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Manipulation of body odour alters men’s self-confidence and judgements of their visual attractiveness by women


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Human body odour is important in modulating self-perception and interactions between individuals. Artificial fragrances have been used for thousands of years to manipulate personal odour, but the nature and extent of influences on person perception are relatively unexplored. Here we test the effects of a double-blind manipulation of personal odour on self-confidence and behaviour. We gave to male participants either an aerosol spray containing a formulation of fragrance and antimicrobial agents or an otherwise identical spray that lacked these active ingredients. Over several days, we found effects between treatment groups on psychometric self-confidence and self-perceived attractiveness. Furthermore, although there was no difference between groups in mean attractiveness ratings of men's photographs by a female panel, the same women judged men using the active spray as more attractive in video-clips, suggesting a behavioural difference between the groups. Attractiveness of an individual male's non-verbal behaviour, independent of structural facial features, was predicted by the men's self-reported proclivity towards the provided deodorant. Our results demonstrate the pervasive influence of personal odour on self-perception, and how this can extend to impressions on others even when these impressions are formed in the absence of odour cues.
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Manipulation of body odour alters men’s
self-confidence and judgements of their visual
attractiveness by women
S. Craig Roberts*, A. C. Little, A. Lyndonà, J. Roberts*, J. Havlicek§ and R. L. Wrightà
*School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7BX, UK, School of Psychology, University of
Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK, àUnilever Research and Development, Port Sunlight Laboratory, Quarry Road East,
Bebington, Wirral, Merseyside, CH63 3JW, UK and §Department of Anthropology, Charles University, Husnikova 2075,
Prague, Czech Republic
Received 4 June 2008, Accepted 15 August 2008
Keywords: deodorant, evolutionary psychology, olfaction, perception, smell
Human body odour is important in modulating
self-perception and interactions between individu-
als. Artificial fragrances have been used for thou-
sands of years to manipulate personal odour, but
the nature and extent of influences on person per-
ception are relatively unexplored. Here we test the
effects of a double-blind manipulation of personal
odour on self-confidence and behaviour. We gave
to male participants either an aerosol spray con-
taining a formulation of fragrance and antimicro-
bial agents or an otherwise identical spray that
lacked these active ingredients. Over several days,
we found effects between treatment groups on psy-
chometric self-confidence and self-perceived attrac-
tiveness. Furthermore, although there was no
difference between groups in mean attractiveness
ratings of men’s photographs by a female panel,
the same women judged men using the active
spray as more attractive in video-clips, suggesting
a behavioural difference between the groups.
Attractiveness of an individual male’s non-verbal
behaviour, independent of structural facial fea-
tures, was predicted by the men’s self-reported pro-
clivity towards the provided deodorant. Our results
demonstrate the pervasive influence of personal
odour on self-perception, and how this can extend
to impressions on others even when these impres-
sions are formed in the absence of odour cues.
L’odeur corporelle humaine a un ro
ˆle important
dans la modulation de la perception de soi et des
interactions entre individus. Les fragrances artifici-
elles sont utilise
´es pour manipuler l’odeur personn-
elle depuis des mille
´naires, mais la nature et
´tendue de leur influence sur la perception des
personnes restent relativement peu e
´es. Nous
testons ici les effets d’une manipulation en double
aveugle de l’odeur personnelle sur la confiance en
soi et le comportement. Nous avons donne
participants masculins soit un spray ae
´rosol con-
tenant une formulation de parfum et des agents
antimicrobiens, soit un spray identique mais
exempt de ces ingre
´dients actifs. Sur plusieurs
jours, nous avons releve
´des diffe
´rences entre les
deux groupes expe
´rimentaux sur le plan des me-
sures psychome
´triques de confiance en soi et de
`re se
´duisant auto-e
´. En outre, bien
que le caracte
`re se
´duisant des hommes e
`s leur photo par un panel fe
´minin ne re
aucune diffe
´rence entre les deux groupes, ces
ˆme femmes ont juge
´les hommes utilisant le
Correspondence: S. Craig Roberts, School of Biological
Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7BX, UK.
Tel.: +44 151 795 4514; fax: +44 151 795 4408;
International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2009, 31,4754
ª2009 The Authors. Journal compilation
ª2009 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Socie
´Franc¸aise de Cosme
´tologie 47
spray actif comme e
´tant plus se
´duisants dans un
clip vide
´o, ce qui sugge
`re une diffe
´rence de com-
portement entre les deux groupes. Le caracte
´duisant lie
´au comportement, inde
´pendant de
traits faciaux structuraux, est pre
´dit par la propen-
sion des hommes pour le de
´sodorisant fournie. Nos
´sultats de
´montrent l’influence majeure de l’odeur
personnelle sur la perception de soi, et comment
elle peut s’e
´tendre a
`l’impression faite aux autres
ˆme lorsque ces impressions se forment en
l’absence d’indices odorants.
The importance of the sense of smell in social
interactions and behaviour of animals is well
known [e.g. 1, 2]. In contrast, olfaction has often
been thought to be of minor relevance to primates
in general and humans in particular. Herrick [3]
classified both as microsmatic, on the basis that
olfaction played a minor role in their behaviour.
This perception has been dramatically changing
over the past two decades. Schaal and Porter [4]
directly challenged this classification, showing that
odour coordinates behaviour as wide-ranging as
maternal recognition by infants, peer-group rela-
tionships in pre-pubertal children and reproductive
behaviour (see also [5]). Human body odour also
provides cues of ovulatory status [6], psychometric
dominance [7] and genetic relatedness [8–10].
