concluded that the forests were not structurally complex as expected of a tropical rainforest partly due to anthropogenic activities but give an indication of good regeneration of constituents' plant species and thus reinforced the hope that these forests if preserved can return to its primary status.
... Despite the preventive and regulatory measures, there still exist frequent cases of illegal logging and poaching activities in forest reserves (Udofia et al., 2011). These activities have led to deforestation and forest degradation thereby detrimental to the recruitment and regeneration of indigenous tree species and other forest biodiversity Olajide et al., 2008;Etigale, 2010;Udofia et al., 2011;Udoakpan, et al., 2013). In addition, vast areas of forest are being converted into plantation of exotic tree species, due to the believed that they grow faster than the indigenous species (Udofia et al., 2011;Onefeli and Adesoye, 2014). ...
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Nigeria paper industry has not reached the optimum performance level expected of it by planners despite the huge money spent on the inputs. This paper examines the problems militating against pulp and paper production in Nigeria and highlights the pathway for leading to complete dependence on importation of paper and paper products. In 2006, the mills were privatized, and, currentlymore sustainability of industrial growth most especially in the pulp and paper industries. and 66.17% in the 1960’s.In 1996, The Nigeria Newsprint Manufacturing Company (NNMC), Oku Iboku alsostopped production 1970s performed optimally except The Nigerian Paper Mill, Jebba in the 1980’s as pulp and paper importation reduced drastically as a result of high capacity utilization in the mills. In 1985 and 1986, capacity utilization in Nigerian Paper Mill was 62.3% in 1960’s arborea, Pinus caribaea,etc. are threatened due to high rate of deforestation and increasing demand of their wood for other promoting optimal pulp and paper capacities locally. Commonly used tree species for pulp and paper production like Gmelina machinery for massive sustainable wood production. Likewise, the use of indigenous wood species and agricultural residues should be establishment of pulp and paper mills in the country before it finally stop production in 1994 due to the high dependence on foreign encouraged for long fiber pulp production. Efforts should further be made for a stable power supply from national grid to ensure the economic purposes. Hence, none of the three primary pulp and paper mills established in the country by government within 1960s to than 500 billion naira is expended on importation of paper products annually. The only and urgent remedy is to put in place Keywords: Forest product,pulp and paper, newsprint, manufacturing, industry
... In Nigeria, diversity offlora species available in some vegetated areas have been determined through taxonomic rambling and survey (Soladoye et al., 2005;Olajide et al., 2008;Onefeli et al., 2012;Soladoye et al., 2015;Onefeli, 2016). Taxonomic rambling can be defined, as the exploration, identification and enumeration of the existing flora species by walking through a natural environment (Sheila, 2016). ...
... Plants such as I. cylindrica and C. odorata are to be greatly monitored [30]. The allelopathic properties of the C. odorata aid it in gaining dominance in vegetation, and in replacing other aggressive invaders such as Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) and Imperata cylindrica Beauv (Poaceae) [47]. ...
... The presence of a plant species in an area shows the ability to adapt to habitat and wide tolerance to environmental conditions. The greater the IVI value of a species is, the greater the level of mastery of the community and vice versa [13].The springs in Belo are dominated by coconut or L. nucifera L. ...
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This study aimsat determining the profile of riparian trees in springs located in Belo and Labat somewhere around Kupang city Indonesia. This is a descriptive study applyinga systematic random sampling method. The results show that both, naturlaness and hemeroby of spring in Belo show the same index that is 4, while in Labat were respectively 3 and 5. This is clearly seen that the index of species richness in Belo was higher (3.1) than that in Labat (1.6).However, the diversity index of riparian tree in Belo (1.83) and Labat (1.45) are categorized as low compared with the diversity index according to Krebs (1985). The composition of riparian tree species insprings located in Belo and Labat were not same or the similarity index (SI)is 42.05%. The riparian tree vegetation has been experiencing degradation due to the influence of high anthropogenic activities. Keywords: Riparian; Water springs
... The highest and least number of trees exploited was 603 and 6 trees respectively, while the annual mean trees exploited was 73.55±131.52. The variation in number of trees exploited agrees with the observation by Adekunle et al. (2003) andOlajide et al. (2008) that variation in the number of merchantable timbers is as a result of pressure on the forest estate and what was removed was far beyond the natural capacity of the forest to recuperate in order to continue its normal functions. Also, the 1,471 number of trees exploited in the state was far lesser than the 111,377 stems of trees exploited in Ondo between 2003(Adekunle et al., 2013). ...
