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The Image of Daffodil in Art and Botanical Illustration: Clues to the History of Domestication and Selection of Narcissus subgenus Ajax (Amaryllidaceae)

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The "Ajax Group" (i.e. Pseudonarcissus) is one of the most important ancestors of modern daffodils cultivars. The manner in which these plants were introduced into the English, French and Dutch gardens appears relatively obscure since most are endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. This chapter compares data from Arab texts of agriculture, European Renaissance, and Prelinnaean texts and illustrations, with the morphological characteristics of primitive cultivars of trumpet daffodils and the related wild taxa from of Spain and Portugal. The relationships among wild plants, domesticated plants, and primitive cultivars were investigated through a cluster analysis of the characters available from figures or botanical illustrations. The tree resulting from the Complete linkage analysis and UPGMA analysis distinguished 26 different groups including wild; cultivated and wild; and cultivated daffodils. A comparison of early descriptions, localities, and illustrations with currently wild species confirmed that several Iberian Peninsula endemics were cultivated in Central European gardens between the 16th and 18th centuries. Examples are: Narcissus abscissus Pugsley, N. jacetanus Fernández Casas, N. asturiensis Hénon, N. hispanicus Gouan, N. nobilis (Haw.) Schult. var. leonensis (Pugsley) A. Fernandes, N. pallidiflorus Pugsley and N. pseudonarcissus L. The characters involved in flower pigmentation evolved independently from other morphological characters. It obviously occurred in different places and at different times. Thus any colour flower group, even whites, is polyphyletic.
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39
The Image of Daffodil in Art and Botanical
Illustration: Clues to the History of
Domestication and Selection of Narcissus
subgenus Ajax (Amaryllidaceae)
Diego Rivera1* • Segundo Ríos2 • Concepción Obón3 • Francisco Alcaraz1
1 Departamento de Biología Vegetal, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
2 Departamento de Biología Animal, Vegetal y Ecosistemas. Universidad de Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain
3 Departamento de Biología Aplicada. Div. Biología Vegetal, EPSO, 03312 Orihuela, Alicante, Spain
Corresponding author: * drivera@um.es
Keywords: evolution, floral morphology, floriculture, garden bulbs, morphometrics
ABSTRACT
The "Ajax Group" (i.e. Pseudonarcissus) is one of the most important ancestors of modern daffodils cultivars. The manner in which these plants
were introduced into the English, French and Dutch gardens appears relatively obscure since most are endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. This
chapter compares data from Arab texts of agriculture, European Renaissance, and Prelinnaean texts and illustrations, with the morphological
characteristics of primitive cultivars of trumpet daffodils and the related wild taxa from of Spain and Portugal. The relationships among wild plants,
domesticated plants, and primitive cultivars were investigated through a cluster analysis of the characters available from figures or botanical
illustrations. The tree resulting from the Complete linkage analysis and UPGMA analysis distinguished 26 different groups including wild;
cultivated and wild; and cultivated daffodils. A comparison of early descriptions, localities, and illustrations with currently wild species confirmed
that several Iberian Peninsula endemics were cultivated in Central European gardens between the 16th and 18th centuries. Examples are:
Narcissus abscissus Pugsley, N. jacetanus Fernández Casas, N. asturiensis Hénon, N. hispanicus Gouan, N. nobilis (Haw.) Schult. var.
leonensis (Pugsley) A. Fernandes, N. pallidiflorus Pugsley and N. pseudonarcissus L. The characters involved in flower pigmentation evolved
independently from other morphological characters. It obviously occurred in different places and at different times. Thus any colour flower group,
even whites, is polyphyletic.
1. INTRODUCTION
The "Ajax Group" (i.e. Pseudonarcissus) is one of the most important ancestors of modern daffodil cultivars. It has been estimated to be the
parent of 99% of the yellow trumpet cultivars (Coats 1956). In fact, its is also involved in the origin of most of the daffodil cultivars groups
included in the old class Mediocoronati, e.g., 'Incomparabilis', 'Barrii', 'Backhousei', 'Nelsonii', 'Humei', 'Leedsii' and 'Odorus' (Bahnert 1992). In
the modern classification system (RHS 2000 2005a 2005b, Kington 2002), it is involved in the origin of Divisions 1, 2, 4, 6, and 11. The Iberian
Peninsula is the center of diversity for Narcissus subgenus Ajax Spach with 30-40 taxa (Fernandes 1957, Andersen 1988 1990, Ríos et al. 1999).
Fernandes (1951) proposed N. nevadensis Pugsley as the ancestral species of subgenus Ajax. The relationships among wild plants,
domesticated plants, and primitive cultivars were investigated through a cluster analysis of the characters available from figures or botanical
illustrations (Rivera et al. 2003). The more primitive European herbals represented trumpet daffodils in an unrealistic and naive manner and are
not suitable for analysis (Arber 1988), however illustrations with a minimum level of accuracy exist since the 16th century.
There appears to have been little attention given to daffodils in England until the 16th century (Coats 1956). Turner identified the Pliny’s
daffodil as the English common daffodil, without mentioning any other related taxon (Britten, Daydon-Jackson and Stearn 1965). The "yealowe
daffodil" of Turner (1548) is presumably the common N. pseudonarcissus of the English meadows and forests (Stace 1991). It seems that few
daffodil species, presumably only the wild one, were available in England up to 1548.
Parkinson (1629) cited notices concerning the introduction of daffodils to the British Isles. Loudon (1841) subsequently referred to Parkinson
as the earliest citations of most of the flowers of this group grown in England. Hereman (1868), Haworth (1831) and Pugsley (1933) increased
the list of taxa. There are more recent reports by Cullen (1986), Webb (1980), and The International Daffodil Register (Kington 2002). Barkham
Rivera et al. The artistic image of daffodil
(1980a 1980b 1992) and Barkham and Hance (1982) studied the population dynamics of the wild daffodil in England. The recent discovery
(1980s) of many new wild taxa in the Iberian Peninsula, mainly by J. Fernández Casas and co-workers, raised the question of describing their
relationship to plants currently in cultivation.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study of Rivera et al. (2003) primarily utilized the
comparison of data from ancient texts and illustrations
with the morphological characteristics of the currently
known wild taxa and primitive cultivars. The earliest
iconography available (16th and 17th centuries)
illustrates a relatively high degree of accuracy. The
plant images in these illustrations are accurate enough
to make a comparison with data obtained from the
study of wild and cultivated populations. The
illustrations by Weiditz (Blunt and Stearn 1994),
Brunfels (1530), Clusius (1601 1605), Parkinson
(1629), Gerarde (1597 1633), Besler (1613), Barrelier
(1714) and Tabernaemontanus (1731) have been
analysed for 13 vegetative and floral characters and
were compared with wild taxa and modern daffodil
cultivars (Fig. 1).