Despite the potential communicatory signifi-
cance of human body odour, many cultures have
a remarkably uneasy relationship with it. As Stod-
dart [11] puts it: ‘human beings behave as if they
are afraid of smelling like human beings, for
human beings smell bad’. Negative impressions of
body odour are widespread [12] and commonly
associated with outgroup prejudices such as racist
sentiment [13] or attribution of lower social class
[14]. Eli et al. [15] reported that oral malodour
(halitosis) can lead to low self-image and behavio-
ural changes.
At least since the ancient Greek and Egyptian
civilizations [11], individuals have employed exog-
enous fragrances to manipulate their body odour.
Although effects of odours on mood and behaviour
are well-known [16], relatively little research has
examined psychological effects of wearing fra-
grances specifically applied to the body to enhance
or mask personal odour. However, one recent
study familiarized women to a pleasant fragrance
within their skin care product and showed that
this odour later induced psychological and physio-
logical changes associated with a state of increased
relaxation [17]. Beyond effects on the wearer,
wearing fragrances can modulate personality attri-
bution and affect towards the wearer in other peo-
ple, particularly in terms of romantic relationships
and sexual attraction [18, 19] but also in other
contexts such as job interviews [20, 21].
Here we describe an experiment in which we set
out to test the effects of self-perceived personal
odour quality on the self-confidence of young men
and on the attributions made by others. We used
a repeated-measures, within-subject experimental
design in which, after having collected baseline
information, we asked participants to apply an
underarm spray each day. Measures of self-confi-
dence were recorded before application, 15 min
after application and 48 h later. This design
allowed for body odour development and associ-
ated behavioural changes to become manifest. We
divided men into two treatment groups: both
groups of men received visually-identical deodor-
ants specifically prepared for this experiment, but
one group’s spray contained a full commercial
deodorant formulation whereas the other lacked
vital ingredients responsible for fragrance and bac-
tericidal action. We predicted that use of the two
formulations would lead to differences between
groups in self-confidence and self-rated attractive-
ness. We also aimed to test whether any induced
behavioural effects might alter attributions made
by others. To do this, we filmed men while they
recorded an introductory video and showed these
videos to a female panel in the absence of any
odour cues.
Participants were 35 heterosexual and non-smok-
ing male students or staff at Liverpool University.
Advertisements were distributed throughout the
campus and on the University’s intranet. An
incentive of £15 payment was offered for partici-
pation. Participants were aged 19–35 (mean ± SD:
23.49 ± 3.43) years. Permission for the study was
granted by the University’s Biological Sciences
Human Ethics Review Board, and all participants
gave informed consent. Participants were informed
that the research aimed to examine the effects of
deodorant use on behaviour, but were provided
ª2009 The Authors. Journal compilation
ª2009 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Socie
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International Journal of Cosmetic Science,31,475448
Manipulation of body odour alters men’s self-confidence S. Craig Roberts et al.
with no further details and were unaware of the
experimental hypotheses or design; as the same
information was given to all participants, this
could not have accounted for the observed differ-
ence between D+ and D)groups.
Experimental design
A mixed longitudinal design was used. In session
1, participants completed the questionnaires
(described below) to record baseline measure-
ments. At the beginning of session 2, approxi-
mately 24 h later, participants were allocated test
deodorant sprays (see Deodorant formulations) and
asked to apply them immediately. Participants
completed the questionnaires again 15 min after
deodorant application (we chose 15 min because it
balanced the two requirements of ensuring suffi-
cient exposure had occurred for any potential
immediate fragrance-induced effect to occur (cog-
nitive responses to androgen steroids are known to
occur within 6 min, for example, [22, 23]) and
minimizing inconvenience to participants). They
were then instructed to substitute the test deodor-
ant for their usual deodorant for the next 48 h,
allowing sufficient time for body odour to develop
even after thorough cleansing [24], but not too
long so as to inconvenience participants.
Two days later (session 3), they completed the
questionnaires for the final time, and were video-
recorded. Video clips were collected only once, after
2 days of deodorant use, to avoid practice effects.
Deodorants were collected from participants during
session 3. At the end of the study, we asked men to
rate the pleasantness of the deodorant spray that
had been allocated to them, using a Likert scale
(1 = unpleasant, 7 = pleasant). All men confirmed
they had used the allocated sprays each day.
The independent variable was the type of
deodorant given, with assignment alternating in
order of recruitment. Eighteen participants were
provided with a full deodorant (see below) to use
(the D+ group) and 17 were allocated the placebo
(D)group). The experimenter was unaware of the
group to which participants had been allocated.
In an initial background questionnaire, 32 of
the men indicated they used a deodorant spray
either every day or on most days; of the three who
rarely or never normally used deodorants, one
was allocated to the D+ group and two to the D)
group. None of the men used the formulation used
in this experiment.
Deodorant formulations
Formulations were either available as a commer-
cially available product (the D+ formulation) or
form part of one (the D)formulation). Both were
an ethanol solution pressurized with a butane/pro-
pane gas mix. D+ further contained a proprietary
fragrance oil and an antimicrobial ingredient
aimed at reducing malodour. Both deodorants
were prepared in white 150-mL spray cans
marked only with instructions for use and two
contact numbers of experimenters for use in the
event that any adverse reaction occurred; how-
ever, no such reactions were reported.
