Article

Can Blogging Enhance Subjective Well-Being Through Self-Disclosure?

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Abstract

Based on the self-disclosure theory and the social capital theory, this study investigates if bloggers' self-disclosure enhances their social capital and if these capitals in turn enhance perception of subjective well-being (SWB). The results reveal that the self-disclosure of bloggers significantly and directly affects a blogger's perception of social integration, bonding social capital, and bridge social capital, which in turn promote bloggers' SWB. It appears that as bloggers share their inner thoughts of their moods/feelings with others through writing, they may gain greater social support and improve their social integration. Therefore, self-disclosure through blogging may serve as the core of building intimate relationships. Furthermore, social capital, built through blogging, may improve a blogger's satisfaction with his or her social contact, interpersonal communication, and overall quality of life.

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... As found, the deep and real self-disclosure on SNSs can gain more social support (Hampton & Lu, 2015;Ko & Kuo, 2009;Seo et al., 2016). When individuals present broader, deeper, and more authentic information on SNSs, they will get more online feedback from their friends (Yang, 2014). ...
... On the contrary, honest self-presentation seems to contribute to college students' life satisfaction, as found in previous research (Kim & Lee, 2011). On the one side, it can be interpreted that individuals can present their real information and status on SNSs to carry out self-affirmation (Toma, 2013), thus obtaining social support (Ko & Kuo, 2009) and improving SWB (Bij de Vaate et al., 2019;Luo & Hancock, 2019). On the other side, according to the social penetration theory, honest self-presentation is beneficial for deepening interpersonal relationships, gaining interpersonal trust, and increasing social support (Lin & Utz, 2017;Sosik & Bazarova, 2014), which helps improve life satisfaction. ...
... Although honest self-presentation may present negative information or attitudes about oneself, an individual's unadorned and authentic presentation of information enables friends to perceive their current real situation, and thus provide their support and help more easily (Greene et al., 2006;Kim & Lee, 2011). As well, from the perspective of social penetration theory, honest self-presentation on SNSs can increase interpersonal trust and intimacy (Jian & Li, 2018), maintain interpersonal relationships and obtain social support (Ko & Kuo, 2009), and enable individuals to obtain emotional social support and social identification (Xie, 2014). Thus, honest self-presentation can enable college students to know themselves more objectively and clearly, perceive more positive online feedback, and then improve life satisfaction. ...
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In the Internet age, some online factors, such as online self-presentation, related to life satisfaction have received much attention. However, it is unclear whether and how different strategies of online self-presentation are linked to an individual’s life satisfaction differently. Accordingly, the present study examined the possible different relationships between different online self-presentations and life satisfaction with a sample of 460 Chinese college students. Using a series of questionnaires, a moderated mediation model was built in which positive online feedback was a mediator and self-esteem was a moderator. The results indicated that: (1) positive self-presentation was negatively associated with college students’ life satisfaction, whereas honest self-presentation was positively related to it; (2) positive online feedback was a significant mediator in such relationships; (3) the mediation process was moderated by self-esteem. Specifically, positive self-presentation was negatively related to positive online feedback only for high self-esteem college students, but negatively associated with life satisfaction only for low self-esteem ones. By contrast, honest self-presentation was positively associated with positive online feedback despite the level of self-esteem, but positively linked with life satisfaction only for those with low self-esteem. The findings suggest that honest rather than positive online self-presentation should be conducive to college students’ life satisfaction, particularly for those with low self-esteem. The implications were discussed.
... Previous research also showed that "individuals with socially oriented values are more likely to provide information for others than are those with an individual orientation" (Sohn, 2008). In a study on blogging behavior and subjective well-being carried out in Taiwan, which shares a similar cultural identity with China, Ko and Kuo (2009) found that self-disclosure behavior in blogging actually helps to enhance the social capital people have, resulting in deeper bonds and broader bridging between people. ...
... This finding is consistent with the findings from previous studies (Courtois et al, 2009), that people who often make blog postings also refer to other blogs or comment on other bloggers' postings (Herring et al, 2005). Self-disclosure behavior in blogging helps to enhance the social capital people have, resulting in deeper bonds and broader bridging between people (Ko & Kuo, 2009). It is possible that females are better at managing and developing social capital than their male counterpart. ...
... This result does not necessarily mean another proof of our stereotyped perception of females being more narcissistic than males, because my findings also show males love to talk about their own problems on SNS. Consistent with previous studies' findings (Courtois et al, 2009;Herring et al, 2005;Ko & Kuo, 2009), it seems that female users disclose their personal information on SNS to generate more interactions with their friends. It might just be the social-nature of females to communicate with each other, rather than interactive behavior of narcissism. ...
Thesis