The selected set of characters was restricted to
these that were easily detectable in high quality
illustrations (Table 1). The comparisons were made
using a data matrix involving 101 OTUs and 13
characters. Cluster analyses used agglomerative
clustering by distance optimization (NCLAS) from the
Sintax 5.0 package (Podani 1991). Hierarchical
classification was generated using combinatorial
agglomerative methods characterized by the
recurrence formula as follows: dh,ij = αi dhi + αj dhj + β
dij + γ dhi dhj; where dh,ij was the new distance value
between cluster Ch and cluster Cij obtained from the
fusion of Ci and Cj (Podani 1991). As recommended by
Podani (1991), the data set was analyzed using two
options. Complete linkage (farthest neighbour,
euclidean distance) (CL) (Fig. 1) and unweighted
group averages (average, euclidean distance)
(UPGMA) were calculated. Similarities above 90%, as
calculated using complete linkage, were interpreted in
terms of close relationship and were used for
interpreting the possible origin of cultivated daffodils.
3. RESULTS
The tree resulting from the Complete linkage analysis (Fig. 2; Rivera et al. 2003) and UPGMA analysis distinguished 26 different groups
including wild; cultivated and wild; and cultivated daffodils. These groups are illustrated in Figs. 3-6. The cluster analysis supported in part the
interpretations of Pugsley (1933) for the illustrations of Gerarde (1597 1633), Parkinson (1629), Besler (1613) or Barrelier (1714). It also showed
that N. nevadensis Pugsley and N. longispathus Pugsley, are closely related (Group 11), in addition, they were clearly distinct from the other
Narcissus. They do not appear to have been in cultivation before the publication of their descriptions in the 20th century. These species were not
illustrated in the primitive illustrations of cultivated daffodils, and were not cited in early literature.
4. DISCUSSION
4.1. Relationships between wild populations and primitive cultivars
It seems that the Greek and Latin herbals of Dioscorides, Theophrastus, or Pliny did not mention any "bastard daffodil", which were unknown (at
least as a garden plant) to the Greeks and Romans. López (1990) in his study of the anonymous Kitab fi Tartib Awqat (10th to 12th Centuries AD)
recognised, three types of daffodils: N. papyraceus Ker. Gawler (the naryis abyad or white daffodil), N. jonquilla L. (the nisrin or ward barri), and
N. pseudonarcissus L. (sensu lato) (the naryis asfar or arar or yellow daffodil). The Arab writer Ibn Bassal (11th C. AD) recommended growing
these flowers in beds, from bulbs gathered in the meadows (their natural habitats), alternatively suggested to collect in May seeds from wild and
cultivated plants to be sown in June (Millás and Azimán 1955, García and Hernández-Bermejo 1995).
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
N. hispanicus.
N. obvallaris
N. vasconicus
N. festinus
N. abscissus var. serotinus
N. platylobus
N. tortuosus
N. montinus
N. segurensis
N. asturiensis
N. concolor
N. leonensis
N. porrigens
N. praelongus
N. albicans
N. nobilis
N. macrolobus
N. segurensis x N. yepesii
N. longispathus
N. fontqueri
N. alpestris
N. parviflorus
N. nevadensis
N. primigenius
N. tubulosus
N. moleroi
N. alcaracensis
N. bujei
N. radinganorum
N. yepesii A
N. pallidiflorus
N. portensis
N. calcicarp.
N. confusus
N. gayi
N. munyoziig.
N. provincialis
N. jacetanus
N. yepesii B
N. genesi - lopezii
N. eugeniae
N. abcissus
N. cyclamineus
Tepal
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
Cup
Tepal length / width Cup diameter apex / base
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
N. totus luteus
N. totus sulphureus
Pseudo N. simplex
N. septentrionalis
N. sylvestris albus
N. sylvestris totus
N. septentrionalis
Pesudonarcissus
Pesudonarcissus
Daffodil (Weiditz
N. septentrionalis
Pesudonarcissus
Pesudonarcissus
Pesudonarcissus
Daffodil (Weiditz
Pesudonarcissus
N. sylvestris albidus
N. sylvestris totus
Pseudonarcisso tubo
Pesudonarcissus
Pesudonarcissus
N. totus albus amplo
Pseudo N. luteus iii
N. sylvestris tuba
N. sylvestris pallidus
N. sylvestris totus
Pseudo N. aureus
N. sylvestris tuba
N. totus albus nutans
Pesudonarcissus
Pseudo N. minor
Pesudonarcissus
N. totus luteus
Pesudonarcissus
Pesudonarcissus
N. totus luteus
Pesudonarcissus
Pesudonarcissus
Pesudonarcissus
Pesudonarcissus
N. totus albus
N. sylvestris pallidus
Pesudonarcissus
N. albus nutante
Pesudonarcissus
Pesudonarcissus
Pesudonarcissus
Tepal
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,8
2
Cup
Tepal length / width Cup diameter apex / base
Fig. 1 Variation of the Quotient tepal length / width; and Quotient apical-diameter / basal-diameter of
the Cup (above). In wild species and cultivars. Below. In old images.
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At the Cathedral of Zamora, Spain, several Flemish
carpets woven in the second half of the 15th century include
in the floral background of mythological and biblical scenes
illustrations of two types of trumpet daffodils. The English
name for the species of Narcissus included within subgenus
Ajax Spach is "bastard daffodil". In Spanish, these received
the names of "embuillos", "quitapanes" or "narcisos de
lechuguilla" (De los Ríos 1620, Parkinson 1629, Boutelou
and Boutelou 1804).
The first printed illustration of a "bastard daffodil" is a
print woodcut by Hans Weiditz (Brunfels 1530) and it was
copied by Mattioli in 1554. A water colour drawing by Hans
Weiditz, dated 1529, was presumably used as a model for
the woodcut, which is at the Botanical Institute, Bern. It
displays two single flowered species, one with a pale yellow
flower (left and centre) with whitish tepals and a yellow Cup
(cf. Blunt and Stearn 1994). These illustrations are similar to
the wild Spanish species N. nobilis (Haw.) Schultes f. (= N.
pseudonarcissus L. sensu stricto). Jan Brueghel the Elder,
represented several daffodils belonging to this group in
paintings between 1599 and 1607 (Schneider 1992).
Several Iberian Peninsula endemics were cultivated in
Central European gardens between the 16th and 18th
centuries. Examples are: Narcissus abscissus Pugsley, N.
jacetanus Fernández Casas, N. asturiensis Hénon, N.
hispanicus Gouan, N. nobilis (Haw.) Schult. var. leonensis
(Pugsley) A. Fernandes, N. pallidiflorus Pugsley and N.
pseudonarcissus L. (Rivera et al. 2003).
The similarities of part of the Gerarde (1633), Barrelier
(1714) and Tabernaemontanus (1731) illustrations with N.
hispanicus var. bujei (Fernández Casas) Fernández Casas,
an Andalusian montane endemic species, indicate the
presence of this species, or other closely related, in gardens
of Central Europe. Presumably, these plants were later lost in cultivation in Central Europe and the British Isles.
According to Miller (1754) and Parkinson (1629), the wild Spanish and Pyrenean "bastard daffodils" grown in the English gardens were
produced from bulbs imported from their original countries. Most of the illustrations by Parkinson (1629) are very similar to Spanish wild species
(Groups 2, 10, 12, 22 and 25 in Figs. 3-6).
Pritzel (1872) credited the son of the French gardener John Robin as the individual who introduced many Spanish plants into the French
gardens by the end of the 16th century. Also, he was involved in the distribution of double forms of daffodils (Parkinson 1629, Gerarde 1633).