In each session, participants completed a question-
naire measuring several variables related to self-
confidence and self-perceived attractiveness. This
included the physical attractiveness, dominance,
assertiveness, self-efficacy, competence and extra-
version scales [25] and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem
Scale [26]. All scales were taken from the Interna-
tional Personality Items Pool:
ipip. We used Spearman rank correlations (as raw
data are measured on an ordinal scale, despite all
variables being normally distributed Kolmogorov–
Smirnov tests, all P> 0.2) to describe correlations
between scores (all from Session 1) on these seven
primary self-confidence constructs, and with a
composite construct, Total Self-Confidence (the
sum of the seven primary constructs). Total Self-
Confidence is strongly correlated with each of the
primary constructs (Table I). In view of this, and
to avoid statistical issues involving multiple testing
if we used each construct separately, analyses
investigating the effects of personal odour manipu-
lation on self-confidence used this composite score.
Raters also completed three independent 5-point
Likert scale questions asking participants to rate
their facial attractiveness, physical attractiveness
and overall appearance [27], and the mean of these
was used as a score of self-rated attractiveness.
During the third test session, participants were
asked to film a short video of themselves in a sce-
nario in which they were instructed to imagine
introducing themselves to an attractive woman.
Participants were shown how to use the digital
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International Journal of Cosmetic Science,31, 47–54 49
Manipulation of body odour alters men’s self-confidence S. Craig Roberts et al.
video camera (Sony Handycam DCR-SR52E), and
then the researcher left the room. The camera was
positioned at a distance of 2 m from a chair in
which participants sat, immediately behind which
was a plain white background, in a windowless
room with standardized overhead lighting (fluores-
cent tube). A still face photograph was also taken
from a distance of 2 m, asking participants to
adopt a neutral expression and to look straight
into the camera. Video clips were subsequently
processed (Adobe After Effects 7.0, cropped to
400 ·480 pixels) and edited to a duration of 15 s
(the first 15 s after the subject was judged to be
both seated and talking; videos of 15 s or less pro-
vide sufficient time to make accurate social and
personality judgements [28–30] and attractiveness
judgements in particular are typically made in less
than a second [31, 32]) and encoded as 25 fps
QuickTime movies using the MPEG-4 codec. Pho-
tographs were normalized on interpupillary dis-
tance, cropped just above the top of the head and
just below the chin, and resampled to 400 ·480
pixels (resolution 72 dpi); videos showed seated
men from the waist to just above the head. Seven
men wore glasses (four in the D+ group, three in
the D)group) and three had facial hair (one D+,
two D)); these were constant in both photographs
and videos.
A panel of eight independent female raters (aged
19–26) assessed the facial photographs of the par-
ticipants on a 7-point Likert scale (1 = very unat-
tractive, 7 = very attractive). When watching the
video clips, the same raters judged the participants
with respect to confidence (1 = not at all confi-
dent, 7 = very confident) and attractiveness
(1 = very unattractive, 7 = very attractive). Pho-
tographs were rated before the videos. Video rat-
ings were made twice (with/without sound), in
counter-balanced order. Images of individual males
were presented in randomized order for each par-
ticipant within each of the three types of presenta-
tion, using either a java applet (for photographs)
or Powerpoint (for videos). Both kinds of image
were presented with onscreen dimensions of
27 ·20 cm. Mean scores for each male image
(photograph or video) were calculated and used in
the analyses (Cronbach’s acoefficients were within
acceptable limits for psychological constructs [33],
ranging between 0.65 and 0.77).
Data were analysed using repeated-measures
MANOVA, with total self-confidence and self-rated
attractiveness scores as dependent variables, Ses-
sion as the within-subjects measure (with three
levels) and Group (D+ or D)) as a fixed factor. If
the experiment was successful in influencing
self-confidence, we would expect a significant
interaction between Group and Session. Analyses
of judgements of static and dynamic stimuli used
two-tailed independent samples t-tests or Pearson
correlations (distribution of the data fulfilled statis-
tical assumptions).
Mean scores of self-confidence and self-rated
attractiveness across the three test sessions are
shown in Fig. 1. Repeated-measures MANOVA on
the two dependent variables (total self-confidence,
self-rated overall attractiveness) revealed, as pre-
dicted, a significant Session x Group interaction
[F(2,66) = 5.30, P= 0.007]. There were no main
effects of Session or Group, indicating that these
variables did not vary systematically across the
three sessions or between the D+ and D)groups.
The significant interaction was attributed more
strongly to changes in self-confidence, [F(2,66) =
3.83, P= 0.027] than to changes in attractiveness
Table I Matrix of correlations between constructs relat-
ing to psychological self-confidence. Data are Spearman
rank correlation coefficients (r
) (above) and exact two-
tailed Pvalues (below). Significant correlations are high-
lighted in bold
SEs Ass Com Dom Ext SEf TSC
PA .24 .41 .14 .25 .53 ).15 .56
.158 .015 .436 .142 .001 .395 .000
SEs .21 .16 .16 .42 .25 .57
.232 .368 .354 .012 .144 .000
Ass .36 .63 .55 .43 .74
.036 .000 .001 .010 .000
Com .25 .39 .48 .61
.156 .021 .003 .000
Dom .38 .21 .64
.026 .220 .000
Ext .20 .79
.243 .000
SEf .45
PA, physical attractiveness; SEs, self-esteem; Ass, assertive-
ness; Com, competence; Dom, dominance; Ext, extraversion;
SEf, self-efficacy; TSC, total self-confidence (composite score).
ª2009 The Authors. Journal compilation
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Manipulation of body odour alters men’s self-confidence S. Craig Roberts et al.