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This paper analyzed and evaluated the efficiency of forestry sector in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. It examined the nature of Return to Scale (RTS) of the sector and measured the extent of overall technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency (SE) offorestry sector using the non-parametric approach, data envelopment analysis (DEA). This approach also determined the causes of inefficiency in forestry sector. The data for the study was obtained from the entire forest division and forestry directorate in the state from 1996–2015. The results showed that the forestry sector was only efficient for 10 years out of the 20 years studied and had a mean efficiency score of 81.74%. Also, the sector operated at 97.96% of its productive scale size, thereby operating at decreasing Return-to-Scale (RTS) for eight years and increasing Return-to-Scale (IRS) for two years only. It is suggested that the forestry sector must vary its reduction in inputs and adopt innovations in order to optimize its scale of operation.
... The products are normally sold in the rural and urban areas by the people who sell them to earn a living (Nath et al., 2009;Udo et al., 2009). The low (H) index value of the tree species also indicates that these tree species are low in their distribution; similar findings were reported by Olajide et al., (2008) and Udo et al., (2009). ...
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Due to the high rate of deforestation and degradation activities carried ecosystem, this study assessed the tree species population frequency, density, abundance and diversity in ten communalforests (two each) of the five Local Government Areas (Ogoja, Yala, Bekwarra, Obudu and Obanliku) of Northe The study was carried out from (November, 2015 out in a spoke design and tree species present on the plots were recorded. Survey results total of 143 trees belonging to 45 families in the study area. The relative frequency and abundance of the tree species under study varied across the study sites. The highest percentage frequency of the tree species was 24% while the lowest was species was 2 stem/ha while the lowest was 0.1666 stem/ha. Abundance results show that the species were mostly low in their distribution with abundance of (1.00 Sankw Sankwala (8.18) had the highest species richness index while Omulako (4.63) had the lowest. Sankwala forest had the highest diversity index value of 2.12 while Omu This study shows that majority of the trees were low in their distribution and are declining in the study area. Appropriate decisions and measures in sustainable forest management are strongly recommended so that the forests wou around the forests. Copyright©2017, Akwaji Patrick Ishoro and Edu Esther Aja permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
... Population densities of the tree species ranged from 1 to 5 ha -1 and 1 to 11 ha -1 in Afi River and Oban West forest reserves respectively. The species similarity index of the two forest reserves was 0.51, implying some similarity in their constituent tree species (Olajide et al., 2008). ...
Thesis
Western Ghats is one of the rich repositories of plants comprising of many endemic species. Nearly one third of the endemic plant species of the Western Ghats are threatened and are believed to be on the verge of extinction because of the various anthropogenic activities. To conserve such species from extinctions, many of the conservationists use the term ‘flagship’ which represents the species by raising funds and drawing public support at large for their conservation. For identification of flagship species, different criteria with equal weightage were considered followed by scoring of the listed species. Dipterocarpus indicus scored the maximum points followed by Dysoxylum malabaricum, Calophyllum apetalum, Saraca asoca, Vateria indica, Artocarpus hirsutus and others as the flagship species for the Western Ghats of Southern Karnataka. The species like S. asoca and D. malabaricum were not recorded from any of the study locations whereas C. apetalum was recorded only at Makutta. D. indicus, V. indica and A. hirsutus were distributed through out the study area. Estimated density, population structure and regeneration status of the forest at different locations varied. The number of trees (ha-1) were found to vary among the study locations and were in the range of 421+ 22.49 to 550+ 43.30 trees ha-1. The estimated basal area of the forests at different locations ranged from 28.49+ 11.42 m2ha-1 to 78.12+ 30.81 m2ha-1. The species richness value of the forests of different locations was also varying with a range of 18+ 0.58 to 42+ 2.63 species. The Shannon’s diversity index values were in the range of 2.31 to 3.30 while, Simpson’s index values varying with a range of 0.05 to 0.17. The number of regenerating individuals (ha-1) was varying among the different locations with a range of 19,200 to 36,889 ha-1. The list of the Importance Value Index of flagship species and its associates showed that, most of the locations are dominated by flagship species. The density, population structure and regeneration status of D. indicus, C. apetalum, V. indica and A. hirsutus were found to vary among different locations. In most of the locations, trees of lower girth class were more in number compared to higher girth classes. The information on density, population structure and regeneration status of identified species could be useful for demarcating new conservation areas for appropriate conservation initiatives.
... It is a dicotyledonous legume that grows in the swaps or rain forests and welldrained soil of South-Eastern Nigeria and Western Cameroun. It is a huge tree which has twisted and spreading branches with a bark that often exudes a buttery gum [3][4][5]. Its flowers spring forth between April and May and the fruits ripen between September and January. ...