The famous Dutch botanist Charles de l’Ecluse (known as Clusius), who introduced the cultivation of tulips and potatoes to The Netherlands,
was also involved into the development of daffodil cultivation. He received bulbs, originally collected in the Pyrenees, from different
correspondents in Italy, France and Belgium (Clusius 1601 1605, Rivera et al. 2003). It seems that during his travel in Spain he did not collected
daffodils himself (Clusius 1576).
The case of N. minor L. is noteworthy. The analysis showed a close resemblance with Barrelier’s illustration (N. sylvestris 975) and with two
endemic taxa of the Sierra de Alcaraz and Sierra de Segura (N. alcaracensis Ríos et aliis and N. segurensis Ríos et aliis) (Group 9). Rivera
(1984) documented the travels of Barrelier in Alcaraz mountains, based on the localities cited by Barrelier (1714) for his collection of "Rubeola
montana" and "Polium montanum". Very likely, this visit occurred during Spring based in the blossom period of the cited species. Hence,
Barrelier may have been the collector of daffodils that subsequently through hybridization and selection led to the cultivated daffodil named by
Linnaeus, N. minor. Unfortunately, the daffodils illustrated by Barrelier did not designate the collection locality (Barrelier 1714).
4.2. Relationships between white and bicolor flowered forms and wild populations
One of the daffodils in the Weiditz’s 1529 water-color picture (n. 4 of Tab le 1, group 4) is a bicolored (tepals pale yellow or whitish, Cup deep
golden yellow) form of N. nobilis (Group 4). Since Barra and López (1984) lectotypified N. pseudonarcissus L. (sensu stricto) in the sense of N.
nobilis, this bicolored type probably belongs to the type species of the subgenus.
The plants named N. bicolor L. appear related to the yellow flowered natural hexaploid N. nobilis (Haw.) Schult. var. leonensis (Pugsley) A.
Fernandes and to the bicolored cultivar 'Empress' (Group 15). Other bicolored forms were shown to be less related to yellow flowered taxa like N.
confusus Pugsley or N. asturiensis (Group 6, Fig. 3) (cf. Tables 1-2, ns. 27, Pseudonarcissus simplex belga and 58, Pseudonarcissus albo
calyce which are included in group 7, Fig. 4).
The primitive white flowered types, (Tables 1-2, ns. 33, N. sylvestris albus and 45, N. sylvestris totus albicans in Table 1), were included in
the same cluster (Group 16, Figs. 2, 5). This cluster is closely related to groups 17 (Fig. 6) and 18 (Fig. 4) and includes taxa like N. moschatus L.
and N. alpestris Pugsley. This cluster (Group 16, Figs. 2, 5) also contains pale yellow or bicolored forms (Tables 1-2, ns. 17, N. sylvestris albidus,
34, N. sylvestris totus albus, and 70, N. sylvestris pallidus). Thus it appears that white, pale yellow, and bicolor forms are closely related and
Fig. 2 Dendrogram resulting of the UPGMA analysis. From Rivera et al. (2003) Scientia
Horticulturae 98, 307-330, ©2003, wi th kind permission by Elsevier Science SV.
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Rivera et al. The artistic image of daffodil
Fig. 3 (above) Illustrations of Clusters 3, 4, 6 and 8. Images from Besler (1613). With kind permission by Taschen (©).
Fig. 4 (right) Illustrations of Clusters 2, 7, 18 and 22. Images from Besler (1613), Parkinson (1629) and Barrelier (1714). With kind
permission by Taschen (©), and IDC (©).
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Rivera et al. The artistic image of daffodil
Fig. 5 Illustrations of Clusters 13, 14, 16 and 23. Images from Clusius (1601), Gerarde (1633), Barrelier (1714) and
Jordan (1903). With kind permission by IDC (©). Fig. 6 Illustrations of Clusters 9, 10, 12, 17, 20, 21, 24 and 25. Images from Clusius (1601), Parkinson (1629),
Barrelier (1714) and Jordan (1903). With kind permission by IDC (©).
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Rivera et al. The artistic image of daffodil
presumably are derived by single mutations.
The well characterized cluster, around N. alpestris Pugsley (Group 17, Fig. 6) includes several types with white pendent flowers (Tables 1-2,
ns. 78, Pseudonarcissus albo flore, 80, N. albus nutante and 81, Pseudonarcissus albo flore). Presumably, these are different interpretations by
different artists of the same taxon or cultivar.
A third group of white flowered types (Tables 1-2, ns. 96, N. totus albus and 97, Pseudonarcissus hispanicus Table 1) is related to pale
yellow or bicolor flowered species, e.g., N. pallidiflorus Pugsley or N. abscissus (Haw.) Schultes f. included in groups 24 and 25 (Fig. 6),
respectively.
After the agglomerative analysis of similarities between the 101 illustrations and taxa, it appears that the characters involved in flower
pigmentation evolved independently from other morphological characters. It obviously occurred in different places and at different times (Rivera
et al. 2003). Thus all flower group based in color, even whites, is polyphyletic. This may be relevant for taxonomic purposes, since flower color
was used by Haworth (1831) and Pugsley (1933) in the systematics of subgenus Ajax.
4.3. Relationships between Double forms and wild populations
Double types may have been produced by the duplication of the number of tepals, by changes involving the Cup, or by changes in the whole
Table 1 Characters available from the early iconography (Brunfels 1530, Clusius, 1601 1605, Besler 1613, Parkinson 1629, Gerarde 1633, Barrelier 1714,
Tabernaemontanus 1731, Blunt and Stearn 1994). From Rivera et al. 2003 Scientia Horticulturae 98, 307-330, ©2003, with kind permission from Elsevier Science SV.
N. Icones Lf. Sc. Sp. Fl.
Pos. Tp. Tr. T. l/w Cl. / Tl.
A. / B.
Me.
Ms.
Fc.