[F(2,66) = 2.56, P= 0.085]. Planned contrasts
across sessions revealed that self-confidence dif-
fered between Sessions 1 and 2 [F(1,33) = 8.96,
P= 0.005], whereas attractiveness rating did not
[F(1,33) = 1.84, P= 0.18]. This indicates that
self-confidence was sensitive to even a 15-min
exposure to the deodorants, whereas there was no
comparable short-term effect on self-rated attrac-
tiveness. In contrast, differences between Sessions
1 and 3 approached statistical significance for both
self-confidence [F(1,33) = 3.65, P= 0.065] and
attractiveness [F(1,33) = 4.07, P= 0.052].
We then examined differences in the perception
of individuals in the D+ and D)groups by a panel
of independent female judges. We found no differ-
ence in the attractiveness ratings of facial photo-
graphs of the participants in the two groups
[t(33) = 0.20, P= 0.84; see Fig. 2a]. There was
also no difference in the ratings when video clips
were played with sound, [t(33) = 1.57, P= 0.13],
nor in ratings of participant confidence, either
with or without sound, despite attractiveness and
confidence judgements being positively correlated
[e.g. without sound, r=0.703, n= 35,
P< 0.001; Fig.3]. However, video-rated (without
sound) attractiveness of the male participants was
higher for the D+ group [t(33) = 2.14, P= 0.040;
Fig. 2a].
Furthermore, we also tested these effects while
controlling for facial attractiveness by calculating
standardized residuals from regression with video-
rated attractiveness as the dependent variable and
photograph-rated attractiveness as the indepen-
dent variable, in order to obtain a measure of the
extent to which individual male participants
Self-confidence score
Figure 1 Means and standard errors of scores collected
from participants in the D+ (open circles) and D)(closed
circles) groups across three sessions spanning 72 h. (a)
self-confidence, (b) self-rated attractiveness.
of deodorant
D+ D– D+ D–
Photo Video
Figure 2 Ratings of male facial attractiveness by female
judges. (a) Means (+SE) based on either digital images or
video clips. (b) Standardized residuals of video-rated over
photograph-rated attractiveness and male-assessed odour
pleasantness, for the D+ group (open circles) and
D)group (closed circles). Men who expressed liking for
the deodorant were more likely judged attractive in
video-ratings than expected based on photograph-rated
ª2009 The Authors. Journal compilation
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International Journal of Cosmetic Science,31, 47–54 51
Manipulation of body odour alters men’s self-confidence S. Craig Roberts et al.
appeared more attractive in the video clips than
predicted based on their static image rating. This
measure thus parses attractiveness of an individ-
ual’s movement and non-verbal behaviour from
attractiveness of structural facial components. The
regression was significant [F(1,34) = 19.1,
P< 0.001, r
= .37]. Residuals were higher
among the D+ group [t(33) = 2.59, P= 0.014],
and were predicted by the self-reported pleasant-
ness of the allocated deodorant [r= 0.352,
n= 35, P= 0.038; Fig. 2b].
An increasing number of studies demonstrate a
pervasive, and hitherto underestimated, influence
of olfaction on human behaviour. Our results
emphasize the particular importance of combined
personal odour and fragrance in modulating both
self-perception, especially self-confidence, and con-
sequent perception by others. This is emphasized
by the widespread use of exogenous fragrances to
mask or augment body odour in many human
societies [11] and apparent genetic underpinning
of individual fragrance choice [34].
Male participants using active deodorant showed
increases in measures of self-confidence compared
with those who did not, over a period of only
48 h of body odour manipulation. In fact, a
detectable increase was detected in the predicted
direction only 15 min post-application, although
change in self-rated attractiveness was less rapid.
The immediacy of this effect on self-confidence is
perhaps surprising, but consistent with many
other studies in psychological responses to fra-
grances and indeed forms the basis for a growing
industry in provision of ambient fragrances, for
example in marketing psychology [35]. Figure 2
indicates that the significant interaction we
detected between changes in self-rated attractive-
ness and deodorant use was driven mainly by neg-
ative effects in the D)group, with a relatively
homoeostatic effect being evident in the D+ group.
It thus appears that increased intensity of body
odour, probably associated with changes in the
axillary microbial flora, together with absence of
masking fragrance, has a detrimental effect on
self-perception of attractiveness.
Our design allowed us to test any self- or other-
rated effects resulting from the use of the full
deodorant vs. the placebo, but not whether effects
are attributable to the fragrance or the antimicro-
bial agent. This was because we were primarily
interested in investigating whether, rather than
how, such a manipulation would elicit a measur-
able behavioural effect. However, the rapidity
(within 15 min) of the change in self-confidence is
suggestive of an effect of the fragrance in the
deodorant treatment, rather than the presence of
the antimicrobial agents. In contrast, the absence
of these may well have played a role in the declin-
ing self-confidence and self-rated attractiveness
scores in the D)group over the following 48 h,
through a likely increase in body odour intensity
associated with growth of axillary bacterial popu-
lations. Although this conclusion must remain a
preliminary one, the results suggest an interesting
further study, which could be conducted to tease
apart the effects of the positive, pleasant fragrance
contained within the treatment used and the nega-
tive effects of increasing body odour associated
with absence of antimicrobial action. It would also
be of interest to investigate the efficacy of different
fragrances on the reported effects.
The reported changes in men’s self-assessment
could have arisen directly through their own per-
ception of their personal odour and the fragrance,
or alternatively, they could have been influenced
indirectly through positive or negative reactions of
others in interactions during the experimental per-
iod. During debriefing, it was found that eight of
10 men among the D+ group reported that com-
ments had been made about their new deodorant,
of which seven were positive and one was nega-
tive. In contrast, only one (negative) comment
2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5
Figure 3 Relationship between ratings of male confi-
dence and attractiveness in video clips. Open circles
indicate males in the D+ group, closed circles denote the
ª2009 The Authors. Journal compilation
ª2009 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Socie
´Franc¸aise de Cosme
International Journal of Cosmetic Science,31,475452
Manipulation of body odour alters men’s self-confidence S. Craig Roberts et al.
was reported by men in the D)group. These
responses could also have contributed to the
behavioural differences observed in the videos.