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Brachystegia eurycoma is a leguminous plant that is popular amongst the people of the Southern part of Nigeria for its ethnomedicinal and nutritional values. However, this legume has been grossly underutilized despite the promise that it holds for food and drug development. Hence, this review sheds light on the past and present states of research as well as the way to go regarding future research on the nutritional and medicinal values of Brachystegia eurycoma (B. eurycoma) with a view to inciting research interests that may lead to food and drug development from the plant. This review is based on a literature search of scientific journals and books from the library and electronic sources, which revealed that the seeds possess most of the nutritional and medicinal values of the plant. Extracts and purely isolated compounds from the plant have been reported to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, wound healing, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, and blood glucose lowering activities as well as lipid profile, liver enzyme, and gastrointestinal motility modulation activities. Toxicological evaluation of extracts from this plant did not show any significant acute and sub-acute toxicities in rodents. Evaluation of the gums from the seeds of the plant has proven their application as food and pharmaceutical adjutants. Taken together, the findings from this review have unveiled the need for further scientific exploration of the constituents of B. eurycoma as potential sources of new food/nutritional adjuvant and medicines.
... The stem volume and basal area per hectare obtained in the four sites (Table 1) were higher than those reported by previous researchers (e.g., Adekunle, 2006;Adekunle, Akindele, & Fuwape, 2004;Adekunle & Olagoke, 2008;Alder & Abayomi, 1994) for other tropical rainforests in Nigeria. This observation may be one of the reasons why the Oban Forest has been considered the greatest in the country in terms of stocking and species richness as pointed out in a previous study by Olajide, Udo, and Out (2008). Three of the study sites (i.e., Ekang Aking, and Ekuri) are characterized by hilly terrain, which may have also reduced human interference and encroachment in those sites, thereby increasing species diversity since there would be reduced pressure for resources. ...
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The suitability of Site Form (SF) methods for evaluating site quality was investigated. Systematic sampling techniques were used for plot location in four sites (Aking, Ekang, Erokut, and Ekuri) within the Oban Forest of Nigeria. Four 2 km-long transects/site were sampled, totalling 16 transects. Five 0.25 ha-plots were alternately laid along each transect, making 80 plots. All trees with DBH≥10 cm were measured for height and diameter at the merchantable limit, middle, and base. Soil samples were collected at 0–15 and 15–30 cm depths in each plot, then analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. Site forms (SF) were computed using index diameter of 25 cm. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analyses, and regression models. Ekuri had highest stand density (173.0 ± 51.0 stems/ha), Erokut had the lowest (143.0 ± 39.0 stems/ha). Ekang had the highest stem volume (3847.14 ± 2.16 m3/ha) while Erokut had the lowest (2127.71 ± 1382 m3/ha). The most productive site was Ekang (SF = 26.52 m), while Erokut was the least-productive site (SF = 21.70 m). Stem volume (SV) has significantly positive correlations with soil organic matter, calcium, and silt. The best height-diameter model was logarithmic (R2; RMSE = 0.51; 4.462). The most-suitable SV model was polynomial (R2; RMSE = 0.85; 2.207).
... Most of the plants species in the study area were observed to be less than 10 individuals per hectare except for Canarium schweinfurthii, Mimusops heckelii, Bambusia vulgaris, Costus afar, Hippocratea africana and Ancistrophyllum secondiflorum with a population density of 12, 16, 31, 53, 11 and 23 individual per hectare respectively indicating that these plant species are rare and endangered species (Udo et al., 2009;Olajide et al., 2008). Furthermore, all the plant species identified and enumerated in the study area were observed to be of great economic importance to the people of the community as they produce edible fruits and seeds on which the people depend on for food, oil, poles, leafy vegetable and medicine. ...
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This study was aimed at assessing the diversity and population of plants species in Ikot Efre Itak Community forest in Nigeria. A total of 59 plant species were identified in the study area comprising 33 tree species, 12 shrub, 7 herbs, 34 climbers and 3 palms species. Mimusops heckelii and Canarium schweinfurthii, had the highest tree population density of 16 and 12 individual/0.6 ha respectively, all other tree species has a density of less than 10 individual/ha. In the shrub category, Bambusia vulgaris had the highest shrub population density with 31 individual/0.6 ha. Also, Costus afar and Hippocratea africana had the highest density of 53/0.6 ha and 11/0.6 ha respectively in the herb category. The result further shows that Ancistrophyllum secondiflorum had the highest population density of 23 in the palm category. Given the high rate of forest destruction in the country, there is need for to ensure sustainable conservation of the forest area to avoid further destruction by provision of alternative means of livelihood for the local population to reduce their dependence on these forest.
... One of the fundamental and indispensable needs of man provided by forests is food. This is the benefits that have been ignored in the past and are currently being eroded as forests in many parts of the world are cleared and the remaining trees on farmlands come under increasing pressure [1]. ...