3 Daffodil (Weiditz painting of 1529) 3 (1) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Se. (0)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2) 1,7-2,1 (2)
0,8-1,1 (0) 1,3-1,6 (2) + (4)
Lo. (0)
Py. (2)
4 Daffodil (Weiditz painting of 1529) 3 (1) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Se. (0)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2)
1,7-2,1 (2)
0,8-1,1 (0) 1,6-1,9 (3) + (4)
Lo. (0)
Bi. (4)
80 N. albus nutante (Barrelier 1714) 946. 3 (1) Dw (6)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Se. (0)
Tw. (2)
2,9-3,3 (5)
2,0-2,3 (4) 1,3-1,6 (2) +/- (2)
To. (2 )
W. (6 )
31 N. septentrionalis calice luteo pleno, duplicatis soliis
(*) (Besler 1613)
3-5 (3) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Not. (0)
1,3-1,7 (1)
1,4-1,7 (2) 1,0-1,3 (1) + (4)
Lo. (0)
Y. (0)
39 N. septentrionalis calice pleno luteo oris incisis (*)
(Besler 1613)
4 (3) Dw. (6)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Se. (0)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2)
1,7-2,1 (2)
1,4-1,7 (2) 1,0-1,3 (1) + (4)
Lo. (0)
Y. (0)
73 N. septentrionalis flore pleno luteo (*) (Besler 1613) 2-4 (2) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Se. (0)
Pat. (2)
Not. (0)
1,7-2,1 (2)
1,7-2,1 (2) 1,3-1,6 (2) +/- (2)
Lo. (0)
Y. (0)
17 N. sylvestris albidus tubo luteo minor 924. (Barrelier
1714)
1-2 (0) Dw. (6)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Not. (0)
1,7-2,1 (2)
1,1-1,4 (1) 1,3-1,6 (2) +/- (2)
To. (2 )
Bi. (4)
33 N. sylvestris albus 921. (Barrelier 1714) 2-3 (1) Dw. (6)
Md. (3)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Pat. (2)
Not. (0)
1,3-1,7 (1)
1,4-1,7 (2) 1,3-1,6 (2) +/- (2)
Cre. (4)
W. (6 )
77 N. sylvestris pallidus 922. (Barrelier 1714) 2-3 (1) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Se. (0)
Tw. (2)
2,1-2,5 (3)
2,0-2,3 (4) 1,0-1,3 (1) + (4)
To. (2 )
Py. (2)
70 N. sylvestris pallidus tuba aurea 976. (Barrelier 1714) 2 (0) Dw. (6)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2)
2,9-3,3 (5)
1,7-2,0 (3) 1,0-1,3 (1) +/- (2)
Lo. (2)
Bi. (4)
45 N. sylvestris totus albicans minor 923. (Barrelier 1714) 1-3 (1) Dw. (6)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Not. (0)
2,1-2,5 (3)
1,4-1,7 (2) 1,3-1,6 (2) - (0)
Cre. (4)
W. (6 )
34 N. sylvestris totus albus luteo tubo 968. (Barrelier
1714)
3-4 (3) Md. (3)
Md. (3)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Not. (0)
1,3-1,7 (1)
1,4-1,7 (2) 1,3-1,6 (2) +/- (2)
To. (2 )
Bi. (4)
18 N. sylvestris totus luteus 975. (Barrelier 1714) 2 (0) Dw. (6)
Md. (3)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Not. (0)
1,7-2,1 (2)
1,1-1,4 (1) 1,3-1,6 (2) +/- (2)
Lo. (2)
Y. (0)
67 N. sylvestris tuba aurea major 930. (Barrelier 1714) 2-3 (1) Md. (3)
Long (0)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Se. (0)
Tw. (2)
2,1-2,5 (3)
1,7-2,0 (3) 1,0-1,3 (1) + (4)
Lo. (2)
Py. (2)
83 N. sylvestris tuba lutea minor 929. (Barrelier 1714) 1-3 (1) Dw. (6)
Long (0)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Se. (0)
Not. (0)
2,1-2,5 (3)
2,3-2,6 (5) 1,3-1,6 (2) + (4)
To. (2 )
Py. (2)
66 N. totus albus amplo 954. (Barrelier 1714) 2-3 (1) Md. (3)
Md. (3)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Se. (0)
Tw. (2)
2,1-2,5 (3)
1,7-2,0 (3) 1,6-1,9 (3) +/- (2)
To. (2 )
W. (6 )
44 N. totus albus nutans 953. (Barrelier 1714) 2-3 (1) Md. (3)
Md. (3)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Pat. (2)
Not. (0)
2,1-2,5 (3)
1,4-1,7 (2) 1,6-1,9 (3) + (4)
Lo. (0) W. (6)
96 N. totus albus nutante 945. (Barrelier 1714) 3 (1) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Se. (0)
Tw. (2)
2,9-3,3 (5)
3,2-3,5 (8) 1,0-1,3 (1) +/- (2)
Cre. (4)
W. (6 )
2 N. totus luteus montanus maior i (Besler 1613). 5 (4) Md. (3)
Md. (3)
1 (6)
Se. (0)
Pat. (2)
Not (0)
1,3-1,7 (1)
0,8-1,1 (0) 1,0-1,3 (1) + (4)
Lo. (0)
Py. (2)
10 N. totus luteus montanus, minimus ii (Besler 1613) 5 (4) Dw. (6)
Md. (3)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Not (0)
2,5-2,9 (4)
0,8-1,1 (0) 1,0-1,3 (1) + (4)
Lo. (0)
Py. (2)
99 N. totus luteus oblongo calice et reflexis foliis (Besler
1613)
7 (6) Dw. (6)
Md. (3)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Se. (0)
Tw. (2)
2,5-2,9 (4)
4,7-5,3 (9) 1,0-1,3 (1) - (0)
To. (2 )
Py. (2)
14 N. totus sulphureus 967. (Barrelier 1714) 3 (1) Md. (3)
Md. (3)
1 (6)
Se. (0)
Pat. (2)
Not. (0)
1,3-1,7 (1)
1,1-1,4 (1) 1,0-1,3 (1) +/- (2)
Cre. (4)
Y. (0)
41 Pseudo N. aureus praecox (Besler 1613) 6 (6) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Se. (0)
Se. (0)
Tw. (2)
2,1-2,5 (3)
1,4-1,7 (2) 1,3-1,6 (2) +/- (2)
Lo. (0)
Y. (0)
19 Pseudo N. luteus iii (Besler 1613) 4 (3) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Se. (0)
Se. (0)
Tw. (2)
2,1-2,5 (3)
1,1-1,4 (1) 1,0-1,3 (1) + (4)
Lo. (0)
Py. (2)
23 Pseudo N. minor luteus repens iv (Besler 1613) 2 (0) Dw. (6)
Long (0)
1 (6)
Se. (0)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2)
2,5-2,9 (4)
1,1-1,4 (1) 1,3-1,6 (2) + (4)
Lo. (0)
Py. (2)
27 Pseudo N. simplex Belga (Besler 1613) 7 (6) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2)
1,3-1,7 (1)
1,4-1,7 (2) 1,0-1,3 (1) +/- (2)
Lo. (0)
Py. (0)
40 Pseudo N.tubo quasi abscisso (Parkinson 1629) 3-4 (3) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2)
1,7-2,1 (2)
1
1,4-1,7 (2) 1,6-1,9 (3) - (0)
Ab. (6)
Y. (0)
81 Pseudo N. albo flore (Clusius 1605) 3 (1) Dw. (6)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Se. (0)
Tw. (2)
2,9-3,3 (5)
2,0-2,3 (4) 1,0-1,3 (1) +/- (2)
Cre. (4)
W. (6 )
78 Pseudo N. albo flore (Gerarde 1633) 3 (1) Dw. (6)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Se. (0)
Tw. (2)
2,5-2,9 (4)
2,0-2,3 (4) 0,7-1,0 (0) +/- (2)
Cre. (4)
W. (6 )
58 Pseudo N. albus calice luteo iii (Besler 1613) 5-7 (6) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Se. (0)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2)
1,7-2,1 (2)
1,7-2,0 (3) 1,0-1,3 (1) + (4)
To. (2 )
Bi. (4)
16 Pseudo N. anglicus (Gerarde 1633) 5 (4) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Not (0)
1,7-2,1 (2)
1,1-1,4 (1) 2,7 (6) + (4)
Lo. (0)
Y. (0)
69 Pseudo N. hispanicus (Gerarde 1633) 2 (0) Md. (3)
Long (0)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Not (0)