However, we think it more likely that the
responses were attributable to direct effects on the
participants themselves, for two reasons; first,
because the increase in self-confidence was higher
after 15 min of exposure than after 48 h; second,
because (within the D+ group) mean video-rated
attractiveness was in fact lower for those men
who had received positive feedback compared with
those who had received none (mean residual ± SE,
0.42 ± 0.39 vs. 0.44 ± 0.34).
The analysis of the video ratings of self-confi-
dence, even though only 15 s of exposure was
shown to the female panel, demonstrated signifi-
cantly higher rated attractiveness of D+ males
compared with males in the D)group. The
absence of a similar effect when raters were asked
to specifically focus on and rate confidence is more
indicative, perhaps, of the perceptual processing of
information in the rater rather than of effects on
the males, because attractiveness and confidence
ratings were strongly correlated. A similar effect
has been found in facial attractiveness research
where raters are found to be relatively poor at dis-
criminating symmetry but good at distinguishing
attractiveness between images that differ in sym-
metry [36]. Further, it has also been shown that
the ability to detect symmetry is dissociated from
preference for it [37], suggesting that the ability to
judge a trait like confidence may also not neces-
sarily be related to how attractive it is found.
Video-recording was carried out only once because
of potential practice effects, and the corresponding
analysis is therefore between-subjects whereas the
other analyses include a within-subjects design. It
is therefore possible that the video-rated attractive-
ness difference between the two groups was coinci-
dental and unrelated to a change in response to
the manipulation. However, we think that this is
unlikely on the basis that (i) critically, there was
no difference in facial attractiveness between the
two groups (the null result for photograph ratings
thus acts as a control for the difference in video
ratings – the between-group difference seen in vid-
eos is not because of the differences in structural
facial features visible only in photographs), (ii)
even though ratings from static and dynamic
images were highly related, the difference between
the D+ and D)groups was larger when we con-
trolled for facial attractiveness than when we did
not, and (iii) the extent to which participants
appeared more or less attractive than expected
based on their static image was predicted by the
degree to which they expressed a liking for the
deodorant they had been given.
Our results show that changes in self-confidence
and self-perceived attractiveness of young men can
be induced by the use of a spray containing fra-
grance and antimicrobial agents compared with a
spray lacking these active ingredients. Further-
more, these changes are associated with an effect
on the attributions made by others on the basis of
visible non-verbal behaviour, even in the absence
of any olfactory cues (see also [20]). This effect
highlights the flexible nature of self-esteem to
respond to rapid changes in one’s own physical
traits through the use of artificial cosmetic prod-
ucts. An individual’s personal odour and the
perfume product chosen may thus influence both
self-perception and impressions formed by others.
We thank Unilever Research & Development for
supplying the fragrances, all our participants for
their patience, Camille Ferdenzi for comments and
translation of the abstract, and two anonymous
reviewers for their helpful comments. Anthony Lit-
tle is supported by the Royal Society.
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Manipulation of body odour alters men’s self-confidence S. Craig Roberts et al.
... These include everything from the fact that people's faces tend to be dynamic in real-life interaction rather than static. Indeed, the research using morphing faces suggests that scent may have less impact (see Novak et al., 2015;Roberts et al., 2009;Syrjänen et al., 2017). Furthermore, in real life, we typically see people before we get close enough to smell them (or their fragrance), while the onset of the odours typically precedes the onset of the face photos in the majority of the laboratory research (see Spence, 2021, on this point). ...
... In future research it will be interesting to assess the extent to which the laboratory-based crossmodal effects of olfaction on visual ratings of attractiveness, age, or any other attribute, be it of others or of the self, extend to the typical situations of everyday life (Kirk-Smith and Booth, 1987;Roberts et al., 2009;Sczesny and Stahlberg, 2002). Bridging the wide gap between wellcontrolled laboratory studies and the real world is certainly critical, one the one hand, to demonstrate the results are ecologically valid, and, on the other hand, to contribute to practitioners and knowledge users. ...
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We report two experiments designed to investigate whether the presentation of a range of pleasant fragrances, containing both floral and fruity notes, would modulate people’s judgements of the facial attractiveness (Experiment 1) and age (Experiment 2) of a selection of typical female faces varying in age in the range 20–69 years. In Experiment 1, male participants rated the female faces as less attractive when presented with an unpleasant fragrance compared to clean air. The rated attractiveness of the female faces was lower when the participants rated the unpleasant odour as having a lower attractiveness and pleasantness, and a higher intensity. In Experiment 2, both male and female participants rated the age of female faces while presented with one of four pleasant fragrances or clean air as a control. Only the female participants demonstrated a crossmodal effect, with the pleasant fragrances inducing an older rating for female faces in the 40–49-years-old age range, whereas a younger rating was documented for female faces in the 60–69-years-old age range. Taken together, these results are consistent with the view that while the valence of fragrance (pleasant versus unpleasant) exerts a robust crossmodal influence over judgements of facial attractiveness, the effects of pleasant fragrance on judgements of a person’s age appear to be less reliable. One possible explanation for the differing effect of scent in the two cases relates to the fact that attractiveness judgements are more subjective, hedonic, and/or intuitive than age ratings which are more objective, cognitive-mediated, and/or analytic in nature.