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The effectiveness of three pre-germination treatments in breaking dormancy of the seeds of Di-alum guineense and effects of three watering regimes on the growth performance of the seedlings were investigated. The pre-germination treatments were: soaking in hot water for 10 seconds and cooling down in cold water (T 1), soaking in cold water for 24 hours (T 2), soaking in running water for 48 hours (T 3) and control (T 4), while watering regimes include: watering once daily in the morning (W 1), watering once every two days in the morning (W 2) and watering once every three days in the morning (W 3). The results showed that germination occurred first at 5 days after sow-ing (5 DAS) among the seeds soaked in cold water for 24 hours before sowing (T 2), while the un-treated seeds (control) took the longest period of 12 days before germination occurred. T 1 had the highest germination value of 49.6% while T 3 had the least of 31.2%. The effects of watering re-gimes were found to be significantly different on stem-collar diameter, leaf area and total dry weight (P < 0.05). The least significant difference (LSD) test showed that W 2 and W 3 supported the best growth performance. It is concluded from the results that T 2 should be adopted for breaking the dormancy of Dialium guineense seeds and watering interval of three days would not dispose the seedlings to water-stress.
... Erg.Lfg. 11 /11 Ecology OLAJIDE et al. [58] assessed two tropical rainforest reserves, namely Afi River and Oban West Forest Reserves in Cross River State, Nigeria, for the diversity and population density of timber tree species producing economically valuable non-timber products. In the Oban West Forest Reserve, out of 11 tree species, C. albidum was noted with a very low density, one per hectare. ...
Chapter
Chrysophyllum albidum belongs to the Sapotaceae family and is a canopy tree species of lowland rainforests, sometimes occurring in riverine areas. The species is one of the forest tree species that provides Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) of immense domestic importance to rural and urban dwellers in west Africa, with great export potentials. The fruit pulp is widely consumed and thus plays an important role for food security. Apart from serving as a delicacy and alternative source of food during the “hungry season” (i.e., November to April in Nigeria, when farm crops are planted), it also provides an alternative source of income and rural employment through the collection and sale of the fruits. C. albidum is commonly found in village squares, within family compounds and traditional farms, which is an evidence of its integration into the social and economic life of the people. The species has been noted to be of great nutritional, social, medicinal and traditional importance. However, the huge economic importance and the increasing demand as well as price for the fruit has led to an intense exploitation pressure, which has resulted in its stocks diminishing at an alarming rate. Consequently, C. albidum, along with other important fruit tree species like Irvingia gabonensis and Treculia africana, has been classified as a highly endangered or threatened tree species.
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Brachystegia eurycoma has been the focus of recent interest among researchers for its role in human health and prevention of chronic diseases in Nigeria. Brachystegia eurycoma contains several bioactive compounds including linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, tannins, flavonoids, and many vitamins which have been reported to have numerous health and nutritional benefits. Studies have also demonstrated that Brachystegia eurycoma seed and extracts contain substantial amount of polyphenolic compounds as compared to other legumes and are valuable in drug formulations. It is a rich source of antioxidant found to be higher than most legumes. The seed is consumed in food as soup thickener. It is also used as emulsifying agent, flavouring agent and stabilizer in food and drug formulations. Research works on physical and functional processes of Brachystegia eurycoma seed have been very fruitful in Nigeria; however, they were little known to the world. Therefore, this paper intends to present a comprehensive summary on them. This review discusses in details thefield test results by other researcherson post-harvest processing and effects of processing methods on the functional and physical properties of Brachystegia eurycoma seed. Prospects for future work were also suggested.
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Summary 1 We studied the importance of fallen logs as recruitment sites for tree species, their role in species coexistence, and also the influence of canopy openness and litter depth on tree species establishment in mid-successional and old-growth temperate rain forests of Chiloé Island, southern Chile. 2 Old-growth (OG) stands showed significantly more fallen logs than mid-successional (MS) stands. Concomitantly, the proportion of seedlings and saplings established on logs was significantly greater in OG than MS stands. 3 Of 13 tree species found at our study sites, eight showed a significant bias towards establishment on logs, especially those in advanced stages of decomposition. 4 In some stands, all seedlings of Eucryphia cordifolia , Laureliopsis philippiana , Not- hofagus nitida , Tepualia stipularis and Weinmannia trichosperma occurred on decaying logs, whereas all Podocarpus nubigena seedlings were found on undisturbed soil sites. 5 Small-seeded species were more common on logs, whereas large-seeded trees occurred on soil. 6 On soil, litter depth negatively affected local abundance of log-dependent seedlings, suggesting that variation in litter accumulation influences species distributions across the forest floor mosaic. 7 The density of shade-intolerant seedlings was more enhanced by the presence of fallen logs under closed canopy than by the occurrence of canopy gaps over soil sites. 8 Seed size plays an important role in successful establishment of species across the mosaic of fallen logs and different litter depth on the forest floor. We suggest that this mosaic of microsites is an important factor for species coexistence.