2,5-2,9 (4)
1,7-2,0 (3) 1,6-1,9 (3) + (4)
Lo. (0)
Y. (0)
72 Pseudo N. hispanicus major albus (Parkinson 1629) 6 (6) Lg. (0)
Long (0)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Se. (0)
Not (0)
3,3-3,7 (6)
7
1,7-2,0 (3) 1,0-1,3 (1) +/- (2)
To. (2 )
W. (6 )
94 Pseudo N. hispanicus maximus aureus
(Parkinson,
1629)
6-7 (6) Lg. (0)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Not (0)
2,1-2,5 (3)
3,2-3,5 (8) 1,3-1,6 (2) +/- (2)
To. (0 )
Y. (0)
84 Pseudo N. hispanicus minimus (Parkinson 1629) 4 (3) Dw. (6)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Not (0)
2,9-3,3 (5)
2,3-2,6 (5) 1,0-1,3 (1) +/- (2)
To. (2 )
Y. (0)
48 Pseudo N. hispanicus minor (Parkinson 1629) 3 (1) Dw. (6)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Se. (0)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2)
2,5-2,9 (4)
1,4-1,7 (2) 1,3-1,6 (2) + (4)
Lo. (0)
Y. (0)
97 Pseudo N. hispanicus minor albus (Parkinson 1629) 2 (0) Dw. (6)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Se. (0)
Tw. (2)
3,7-4,1 (7)
3,2-3,5 (8) 1,0-1,3 (1) +/- (2)
To. (0 )
W. (6 )
75 Pseudo N. luteus (Tabernaemontanus 1731) 3-5 (3) Md. (3)
Long (0)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2)
1,7-2,1 (2)
2,0-2,3 (4) 1,3-1,6 (2) + (4)
Cre. (4)
Y. (0)
7 Pseudo N. luteus gemino flore (Tabernaemontanus
1731)
2 (0) Dw.? (6)
Long (0)
2 (3)
Se. (0)
Se. (0)
Not (0)
2,1-2,5 (3)
0,8-1,1 (0) 1,3-1,6 (2) +/- (2)
Lo. (0)
Y. (0)
46 Pseudo N. luteus simplici flore (Tabernaemontanus
1731)
2 (0) Md. (3)
Md. (3)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2)
2,5-2,9 (4)
1,4-1,7 (2) 1,0-1,3 (1) + (4)
Lo. (0)
Y. (0)
71 Pseudo N. major hispanicus (Clusius 1601) 2 (0) Lg. (0)
Long.
(0)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Not. (0)
2,9-3,3 (5)
1,7-2,0 (3) 1,6-1,9 (3) + (4)
Lo. (0)
Y. (0)
93 Pseudo N. minor Hispanicus (Clusius 1601) 7 (6) Dw. (6)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Pat. (2)
Not. (0)
1,7-2,1 (2)
2,9-3,2 (7) 1,3-1,6 (2) + (4)
To. (2 )
Y. (0)
92 Pseudo N. minor Hispanicus (Gerarde, 1633) 7 (6) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Pat. (2)
Not (0)
1,7-2,1 (2)
2,9-3,2 (7) 1,0-1,3 (1) + (4)
To. (2 )
Y. (0)
21 Pseudo N. Pyrenaeus variformis (Parkinson 1629) 6 (6) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Hor. (3)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2)
2,5-2,9 (4)
1,1-1,4 (1) 1,0-1,3 (1) +/- (2)
To. (2 )
Bi. (4)
59 Pseudo N. totus albus (Besler 1613) 6 (6) Md. (3)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2)
1,7-2,1 (2)
1,7-2,0 (3) 1,3-1,6 (2) - (0)
To. (2 )
W. (6 )
24 Pseudo N. triplici tubo (*) (Clusius 1605) 4 (3) Dw. (6)
Sh. (6)
1 (6)
Pen. (6)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2)
2,9-3,3 (5)
1,1-1,4 (1) 1,3-1,6 (2) + (4)
To. (2 )
Py. (2)
63 Pseudo N. tubo sexangulari (Parkinson 1629) 2-3 (1) Md. (3)
Md. (3)
1 (6)
Se. (0)
Pat. (2)
Tw. (2)
2,1-2,5 (3)
1,7-2,0 (3) 1,0-1,3 (1) - (0)
To. (2 )
Y. (0)
Note: Lf. Leaves per bulb; Sc. Scape len
g
th; Fl. Flowers per bulb; Sp. Dimensions of the spatha; Pos. Position of flowers; Tp. Tepals position; Tr. Tepals rotation; T. l/w: Quotient tepal len
g
th / width;
Cl./Tl. Quotient Cup length / tube length; A/ B. Quotient apical diameter / basal diameter of the Cup; Me. De
g
ree of mar
g
in expansion at the Cup apex; Ms. Cup apex mar
g
in shape; Fc. Flower
colour. Pat. Patent; Sube. Suberect; To. Toothed; Lo. Lobed; Cre. Crenulate; Y. Yellow; Py. Pale yellow; W. White; Bi. Bicolour. Lg.
L
g
.; Md. Medium; Dw. Dwarf; Sh. Short. Hor. Horizontal. Between
brackets are shown the values used for the matrix. Doubl e flowered forms are repres ented by an asterisk (*) aft er the icon name.
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Rivera et al. The artistic image of daffodil
flower. They are extremely rare in Spain and Portugal; whereas, in Italy (Lugano), Turkey (Belgrat forest), and Britain (Tenby), doubles are
frequently found. The prevalence of doubles in a district was interpreted by Pugsley (1933) as an introduction or relict of former cultivation and
not indigenous. A summary of the origin of primitive doubles is presented in Ta ble 3.
Double yellow trumpet daffodils were grown in gardens as early as in 1597 and Parkinson indicated several doubles (Parkinson 1629, Coats
1956). From the 16th to the 19th centuries the doubles were primarily imported to the British Isles from France and the Netherlands. They were
obtained as seeds in these countries (Miller 1754). Many of them were sterile, presumably due to their hybrid origin. This supposed hybrid origin
is sometimes not properly referred to in English by adding "bastard" to the common name.
The 'Van Sion' daffodil, known also as Ajax telamonius β grandiplenus Haw., first flowered in England in 1620. It is now naturalised in many
places in Britain and on the Continent (Coats 1956). A double daffodil is also naturalised near Istanbul in the Belgrat forest, and is presumed to
have escaped from cultivation of Spanish daffodils (Baytop and Mathew 1984).
Several primitive double forms were included in the analysis by Rivera et al. (2003). The Pseudonarcissus triplici tubo described by Clusius
(1605) appear to be related to N. moschatus L (Group 18, Fig. 4). The different double types described by Besler (1613) and Barrelier (1714)
(Tables 1-2, ns. 31, N. septentrionalis calyce luteo, 39, N. septentrionalis calyce pleno and 77, N. sylvestris pallidus) are related to N. obvallaris
Salisb (Group 2, Table 2, Fig. 2). 'Van Sion' is very similar to the N. totus sulphureus illustrated by Barrelier (1714). In addition, it appears related
to N. hispanicus Gouan, and showing some resemblance to 'King Alfred' (Group 3 in Fig. 2, Table 2).
4.4. Polyploids
Practically almost all wild taxa are diploid, with 14 chromosomes. Amongst the cultivated forms, N. hispanicus Gouan and N. tortuosus Haw. are
triploid and those under N. bicolor are tetraploid. Polyploidy is extremely rare in wild populations, an exception is N. leonensis, a natural
hexaploid. In contrast, polyploidy is relatively frequent in cultivated forms (Kington 2002).
