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Available from: Marek L Kowalski, Nov 25, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The on-site synthetic transformer insulation monitoring system, developed by applying the theory of this paper and practically installed on a certain primary 110 kV transformer, can synchronously measure six kinds of gases dissolved in transformer oil (including H<sub>2</sub>, CO, CH<sub>4</sub>, C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>4</sub>, C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>2 </sub>, C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>6</sub>), dielectric loss of transformer bush and grounding current of transformer magnet core. The theory of every unit contained in the system is discussed, further more, the on-site data by this system and off-site data by field test are compared according to their respective time point. During its long time steady running period, this monitor system has successfully forenoticed a high temperature overheat fault occurring inside the transformer, the superscales of gases coincide with results from traditional spectrum analysis. In the end, the result of real core-hangout test supported the validity of this system
    No preview · Conference Paper · Feb 2001
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    ABSTRACT: Clinically relevant contact allergies to dental metals are seen in dental and allergy practice. Palladium is a significant contact allergen in oral rehabilitation. In our experience, in the majority of cases, patients sensitized to palladium present also positive patch tests to nickel. Palladium belongs to the platinum group of metals (PGMs), which also includes platinum, rhodium, iridium, ruthenium and osmium, transition metals known for their purity, high melting points and resistance to corrosion. With the exception of osmium, all PGMs are reported to have a role as contact allergens. Contact hypersensitivity to PGMs in dentistry is a form of hypersensitivity initiated by immunological mechanisms involving T cells, which is optimally evaluated in vivo by standardized allergy patch testing. The most important PGMs contact allergens used for patch tests are represented by palladium chloride 2% pet, ammonium hexachloroplatinate 0.1% aq, ammonium tetrachloroplatinate 0.25% aq, iridium chloride trihydrate 1% pet, iridium 1% pet, ammonium hexachloroiridate 0.1% aq, and rhodium 1% pet. Memory lymphocyte immunostimulation assay, an optimized lymphocyte transformation test, is an in vitro method that can be used to detect metal sensitivity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Metalurgia international
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma has become the most common, childhood chronic disease in the industrialized world, and it is also increasing in developing regions. There are huge differences in the prevalence of childhood asthma across countries and continents, and there is no doubt that the prevalence of asthma was strongly increasing during the past decades worldwide. Asthma, as a complex disease, has a broad spectrum of potential determinants ranging from genetics to life style and environmental factors. Environmental factors are likely to be important in explaining the regional differences and the overall increasing trend towards asthma's prevalence. Among the environmental conditions, indoor factors are of particular interest because people spend more than 80% of their time indoors globally. Increasing prices for oil, gas and other sources of primary energy will further lead to better insulation of homes, and ultimately to reduced energy costs. This will decrease air exchange rates and will lower the dilution of indoor air mass with ambient air. Indoor air quality and potential health effects will therefore be an area for future research and for gaining a better understanding of asthma epidemics. This strategic review will summarize the current knowledge of the effects of a broad spectrum of indoor factors on the development of asthma in childhood in Western countries based on epidemiological studies. In conclusion, several epidemiological studies point out, that indoor factors might cause asthma in childhood. Stronger and more consistent findings are seen when exposure to these indoor factors is assessed by surrogates for the source of the actual toxicants. Measurement-based exposure assessments for several indoor factors are less common than using surrogates of the exposure. These studies, however, mainly showed heterogeneous results. The most consistent finding for an induction of asthma in childhood is related to exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, to living in homes close to busy roads, and in damp homes where are visible moulds at home. The causing agents of the increased risk of living in damp homes remained uncertain and needs clarification. Exposure to pet-derived allergens and house dust mites are very commonly investigated and thought to be related to asthma onset. The epidemiological evidence is not sufficient to recommend avoidance measures against pet and dust mites as preventive activities against allergies. More research is also needed to clarify the potential risk for exposure to volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds due to renovation activities, phthalates and chlorine chemicals due to cleaning.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · International journal of hygiene and environmental health
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