... Improved self-confidence can also alter non-verbal behavior that influences perceived attractiveness. In a study where men were videotaped when they either wore a scented deodorant body spray or not, women rated the men as more attractive when they were wearing scent purely on the basis of the men's body language in the video clips (Roberts et al., 2009). In another study, video observers rated women wearing perfume as more confident, and video analysis confirmed that there were fewer anxious behaviors such as face touching and fidgeting when the women wore fragrance (Higuchi et al., 2005). ...
... Kerr et al. (2005) found that a hypothetical person whose clothing was associated with a canoically clean scent was rated as more intelligent, attractive, successful and sociable than someone whose clothing was associated with a scent that was not synonymous with clean. Thus, "clean" scented laundry products both increase positive perception by others and enhances the self-confidence of users which then can promote social behavior that leads to increased perceived attractiveness (e.g., Roberts et al., 2009). The role of scent in social behavior showcases how all three components of our framework; functional, in-use experience, and emotional, operate together. ...
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Humans have deliberately scented their environment for purpose or pleasure for millennia. In the contemporary marketplace most consumers prefer and purchase scented versions of common household products. However, the drivers of this consumer preference have not been elucidated. To explain the attraction to scent in household products we propose a novel three-factor framework, comprising functional benefits (malodor mitigation, base odor coverage, freshening), in -use experience benefits (cleanliness, efficacy, pleasure), and emotional benefits (increasing in confidence, mood and nostalgia). To support this framework, we present new data from a market research survey on US consumer purchasing habits and attitudes towards home cleaning, laundry, and air freshening products. Further substantiating our framework, a focused review of olfactory psychological science illustrating the central role of scent in cognition, wellbeing, motivated behavior, and social behavior, as well as sensory marketing research highlights the benefits and implications of scent in consumer household products. Based on our three-factor framework we go on to discuss the potential for scent to influence health and raise issues to consider (such as potential negative responding to fragranced products). We conclude by showcasing new opportunities for future research in olfactory science and on scented household products that can advance the positive impacts of scent.
... Higuchi et al. [76] found that the body language of females during an interview was judged as more self-confident and attractive when they were wearing perfume than when they were not. Roberts et al. [150] demonstrated similar results for men, whose self-confidence already increased 15 min after applying deodorant and kept growing for the following 48 h. A female panel asked to judge the non-verbal behavior of these men from videos, rated the men who used deodorant as significantly more attractive than those who were wearing a body spray lacking fragrance and antimicrobial properties. ...
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Humans produce odorous secretions from multiple body sites according to the microbiomic profile of each area and the types of secretory glands present. Because the axilla is an active, odor-producing region that mediates social communication via the sense of smell, this article focuses on the biological mechanisms underlying the creation of axillary odor, as well as the intrinsic and extrinsic factors likely to impact the odor and determine individual differences. The list of intrinsic factors discussed includes sex, age, ethnicity, emotions, and personality, and extrinsic factors include dietary choices, diseases, climate, and hygienic habits. In addition, we also draw attention to gaps in our understanding of each factor, including, for example, topical areas such as the effect of climate on body odor variation. Fundamental challenges and emerging research opportunities are further outlined in the discussion. Finally, we suggest guidelines and best practices based on the factors reviewed herein for preparatory protocols of sweat collection, data analysis, and interpretation.
... Lõhmus et al. (2009) only used female faces, and their observers were all males, and therefore the concept of attractiveness in their study was associated with mate selection. Indeed, in the context of mate selection, it is reported that individuals' level of confidence and their perceived physical attractiveness by another sex are strongly connected (Brand et al. 2012;Roberts et al. 2009). In the present study, however, the positive condition images were perceived as more attractive than other images regardless of the sex of the observers and models. ...
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Even when a person is portraying a neutral expression, their internal feelings can be reflected subtly on their face, and observers can perceive them. A previous study took facial photographs of female models while wearing attractive and unattractive clothing. Although the models displayed neutral expressions for both cases, their faces while wearing attractive clothing were perceived as more attractive because, it was argued, the attractive clothing raised their confidence, which was observable on the neutral faces. The present study aimed to replicate this. Envisaging being addressed by a specific name (given name, nickname, and formal title) are used to alter the models’ internal states instead of clothing. Twenty-one Japanese models took three photographs of their faces while imagining (1) being addressed by names they like, (2) being addressed by names they dislike, and (3) being addressed by their surnames with titles. A number of Japanese observers viewed three images of the same model at once and ordered them according to their attractiveness (Study 1) and confidence (Study 2). The images in condition (1) were perceived as more attractive/confident than other images. This suggests that being addressed by the name we like can raise our confidence momentarily, and it reflects subtly in neutral expressions.
... Although the focus of the current review was put on human body odors, the widespread use of artificial fragrances (e.g., Roberts et al., 2010), however, requires to acknowledge their influence on everyday social communication (Allen et al., 2019;Spence, 2021), and regarding this latter point in particular, the interaction between extraneous fragrances and natural body odors should be carefully examined. Perfumes for instance may be used to exalt some particular invariant components of body odor (e.g., masculinity/femininity, personality traits, see Allen et al., 2019, for review) or perhaps hide others (e.g., emotional or illness cues), which may have influences on both receiver and sender sides in modulating person and face perception (e.g., Roberts et al., 2009; for review see Spence, 2021;Syrjänen et al., 2021). The nature and extent of interactions between artificial fragrances and body odor components related to transient states such as emotion or illness, however, are relatively unexplored, as are their impacts on social cognition. ...