The complete linkage analysis showed a high correlation (over 95 %) between the wild hexaploid N. leonensis and 'Empress' (Group 5, Fig.
2, Table 2).
A hexaploid examined by Wylie (1952) was shown to have smaller flowers than its tetraploid parents. Thus it appears that the optimum level
of ploidy in subgenus Ajax for landscape usage is the tetraploid. A primary example is the tetraploid 'King Alfred', which was obtained by John
Kendall in 1899 (Bahnert, 1992). This cultivar is closely related and presumably derived from N. hispanicus Gouan, displaying a close
resemblance in the analysis (over 95%) (Group 3, Fig. 2, Table 2).
4.5. Hybrids
Hybridization has played a relevant role in development of cultivated daffodils since the second half of the 19th century. It is not clear, however,
that this occurred in early utilization of daffodils in the British Isles and Continental Europe. Most of these bulbs were imported from Spain and
collected from wild populations (Clusius 1601, Parkinson 1629, Miller 1754). According to Pugsley (1933), the old types were not artificially
created hybrids. It appears likely that the primitive horticultural hybrid forms were originally imported wild plants. The repertory of species
employed for obtaining the first commercial hybrid cultivars (19th century) was low: Species such as N. hispanicus Gouan (including N. major
Curtis), N. moschatus L. and N. alpestris Pugsley were the more widely used.
Intersubgeneric hybrids involving subgenera Ajax and Narcissi are relatively frequent in the wild and can be also obtained artificially. N.
xbernardii DC is a fertile diploid hybrid species which occurs in the Pyrenees in zones of overlapping distribution areas of N. hispanicus Gouan
and N. poeticus L. These pink flowers come from the red pigment in N. poeticus (Wylie 1952, Bahnert 1992). N. xincomparabilis Miller of garden
origin has been described as being very similar to the former hybrid. It is considered to be a hybrid between N. major Curtis and N. poeticus L.
Many pale yellow flowered types were obtained by Edward Leeds, in the 1840s, by crossing N. x incomparabilis with white flowered wild species
of subgenus Ajax Spach. N. xboutignyanus Philippe from the Pyrenees is a hybrid between N. moschatus L. and N. poeticus L. (Bahnert 1992).
Hybrids between species of subgenus Ajax and section Jonquilla are not common and not as fertile as the former group. N. xodorus L. is a
completely sterile diploid and unknown in the wild. Presumably, it originated in cultivation. It is intermediate between N. pseudonarcissus aggr.
and N. jonquilla (Wylie 1952).
Hybridization between species of subgenus Ajax and the section Ganymedes is relatively frequent. N. x johnstonii Pugsley, a triploid, was
discovered in 1885 in Portugal and later in Spain. Morphologically, the species was considered to be a natural cross of N. triandrus L. and N.
pseudonarcissus L. Engleheart (1890) obtained similar forms by crossing the triploid trumpet daffodil 'Emperor' with N. triandrus. In the 1890s,
thousands of bulbs of this species were imported in England by Peter Barr. These were collected from the wild populations in Northern Spain
and Portugal, transported through Portugal and subsequently, sold under the name of 'Queen of Spain' (Wylie 1952, Bahnert 1992).
The complete linkage analysis (Rivera et al. 2003) showed similarities of the nothospecies N. x johnstonii Pugsley (N. pseudonarcissus x N.
triandrus ssp. pallidulus) with N. x susannae Fernández Casas (N. cantabricus x N. triandrus ssp. pallidulus) and with the illustration of
Parkinson (1629) under the name of Pseudonarcisso tubo quasi absciso (Group 12 in Table 2, Fig. 6). Thus, similar hybridizations may have
occurred in different localities and at different times. Hybridization between Sect. Bulbocodium or Subgenus Ajax with sect. Ganymedes
produces similarities in the hybrid descent.
Generally, hybrids of section Cyclaminopsis Pugsley are characterized by the reflexed tepals. By crossing N. cyclamineus DC. with the
diploid N. asturiensis (Henon) Pugsley, it was obtained the diploid 'Minicycla'. 'February Gold' and 'Bartley' are triploids and were obtained from
the crossing of N. cyclamineus with tetraploid yellow trumpet daffodils. This species has been also crossed with N. tazetta or N. poeticus groups
(Wylie 1952). We did not have material of this group when we carried out our analyses.
4.6. Trumpet daffodils
Division 1 of cultivated Narcissus, the Trumpet (RHS 2000 2005), comprises daffodils with one flower per stem, with a cup (Cup) that is long as
or longer than the perianth segments. These are derived from members of subgenus Ajax Spach. By the 1860s, triploid clones appeared
independently among the seedlings of three English breeders (Backhouse, Leeds, and Horsefield). Their introduction into extensive cultivation
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Rivera et al. The artistic image of daffodil
Table 2 Relationships between wild and cultivated daffodils of Narcissus subgenus Ajax Spach., as demonstrated by the comparative study of characters available from
the illustrations of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries and herbarium specimens. Results from the CL and UPGMA analysis from Rivera et al. 2003 Scientia Horticultura e 98, 307-330,
©2003, with kind permission from Elsevier Science SV.
Group Key Species Prelinnaean names and references Related species and cultivars Origin
1 N. jacetanus Fernández
Casas ssp. vasconicus
(Fernández Casas)
Fernández Casas
- - N Spain
2 N. obvallaris Salisb. N. septentrionalis calice luteo pleno, duplicatis soliis (Besler 1613), N.
septentrionalis flore pleno luteo (Besler 1613), N. septentrionalis
calice pleno luteo oris incisis (Besler 1613), Pseudonarcissus
hispanicus minor (Parkinson 1629)
- Britain, Spain
3 N. hispanicus Gouan N. totus luteus montanus maior i (Besler 1613), 967. N. totus
sulphureus (Barrelier 1714)
'King Alfred' and 'Van Sion' (Bahnert 1992) Pyrenees, S France
4 N. nobilis (Haw.)
Schultes fil.
Daffodils (Weiditz painting of 1529), Pseudo N. luteus iii (Besler 1613)
- NW Spain, Pyrenees
5 N. albescens (Haw.)
Pugsley
- N. pseudonarcissus L. var. platylobus (Jord.)
Pugsley, N. pseudonarcissus L. var. porrigens (Jord.)
Pugsley, N. pseudonarcissus L. var. festinus (Jord.)
Pugsley; N. pseudonarcissus L. var. montinus (Jord.)
Pugsley, N. tortuosus Haw.
-
6 N. confusus Pugsley Pseudonarcissus Anglicus (Gerarde 1633), N. totus luteus montanus,
minimus ii (Besler 1613)
N. asturiensis (Jord.) Pugsley Central and N Iberian
Peninsula
7 - Pseudonarcissus Pyrenaeus variformis (Parkinson 1629),
Pseudonarcissus albus calice luteo iii (Besler 1613), Pseudo N.
simplex Belga (Besler 1613), Pseudo N. aureus praecox
(Besler
1613)
- ?
