Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

Biochemistry, Bicêtre Hospital, University of Paris-sud XI, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases (Impact Factor: 3.36). 02/2009; 4(1):1. DOI: 10.1186/1750-1172-4-1
Source: PubMed


Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) refers to heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders of childhood that disrupt bile formation and present with cholestasis of hepatocellular origin. The exact prevalence remains unknown, but the estimated incidence varies between 1/50,000 and 1/100,000 births.
Three types of PFIC have been identified and related to mutations in hepatocellular transport system genes involved in bile formation. PFIC1 and PFIC2 usually appear in the first months of life, whereas onset of PFIC3 may also occur later in infancy, in childhood or even during young adulthood. Main clinical manifestations include cholestasis, pruritus and jaundice. PFIC patients usually develop fibrosis and end-stage liver disease before adulthood. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity is normal in PFIC1 and PFIC2 patients, but is elevated in PFIC3 patients. Both PFIC1 and PFIC2 are caused by impaired bile salt secretion due respectively to defects in ATP8B1 encoding the FIC1 protein, and in ABCB11 encoding the bile salt export pump protein (BSEP). Defects in ABCB4, encoding the multi-drug resistant 3 protein (MDR3), impair biliary phospholipid secretion resulting in PFIC3.
Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations, liver ultrasonography, cholangiography and liver histology, as well as on specific tests for excluding other causes of childhood cholestasis. MDR3 and BSEP liver immunostaining, and analysis of biliary lipid composition should help to select PFIC candidates in whom genotyping could be proposed to confirm the diagnosis. Antenatal diagnosis can be proposed for affected families in which a mutation has been identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) therapy should be initiated in all patients to prevent liver damage. In some PFIC1 or PFIC2 patients, biliary diversion can also relieve pruritus and slow disease progression. However, most PFIC patients are ultimately candidates for liver transplantation. Monitoring of hepatocellular carcinoma, especially in PFIC2 patients, should be offered from the first year of life. Hepatocyte transplantation, gene therapy or specific targeted pharmacotherapy may represent alternative treatments in the future.

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    • "The evolution of the disease is characterized by chronic icteric or anicteric cholestasis, portal hypertension, and liver failure. In about 50% of the patients, liver transplantation is required at a mean age of 7.5 years [115]. Laboratory findings show high serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) activity (while other two types of PFIC have normal serum γ-GT activity), normal cholesterol levels, and moderately enhanced bile acid concentrations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Inherited liver diseases are a group of metabolic and genetic defects that typically cause early chronic liver involvement. Most are due to a defect of an enzyme/transport protein that alters a metabolic pathway and exerts a pathogenic role mainly in the liver. The prevalence is variable, but most are rare pathologies. We review the pathophysiology of such diseases and the diagnostic contribution of laboratory tests, focusing on the role of molecular genetics. In fact, thanks to recent advances in genetics, molecular analysis permits early and specific diagnosis for most disorders and helps to reduce the invasive approach of liver biopsy.
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    • "The true incidence is not precisely known but is estimated to be 1/50000–1/100000 births (20). Subtypes 1 and 2 represent two-thirds and PFIC3 the remaining third of cases with PFIC (21). Although to date three types of PFIC have been identified (20), only the subtypes PFIC2 (n = 7) and PFIC3 (n = 1) were diagnosed in this cohort. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objective: Rapidly establishing the cause of neonatal cholestasis is an urgent matter. The aim of this study was to report on the prevalence and mortality of the diverse disorders causing neonatal cholestasis in an academic center in Germany. Methods: Clinical chemistry and cause of disease were retrospectively analyzed in 82 infants (male n = 42, 51%) that had presented with neonatal cholestasis to a tertiary medical center from January 2009 to April 2013. Results: Altogether, 19 disorders causing neonatal cholestasis were identified. Biliary atresia was the most common diagnosis (41%), followed by idiopathic cases (13%), progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC, 10%), cholestasis in preterm infants (10%), α1AT deficiency, Alagille syndrome, portocaval shunts, mitochondriopathy, biliary sludge (all 2%), and others. Infants with biliary atresia were diagnosed with a mean age of 62 days, they underwent Kasai portoenterostomy ~66 days after birth. The majority of these children (~70%) received surgery within 10 weeks of age and 27% before 60 days. The 2-year survival with their native liver after Kasai procedure was 12%. The time span between Kasai surgery and liver transplantation was 176 ± 73 days. Six children (7%), of whom three patients had a syndromic and one a non-syndromic biliary atresia, died prior to liver transplantation. The pre- and post-transplant mortality rate for children with biliary atresia was ~12 and ~17%, respectively. Conclusion: Neonatal cholestasis is a severe threat associated with a high risk of complications in infancy and it therefore requires urgent investigation in order to initiate life saving therapy. Although in the last 20 years new causes such as the PFICs have been identified and newer diagnostic tools have been introduced into the clinical routine biliary atresia still represents the major cause.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Frontiers in Pediatrics
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    • "PFIC type 2 is identified by mutations in ABCB11 (chromosome 2q24), which encodes bile salt export pump (BSEP) and defects in ABCB4-encoding the multi-drug resistant 3 (MDR3) protein – impair biliary phospholipid secretion cause PFIC3. Both PFIC1 and PFIC2 are caused by impaired bile salt secretion appearing in first months of life but PFIC3 is caused by impaired biliary phospholipid secretion and may manifest later.[12] "
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    ABSTRACT: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis is an autosomal recessive liver disorder caused by (biallelic) mutations in the ATP8B1 of ABCB11 gene. A nine-year-old girl with cholestasis was referred for genetic counseling. She had a family history of cholestasis in two previous expired siblings. Genetic analysis of the ABCB11 gene led to the identification of a novel homozygous mutation in exon 25. The mutation 3593- A > G lead to a missense mutation at the amino acid level (His1198Arg). This mutation caused PFIC2 due to abnormal function in the bile salt export pump protein (BSEP).
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Indian Journal of Human Genetics
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