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A recent body of research has emerged regarding the interactions between olfaction and other sensory channels to process social information. The current review examines the influence of body odors on face perception, a core component of human social cognition. First, we review studies reporting how body odors interact with the perception of invariant facial information (i.e., identity, sex, attractiveness, trustworthiness, and dominance). Although we mainly focus on the influence of body odors based on axillary odor, we also review findings about specific steroids present in axillary sweat (i.e., androstenone, androstenol, androstadienone, and estratetraenol). We next survey the literature showing body odor influences on the perception of transient face properties, notably in discussing the role of body odors in facilitating or hindering the perception of emotional facial expression, in relation to competing frameworks of emotions. Finally, we discuss the developmental origins of these olfaction-to-vision influences, as an emerging literature indicates that odor cues strongly influence face perception in infants. Body odors with a high social relevance such as the odor emanating from the mother have a widespread influence on various aspects of face perception in infancy, including categorization of faces among other objects, face scanning behavior, or facial expression perception. We conclude by suggesting that the weight of olfaction might be especially strong in infancy, shaping social perception, especially in slow-maturing senses such as vision, and that this early tutoring function of olfaction spans all developmental stages to disambiguate a complex social environment by conveying key information for social interactions until adulthood.
... These results are in accordance with the current literature. The assessment of male physical desirability is highly correlated with the assessment of male body odour attractiveness in women 22 . ...
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Objectives. Clinical experience and daily life indicate that the importance of smell, taste and flavour is variable among individuals. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop a questionnaire to investigate the importance attributed to smell, taste and flavour and socio-cultural differences among individuals. Methods. Cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was executed by two professional translators and one bilingual investigator and pre-tested on a pilot group of 25 subjects with normal smell and taste abilities. The final version of the questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 850 healthy subjects. The Google form consisted of three parts: “The importance of olfaction” developed by Croy et al. in 2010, “The importance of taste and flavour” developed by our team and a section to collect demographic data. The questions were classified into “association”, “application”, “consequence” and “aggravation”. Statistical differences were assessed using t-test with p ≤ 0.05. Correlations were calculated using Spearman’s test. Internal consistency was assessed using the Cronbach’s Alpha, while test-retest reliability was analysed by calculating the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2k). Results. The questionnaire received a non-response rate of 10.7%. Calculation of Cronbach’s alpha showed good internal reliability (a = 0.87). Test-retest evaluation was satis- factory for all subscales, with an overall ICC2k = 0.84 (CI 0.79-0.89). Statistical analysis showed that smell, taste and flavour appeared to be more important for women when com- pared to men (p < 0.001). No statistical differences were seen between individuals with various educational background (p > 0.05), and the importance of smell (r = 0.16; p < 0.01), taste and flavour (r = 0.08; p < 0.05) did not decline with age. Conclusions. The development of this original test provides an overview into the importance of smell, taste and flavour among individuals. Although further research is needed, it can help in the evaluation and investigation of aspects that influence people to seek medical attention in the presence of sensory alterations.
... Traditionally, deodorant was viewed as a medical product to eliminate body odor and reduce sweat (Clifford, 2018), however, today, the function of deodorant has evolved and is believed to be an important product to improve self-confidence and help attract the opposite sex (Roberts et al., 2009), and more importantly, it also serves a personal hygiene barometer (Urban et al., 2016). Despite these benefits, nearly 40% of millennials were not wearing deodorant (Marzilli, 2019). ...
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Purpose Deodorant, as a hygienic product, becomes a daily necessity product and has significant benefits to its users. Yet, the real motivation for consuming deodorant is not fully understood, and therefore, this study aims to join the extant literature in this context by investigating the effect of personal values. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative study using the laddering approach (means-end analytic) was used and 50 college students participated in this study. Findings The hierarchical value maps show that achievement, power, security and benevolent personal values are responsible for millennials deodorant consumption behavior. Fragrance, price and antiperspirant are the most important attributes that appeal to such consumption. Practical implications The findings also suggested that three different situational factors generated these different personal values. It includes a pre-career environment, puberty and maintaining self-stability. The strongest attributes that appeal to millennials are fragrance, price, antiperspirant, brand, long-lasting quality and packaging. Originality/value This study offers the means-end approach to the framework of millennials deodorant consumption behavior and which can be implemented to investigate millennials consumption decision-making processes.
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Human sweat odor serves as social communication signal for a person’s traits and emotional states. This study explored whether body odors can also communicate information about one’s self-esteem, and the role of applied fragrance in this relationship. Female participants were asked to rate self-esteem and attractiveness of different male contestants of a dating show, while being exposed to male participant’s body odors differing in self-esteem. High self-esteem sweat was rated more pleasant and less intense than low self-esteem sweat. However, there was no difference in perceived self-esteem and attractiveness of male contestants in videos, hence explicit differences in body odor did not transfer to judgments of related person characteristics. When the body odor was fragranced using a fragranced body spray, male contestants were rated as having higher self-esteem and being more attractive. The finding that body odors from male participants differing in self-esteem are rated differently and can be discriminated suggests self-esteem has distinct perceivable olfactory features, but the remaining findings imply that only fragrance affect the psychological impression someone makes. These findings are discussed in the context of the role of body odor and fragrance in human perception and social communication.