8 N. provincialis Pugsley Pseudonarcissus luteus gemino flore
(Tabernaemontanus 1731),
Pseudo N. minor luteus repens iv (Besler 1613)
N. jacetanus Fernández Casas; N. genesi-lopezii
Fernández Casas
Pyrenees
9 N. minor L. 975. N. sylvestris totus luteus (Barrelier 1714) N. fontqueri Fernández Casas and Rivas Ponce; N.
segurensis Ríos and aliis, N. alcaracensis Ríos and
aliis, N. primigenius
(Fernández Suarez ex Laínz)
Fernández Casas and Laínz, N. eugeniae
Fernández Casas, N. portensis Pugsley
SE, Central and W
Iberian Peninsula
10 N. nanus Spach Pseudonarcissus tubo sexangulari (Parkinson 1629) N. radinganorum Fernández Casas, N.
calcicarpetanus Fernández Casas, N. segurensis x
N. yepesii
Central and E Spain
11 N. nevadensis Pugsley - N. longispathus Pugsley SE Spain
12 N. xjohnstonii Pugsley Pseudonarcisso tubo quasi abscisso (Parkinson 1629) N. xmunyozii-garmendiae Fernández Casas W Spain, Portugal
13 N. hispanicus Gouan
pp. (= N. major Curtis)
Pseudonarcissus Hispanicus (Gerarde 1633), Pseudonarcissus major
hispanicus (Clusius 1601)
'Emperor' (Burbridge 1875) Not known
14 N. hispanicus var. bujei
(Fernández Casas)
Fernández Casas
Pseudonarcissus luteus simplici flore (Tabernaemontanus 1731), 930.
N. sylvestris tuba aurea major (Barrelier 1714), Pseudonarcissus
luteus (Tabernaemontanus 1731), 929. N. sylvestris tuba lutea minor
(Barrelier 1714)
N. pumilus Salisb; N. hispanicus Gouan var.
concolor(Jord.) Pugsley, N. yepesii Ríos et al.
S and SW Iberian
Peninsula
15 N. nobilis (Haw.) Schult.
f. var. leonensis
(Pugsley) A. Fe rnandes
- 'Empress' (Burbridge 1875); N. bicolor L. N Spain, Pyrenees
16 - 924. N. sylvestris alb. tub. lut. minor (Barrelier 1714), 923. N.
sylvestris totus albicans minor (Barrelier 1714), 976. N. sylvestris
pallidus tuba aurea (Barrelier 1714), 921. N. sylvestris albus
(Barrelier
1714), 968. N. sylv. totus alb. lut. tub. (Barrelier 1714)
- -
17 N. alpestris Pugsley 946. N. albus nutante (Barrelier 1714), Pseudonarcissus albo flore
(Gerarde 1633), Pseudonarcissus albo flore (Clusius 1605)
- Pyrenees
18 N. moschatus L.
(Burbridge, 1875)
Pseudonarcissus triplici tubo (Clusius 1605), 922. Narcissus sylvestris
pall. (Barrelier 1714), Pseudonarcissus totus albus (Besler 1613)
- Pyrenees
19 N. macrolobus (Jord.)
Pugsley
953. N. totus albus nutans (Barrelier 1714), 954. N. totus albus amplo
(Barrelier 1714)
N. yepesii Ríos et aliis Pyrenees, SE Spain
20 N. gayi (Hénon)
Pugsley
- N. gayi (Henon) Pugsley var. praelongus (Jord.)
Pugsley, N. abscissus (Haw.) Pugsley var. serotinus
(Jord.) Pugsley;
Pyrenees?
21 - Pseudonarcissus hispanicus major albus (Parkinson 1629) - Pyrenees?
22 N. moleroi Fernández
Casas
Pseudonarcissus Hispanicus minimus
(Parkinson 1629),
Pseudonarcissus minor Hispanicus (Gerarde 1633), Pseudonarcissus
minor Hispanicus (Clusius 1601), N. totus luteus oblongo calice et
reflexis foliis (Besler 1613)
- Pyrenees
23 N. abscissus (Haw.)
Pugsley var. tubulosus
(Jord.) Pugsley
Pseudonarcissus hispanicus maximus aureus (Parkinson 1629) - Pyrenees
24 N. pallidiflorus Pugsley 945. N. totus albus nutante (Barrelier 1714) N. parviflorus (Jord.) Pugsley Pyrenees
25 N. abscissus Schultes f. Pseudonarcissus hispanicus minor albus (Parkinson 1629) - Pyrenees
26 N. cyclamineus DC. - - NW Iberian Peninsula
was delayed until 1875, when Peter Barr bought these collections for commercial utilization.
Wylie (1952) suggested that in the origin of the Backhouse’s trumpet varieties, e. g., 'Emperor' and 'Empress' an almost sterile triploid clone
of the common tetraploid N. bicolor L was involved. The similarity analysis showed a very close relationship of 'Empress' with N. nobilis (Haw.)
Schult. var. leonensis (Pugsley) A. Fernandes (a wild hexaploid) (Group 15). 'Emperor' is very similar to the Clusius’ (1601) Pseudonarcissus
major hispanicus and at a longer distance appears related to cultivated species like N. hispanicus Gouan pp. (= N. major Curtis) and wild
Spanish endemics such as N. yepesii Ríos et al. or N. hispanicus var. bujei (Fernández Casas) Fernández Casas (Group 13 in Table 2, Fig. 5).
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Rivera et al. The artistic image of daffodil
By the 1890s, several tetraploid clones had emerged. One of the first was 'King Alfred', which may have been obtained from a cross of
'Empress' (a triploid) with Narcissus hispanicus Gouan (also triploid) (Wylie 1952). The influence of N. hispanicus in 'King Alfred' is clearly
supported by the analysis (Group 3 in Table 2, Figs. 2, 3), but 'Empress' appear grouped at a relatively long distance from this cluster (only a
similarity of 85%) (Group 15 in Table 2, Fig. 2).
Table 3 Primitive names, illustrations and descriptions of double forms of Narcissus subgenus Ajax Spach. From Rivera et al. 2003 Scientia Horticulturae 98, 307-330, ©2003,
with kind permission from Elsevier Science SV.
English name Prelinnaean names Literature Origin
Greatest double yellow
bastard daffodil
Pseudonarcissus maximus aureus flore
pleno (= N. septentrionalis flore pleno luteo)
Lobel 1570 1576, Clusius 1601,
Besler 1613, Parkinson 1629
John Tradescant’s collections, presumbaly from
continental Europe
Mr. Wilmer’s great double
Daffodil = 'Van Sion'
Pseudonarcissus aureus Anglicus maximus
Parkinson 1629 Vincent Sion obtained flowering plants in 1620, seeds
or bulbs provenient from J. de Franqueville’s collection
Parkinsons daffodil Pseudonarcissus aureus Hispanicus flore
pleno
Parkinson 1629 John Parkinson obtained in 1618 this form from seeds
from the common Spanish daffodil
Greater double french Pseudonarcissus Gallicus maior flore pleno
Clusius 1605, Besler 1613,
Parkinson 1629
Presumably from France or from Germany
Geater double german N. septentrionalis calice luteo pleno,
duplicatis soliis
Besler 1613 Germany?
