Article

Increased IgG4 levels in children with autism disorder. Brain Behav Immun

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2805, 50th Street, Wet lab building, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.
Brain Behavior and Immunity (Impact Factor: 5.89). 03/2009; 23(3):389-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2008.12.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence indicates that immune dysfunction is associated with autism disorders in a significant subset of children. Previous reports have shown abnormal immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, including an increased presence of autoreactive antibodies in the circulation of individuals with autism. As IgG is the predominant antibody isotype in circulation, we expected that an altered immune response could result in an abnormal IgG subclass profile in children with autism. We examined circulating plasma levels of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 in 241 children from the CHARGE (Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) study, a large epidemiologic case-control investigation, including 114 children who meet full criteria for autism disorder (AU), 96 typically developing control children (TD) from a randomly selected sample of the general population, and 31 children with developmental delays (DD). We report significantly increased levels of the IgG4 subclass in children with AU compared with TD control children (p=0.016) and compared with DD controls (p=0.041). These results may suggest an underlying immunological abnormality in AU subjects resulting in elevated IgG4 production. Further investigation is necessary to elucidate the relationship between immunological findings and behavioral impairments in autism.

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    • "Both long-term and short-term exposures to ambient air pollutants have been shown to stimulate oxidative stress and inflammation in humans, which may also affect neurologic development (Block and Calderon-Garciduenas, 2009; Calderon-Garciduenas et al., 2009). Studies have also shown that inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of ASD (Enstrom et al., 2009; Li et al., 2009). Thus, inflammation may serve as a link between ASD risk and ambient air pollutant exposure . "
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    • "One study reported that children with autism have reduced levels of plasma IgG and IgM which also correlated with increased behavioral severity (Heuer et al. 2011). Other studies have reported increases in serum proteins attributed mostly to increases in albumin; however, IgG, specifically IgG2 and IgG4 were also seen elevated in individuals with ASD and these increases in immunoglobulin correlated with behavioral abnormalities (Croonenberghs et al. 2002;Enstrom et al. 2009a). Autoantibodies to various and diverse targets have been reported in children with autism and could point to cellular damage that may be involved in increasing inflammation, revealing antigens otherwise hidden and/or epitope spreading (Onore et al. 2012). "
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