Just as for any other sensory system, researchers have long wanted to discriminate between the sensory discriminative and hedonic aspects of tactile perception. Supporting such a distinction, researchers have, in recent decades, uncovered the existence of a dedicated system of receptors in the hairy skin (C-Tactile, CT, afferents) that appear to be preferentially tuned to pleasant stroking (i.e. caressing) touch. No matter what kind of touch one is talking about, though, it is important to recognize that human perception is fundamentally multisensory, meaning that what we feel, not to mention what we think about the experience, is modulated by the inputs that are available to the other senses. This review summarizes the latest evidence concerning these multisensory contributions to tactile perception focusing, in particular, on the case of affective touch. Given that CT afferents for pleasant touch are far more common in the hairy (as compared to the glabrous) skin, the question is further raised as to whether the relative contribution of the various senses to tactile perception may differ as a function of the skin site stimulated (i.e. glabrous versus hairy skin) or the kind of judgment (sensory-discriminative versus hedonic) that is being made.
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Background Research indicates that adolescents may have difficulties to adopt the tooth brushing recommendations delivered in prophylaxis programs. However, it is not clear whether these difficulties are seen amongst the entire age range of adolescence (10–19 years) or only occur at certain developmental stages of the adolescence. The present study analyzes the tooth brushing performance of adolescents and compares it to the best-practice of tooth brushing demonstrated during prophylaxis programs. Methods A random sample of N = 66 adolescents, comprising 10-year-olds (n = 42) and 15-year-olds (n = 24), were asked to perform oral hygiene to the best of their abilities in front of a tablet camera. Videos were analyzed for tooth brushing duration, location, and brushing movements, and the difference between the actual and expected behaviour was tested for consistency using repeated measures ANOVAs and Student’s t-tests. For the direct comparison across different age groups, already available data from 12- and 18-year-olds were reanalysed. Results The average brushing time (mean ± SD) of the 10-year-olds and 15-year-olds was 195.8 s (74.6 s) and 196.1 s (75.8 s), respectively. Regardless of age, the adolescents distributed their brushing time unevenly across the inner, outer and occlusal surfaces. The inner surfaces in particular were neglected to a considerable extent, as no age group spent more than 15.8% of the total brushing time on them. Furthermore, all age groups showed a high proportion of horizontal movements on the inner and outer surfaces, regardless of the movements instructed for the respective surfaces. Conclusion Even if adolescents brush to the best of their abilities, they neglect or skip one or many of the tooth surfaces. The reasons for the lack of compliance to tooth brushing instructions are discussed in light of the methods used in prophylaxis programs and the influence of parents.
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The human organs of perception are constantly bombarded with chemicals from the environment. Our bodies have in turn developed complex processing systems, which manifest themselves in our emotions, memory, and language. Yet the available data on the high order cognitive implications of taste and smell are scattered among journals in many fields, with no single source synthesizing the large body of knowledge, much of which has appeared in the last decade. This book presents the first multidisciplinary synthesis of the literature in olfactory and gustatory cognition. Leading experts have written chapters on many facets of taste and smell, including odor memory, cortical representations, psychophysics and functional imaging studies, genetic variation in taste, and the hedonistic dimensions of odors. The approach is integrative, combining perspectives from neuroscience, psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and linguistics, and is appropriate for students and researchers in all of these areas who seek an authoritative reference on olfaction, taste, and cognition.
The present study addressed the issue of whether people who use perfume improve their "visual" interpersonal impression. This expectation comes from the possibility that those who wear perfume may modify their nonverbal behaviour through positive mood changes generated by the pleasant odour of perfume or through an increase of public self-consciousness. Thirty-one Japanese females were assigned to either a perfume or a no-perfume group. A screening test held in advance confirmed that all the participants in the perfume group preferred the smell of the perfume used in this study. They participated in an interview and answered questions asked by a female confederate. In the middle of the interview, the interviewees in the perfume group put on the perfume. The improvement of their nonverbal behaviour in the latter half of the interview was evaluated by 18 neutral observers, who watched silent video clips of the interviews. The observers were not informed that some of the interviewees used perfume. The results of observer ratings showed that the interviewees in the perfume group showed significantly less nonsymbolic movement (touching their hair or nose, or shifting their posture such as rotating on a swivel chair) when wearing perfume. Analysis of the video clips showed that the interviewees in the perfume group decreased their nonsymbolic movement for about 6 s per minute after putting on the perfume. The female observers also rated the interviewees in the perfume group as more self-confident. These findings suggest that wearing perfume inhibits behaviours that project negative impressions. Analysis of the subjective mood showed that the inhibition of an interviewee's nonsymbolic movement might have resulted from a wearer's positive mood change. Although several methodological issues limit the conclusions drawn from these results, the present study showed that wearing perfume has the potential to cause changes in nonverbal behaviour and to improve visual impressions.
A total of 94 undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to examine the impact of a pleasant scent (perfume) on interpersonal attraction and social perception. Subjects met and interacted briefly with one of two female confederates who either wore perfume or did not, and who were dressed either neatly (in a blouse, skirt, and hose) or informally (in jeans and a sweatshirt). Results indicated that the presence of a pleasant scent increased attraction toward the confederates and produced positive shifts in perceptions of several of their traits when they were dressed informally. When the confederates dressed in a neater manner, however, opposite effects were observed. These findings were interpreted as stemming from the fact that subjects reacted more favorably to the confederates when they appeared to be intermediate rather than high or low along a dimension of informality-formality.
This research explored the relation of endogenous testosterone levels to behavior in brief social encounters. In four studies, 358 college students whose testosterone levels were known entered a room and (1) stood and spoke to a video camera, (2) stood and talked with an experimenter, (3) sat and talked with an interviewer, or (4) sat and talked with a peer. High-testosterone students entered more quickly, focused more directly on their targets, and displayed a more forward and independent manner. Results were similar for men and women. Correlates of testosterone are visible in thin slices of everyday behavior lasting only a few seconds. The effect of this behavior on a social interaction partner remains to be determined.