Gerards double daffodil Pseudonarcissus Anglicus flore pleno Parkinson 1629 Gardens of West of England, Isle of Wight
Lesser french double bastard
daffodil
Pseudonarcissus Gallicus minor flore pleno
Parkinson 1629, Gerarde 1633
From Orleans (France), it was distributed by J. Robin
4.7. Influence of cultivation on the conservation of wild populations
The introduction of bulbs from Spain into British, French, and Flemish (now Dutch and Belgian) gardens has been significant since the 16th
century. Presumably, this commerce caused the extinction of many wild populations, especially those bulbs that were easily accessible to
collectors. With a reduction of natural populations over the years, the commercial market declined. This reduction of imported bulbs was
reflected in a decrease of taxonomic diversity in gardens. In addition, the lack of commercial bulb production contributed to this decline. In fact,
this led to the extinction, as cultivated plants, of some taxa discovered and introduced during the 16th and 17th centuries by explorers and
botanists (N. cyclamineus, N. x johnstonii). Many, however, were rediscovered during the revival of daffodil cultivation in the second half of the
19th century (Rivera et al. 2003).
Portugal (the Douro region, including Oporto) and France appear to have been the most important routes to introduce Spanish daffodils to
Britain and the Netherlands in the 16th and 17th centuries and, again, in the 19th century (Parkinson 1629, Pugsley 1933, Bahnert 1992). By the
1890s, Peter Barr was involved in the annual massive importation of thousands of bulbs, collected from wild populations from Spain and
Portugal (Bahnert 1992).
In addition, it appears that some taxa currently found exclusively in cultivation (viz. N. abscissus (Haw.) Schultes f. var. tubulosus (Jord.)
Pugsley, N. hispanicus Gouan var. concolor (Jord.) Pugsley) are of an ancient origin. They may be interpreted as hybrids resulting by growing
together compatible species, or as vegetatively propagated species which became extinct in their natural habitats. Other taxa only known in
cultivation (N. minor L., N. nanus, etc.) have wild relatives (N. asturiensis, N. fontqueri, N. segurensis). They may have originated through
selection or hybridization, or both.
4.8. Chronology for Daffodil domestication
Daffodils of subgenus Ajax were domesticated during three different periods (Rivera et al. 2003). They are separated by a gap characterized by
the loss of diversity in cultivation. The first period was the Middle Ages, the second was the 16th and 17th centuries and, the third was the second
half of the 19th century. Several types of N. pseudonarcissus L., N. hispanicus Gouan, and N. pallidiflorus Pugsley were grown in Central
Europe at the beginning of the 16th Century. These may have evolved from the Spanish cultivated forms cited by the Arab writers and from wild
European taxa (Medieval group of domesticated). Hence, the cultivation of primitive trumpet daffodils in British and Central European gardens,
mainly those species which were not wild in Central Europe (N. hispanicus Gouan, N. pallidiflorus Pugsley), is connected with the early
introduction of plants grown in medieval Spanish and Provençal gardens. This does not appear to be the case for cultivars related to N.
hispanicus var. bujei (Fernández Casas) Fernández Casas.
Between 1590 and 1620 a large number of Spanish species were introduced into cultivation by Venerio, Tradescant, Clusius, Robin and
associated plant collectors. From the descriptions, localities, and illustrations by Parkinson (1629), Tabernaemontanus (1731), Barrelier (1714),
Clusius (1601 1605) and Besler (1613) we have identified Iberian Peninsula endemics as N. abscissus, N. jacetanus, N. asturiensis, N.
hispanicus, N. leonensis, N. pallidiflorus, N. nobilis amongst the primitively cultivated plants.
Plants raised from seed, which occurred in the Netherlands and France, led to a substitution of wild forms by selected hybrid types. This
occurred mainly during the second half of the 18th and 19th centuries.
A third important period for daffodil domestication in Europe was the last quarter of the 19th century. At this time, general introduction of
recently described wild taxa was equal to the raising of new hybrid cultivars.
The early hybrid trumpet daffodil cultivars are related to well known taxa that had been in cultivation for a long time. They presumably were
derived from N. hispanicus Gouan, and N. major Curtis. Alternatively, these are also similar to natural hexaploids like N. leonensis, whose
similarity may be interpreted as derived from the higher level of ploidy of both species.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors thank Dr. G López and Mr. A Barra of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Madrid, for providing advice on some of the specimens and taxonomic problems. Also, we
wish to thank to A. Robledo, J. Martínez and A. Verde their assistance in the field studies. Lastly, we are indebted to the staff of the Library of the Royal Botanic Gardens in
Madrid for the facilities provided in our research and to Mr. Wim Lemmers of the Netherlands for information on old-fashioned (Heirloom) daffodils. We are also grateful to
Elsevier Science SV, IDC and Taschen, for allowing the use of printed material.
368
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Rivera et al. The artistic image of daffodil
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Floriculture, Ornamental and Plant Biotechnology Volume IV ©2006 Global Science Books
... The result of this study (Rivera-Nuñez et al. 2003) indicates that the mentioned two species do not appear to have been in cultivation before the published descriptions in the 20 th century. This discussion is broadened and elaborated in more detail in Rivera-Nuñez et al. (2006a, 2006b. ...
... Cv. 'Jinsanjiao' appeared more closely related with the single-flowered form than the double-flowered form. Unlike this use of molecular markers to study genetic diversity, Rivera Nuñez et al. (2003Nuñez et al. ( , 2006aNuñez et al. ( , 2006b investigated the relationships among wild plants, domesticated plants, and primitive cultivars through a cluster analysis of the characters available from figures or botanical illustrations of Arab, European Renaissance, and Prelinnaean ancient agricultural texts and illustrations. The tree obtained from complete linkage (CL) analysis and UPGMA analysis distinguished 26 different groups including wild; cultivated and wild; and cultivated daffodils. ...
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Article
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Article
The "Ajax Group" (i.e. Pseudonarcissus) is one of the most important ancestors of modern daffodils cultivars. The manner in which these plants were introduced into the English, French and Dutch gardens appears relatively obscure since most are endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. Therefore, it was necessary to determine how their introduction into cultivation and domestication occurred. This study primarily utilised the comparison of data from Arab texts of agriculture, European Renaissance, and Prelinnaean ancient texts and illustrations, with the morphological characteristics of the currently known wild taxa from the territories of Spain and Portugal and primitive cultivars, which are the ancestors of the modem hybrid trumpet daffodils. The relationships among wild plants, domesticated plants, and primitive cultivars were investigated through a cluster analysis of the characters available from figures or botanical illustrations. The tree resulting from the complete linkage (CL) analysis and UPGMA analysis distinguished 26 different groups including wild; cultivated and wild; and cultivated daffodils. The cluster analysis demonstrated that N. nevadensis Pugsley and N. longispathus Pugsley, are closely related, and clearly distinct. They do not appear to have been in cultivation before the publication of their descriptions in the 20th century. A comparison of early descriptions, localities, and illustrations with currently wild species confirmed that several Iberian Peninsula endemics were cultivated in Central European gardens between the 16th and 18th centuries. Examples are: Narcissus abscissus Pugsley, N. jacetanus Fernandez Casas, N. asturiensis Henon, N. hispanicus Gouan, N. nobilis (Haw.) Schult. var. leonensis (Pugsley) A. Fernandes, N. pallidiflorus Pugsley and N. pseudonarcissus L.