Role of Chromodomain Helicase DNA binding protein 2 in DNA damage response signaling and tumorigenesis

Department of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.
Oncogene (Impact Factor: 8.46). 02/2009; 28(8):1053-62. DOI: 10.1038/onc.2008.440
Source: PubMed


The chromodomain helicase DNA-binding proteins (CHDs) are known to affect transcription through their ability to remodel chromatin and modulate histone deacetylation. In an effort to understand the functional role of the CHD2 in mammals, we have generated a Chd2 mutant mouse model. Remarkably, the Chd2 protein appears to play a critical role in the development, hematopoiesis and tumor suppression. The Chd2 heterozygous mutant mice exhibit increased extramedullary hematopoiesis and susceptibility to lymphomas. At the cellular level, Chd2 mutants are defective in hematopoietic stem cell differentiation, accumulate higher levels of the chromatin-associated DNA damage response mediator, gamma H2AX, and exhibit an aberrant DNA damage response after X-ray irradiation. Our data suggest a direct role for the chromatin remodeling protein in DNA damage signaling and genome stability maintenance.

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Available from: Robert Donnell, Dec 10, 2014
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    • "The chromodomain helicase DNAbinding proteins, which are reported to affect transcription possibly through modifying the chromatin structures, are characterized by the chromodomains and SNF2-related helicase/ATPase domains (Woodage, 1997). Members of the CHD gene family, such as CHD2, were suggested to play a role in the DNA damage response and genome stability maintenance (Nagarajan et al., 2009). Mutations or deletions in CHD2 were found in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (Klaassens et al., 2005; Slavotinek et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Do genetic variants in known canonical pathways that have been widely suggested to affect spermatogenesis confer susceptibility to non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA)? Rs1406714 in CHD2, rs2126986 in GNAO1 and rs7226979 in BCL2 were associated with NOA in Han Chinese men at a significant level after multiple testing corrections. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified three loci for NOA, whereas less attention has been given to those markers that did not exceed the genome-wide significance threshold. We conducted a two-stage association study containing 1653 NOA cases and 2329 controls to investigate the susceptibility markers for NOA. Imputation and pathway-based approaches can be applied to identify additional causal makers with small effects on NOA. We performed a candidate pathway-based association study using imputed-genotyping data for 24 238 single nucleotide polymorphisms estimated from NOA GWAS. Remarkably, 40 markers were associated with NOA in both imputation analysis and NOA GWAS (Stage 1) after linkage disequilibrium analysis and selected for validation (Stage 2) in another population. Based on the literature, genes from 11 biological pathways known or hypothesized to be important in spermatogenesis were selected. Combined analysis using directly genotyped data for Stages 1 and 2 revealed that rs1406714 in CHD2 was associated with decreased risk of NOA [odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68-0.89, Pmeta = 1.7E-04], whereas rs2126986 in GNAO1 and rs7226979 in BCL2 were both risk makers for NOA (rs2126986: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.15-1.41, Pmeta = 2.3E-06; rs7226979: OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.11-1.33, Pmeta = 4.5E-05). Our analysis of genes in the pathways studied was not exhaustive. Our study opens new avenues for the identification of other novel causal markers that are related to NOA. It will also provide a new paradigm for understanding the etiology of male infertility and contribute to the development of targeted therapies. This study was supported in part by National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, 2011CB944304); National Science Fund for Outstanding Young Scholars (81322039); National Natural Science Foundation (31371524); Distinguished Young Scholars of Jiangsu Province (BK20130041); The Program for Postgraduates Research Innovation in University of Jiangsu Province (CXZZ12-0600). Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD). There were no competing interests.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Human Reproduction
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    • "The neutral comet assay was performed as previously described to detect DNA damage in UV-C-irradiated cells [5,6]. Images were obtained and tail moments were determined using CASP software. "
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous studies indicated that SPATA12, a novel spermatogenesis-associated gene, might be an inhibitor involved in spermatogenesis and tumorigenesis. To obtain a better understanding of the functions of SPATA12, a yeast two-hybrid screening system was used to search for interacting proteins, and chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2 (CHD2) was successfully identified. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and subcellular co-localization assays further suggested a possible interaction between SPATA12 and CHD2 in the nuclei. CHD2 is known to be involved in the later stage of the DNA damage response pathway by influencing the transcriptional activity of p53. Thus, our hypothesis is that SPATA12 might play a role in DNA damage signaling. Western blotting results showed that SPATA12 expression could be induced in ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiated cells. Through reporter gene assays and the activator protein-1 (AP-1) decoy oligodeoxynucleotide method, we demonstrated that SPATA12 promoter activity could be up-regulated in response to UV-C radiation exposure and an AP-1 binding site in the SPATA12 promoter may have a role in transcriptional regulation of SPATA12. Using colony formation and host cell reactivation assays, it was demonstrated that SPATA12 might lead to inhibition of cellular proliferation in UV-C-irradiated DNA damage. Furthermore, SPATA12 was transfected into H1299, MCF-7 and HeLa cells, and flow cytometry (FCM) results suggested that there are some biological association between SPATA12 and p53 in UV-C-irradiated DNA damage. In addition, we investigated whether SPATA12 could up-regulate the expression of p53. Taken together, these findings indicate that SPATA12 could be induced under UV-C stress. During DNA damage process, AP-1 involves in the transcriptional up-regulation of SPATA12 in response to UV-C radiation and p53 involves in growth inhibitory effects of SPATA12 on UV-C irradiated cells.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "On the other hand, the CHD2 gene encodes a chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein, which is involved in chromatin remodeling and histone-deacetylation. This specific member of the family appears to be a key player in hematopoiesis (39). "
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying cancer driver genes and pathways among all somatic mutations detected in a cohort of tumors is a key challenge in cancer genomics. Traditionally, this is done by prioritizing genes according to the recurrence of alterations that they bear. However, this approach has some known limitations, such as the difficulty to correctly estimate the background mutation rate, and the fact that it cannot identify lowly recurrently mutated driver genes. Here we present a novel approach, Oncodrive-fm, to detect candidate cancer drivers which does not rely on recurrence. First, we hypothesized that any bias toward the accumulation of variants with high functional impact observed in a gene or group of genes may be an indication of positive selection and can thus be used to detect candidate driver genes or gene modules. Next, we developed a method to measure this bias (FM bias) and applied it to three datasets of tumor somatic variants. As a proof of concept of our hypothesis we show that most of the highly recurrent and well-known cancer genes exhibit a clear FM bias. Moreover, this novel approach avoids some known limitations of recurrence-based approaches, and can successfully identify lowly recurrent candidate cancer drivers.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Nucleic Acids Research
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