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This study is a test of the uses and gratifications theory on Social Networking Sites in China. An online survey of 353 subjects on two major SNS in China showed socio-integrative needs were the strongest motivation for all users who participated in SNS. However, some gender differences were also found. Males were more interested in finding news than female users. Males were also more likely than females to talk about their problems. Female users were more likely than males to facilitate social interactions on SNS. Other results showed low frequency SNS users participated in more activities than high frequency users. The number of friends each user had was not significantly associated with participation in different activities. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/pg_10?201103779959869::NO:10:P10_ETD_SUBID:61801
... This paper explores how important not only social relationships but social capital, in general, is for the well-being of young people at 12-13 years of age. Social capital has stimulated much research and it has been associated with a range of positive outcomes, including better school performance (Lindfors et al., 2018), pro-social behaviour (Jenkins & Fredrick, 2017), and well-being (Addae, 2020;Bae, 2019;Geraee et al., 2019;Ko & Kuo, 2009;Lau & Li, 2011;Laurence, 2019;Morgan et al., 2012;Yoo, 2019), to name a few. Although most researchers have found a positive relationship between social capital and well-being, the evidence is fragmented as many studies have interpreted social capital narrowly, often equalling it to mere social relationships. ...
... Three of the eight studies use some elements of Putnam's theoretical framework. Two of them deal with the dyad of bonding and bridging social capital (Ko & Kuo, 2009;Yoo, 2019), while one considers the quality of social networks as an indicator of social capital (Laurence, 2019). ...
... Still, the provided information is sufficient to tell that the studies diverge considerably in the way they operationalise the concept of social capital (see also Appendix 1). This applies even to those relying on Putnam's theory (Ko & Kuo, 2009;Laurence, 2019;Yoo, 2019). Notably, none of them applied Putnam's three dimensions of networks, trust, and reciprocity. ...
Article
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The paper explores the association between social capital of young people at 12–13 years and their subjective well-being using Finland’s sub-sample of the third wave of the International Survey of Children’s Well-Being. Despite much previous research on this topic, relatively little knowledge is accumulated given that different studies define and measure social capital differently. In line with Robert Putnam, we understand social capital as a combination of social networks, trust, and norms of reciprocity. We measure well-being with two context-free scales: a one-dimensional overall life satisfaction scale and a five-dimensional Student’s life satisfaction scale. The analysis is done with linear and unconditional quantile regression. The results indicate that all three dimensions of social capital are significantly associated with well-being. Of the three, trust is the strongest predictor explaining over 30% of the variance in both well-being scales. The study demonstrates the relevance of considering all dimensions of social capital together to avoid unobserved variable bias. Quantile regression reveals that while social capital is important for well-being across the quantiles, it is particularly important for the youth who fare poorly otherwise. Family-related variables showed the strongest association with well-being while relationships with friends, schoolmates, teachers, and other people mattered considerably less.
... For instance, Ko and Kuo identified a strong relationship between the utilization of blog and bloggers' perceptions of social integration. Individuals share their innermost thoughts and feelings with other contacts through blogging, they can receive greater social support and enhance their feelings of social integration (Ko and Kuo, 2009). Similarity, Madge and her colleagues also confirmed that using Facebook regularly would generate the positive benefits of British undergraduate students' social integration into campus life (Madge et al., 2009). ...
... Due to these distinct dimensions of this concept (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive emotion, and negative emotion) reflects one's personal subjective view of the life experience, well-being has thus been commonly defined as subjective well-being. Traditionally, the term is usually associated with the quality of a communication network as well as the perception of social capital obtained from the social network (Diener et al., 2003;Ko and Kuo, 2009) as the consequence of interpersonal interaction that generates positive influence (Kim and Lee, 2011). ...
... Empirically, a number of studies have demonstrated consistent evidence that social capital could potentially impact people's health state and subjective well-being (Ellison et al., 2007;Goswami, 2012;Guo et al., 2014;Ishii, 2017;Yang and Lee, 2018). For instance, Ko and Kuo have revealed that journal bloggers' perceived social capital could significantly and directly influence their quality of living (Ko and Kuo, 2009). This is in line with the result of Nabi et al., who claimed that instrumental and emotional types of social support may be linked with overall well-being because it can decrease Facebook users' sense of stress, thereby improving its positive physical effects (Nabi et al., 2013). ...
Article
Although WeChat has recently spawned significant resolutions in technology-mediated social contact and interpersonal communication, the research regarding the social and psychological impacts of the newly emerging technology is relatively few. The primary purpose of the current empirical research is to unearth whether and how WeChat interaction could enhance overseas students’ sense of subjective well-being by concentrating on social integration, bridging relationships, and bonding relationships. Using web-based data of 228 Chinese subjects, the obtained results reveal that the time spent on WeChat significantly and directly impacts users’ subjective well-being. Additionally, the findings demonstrate that social integration, bridging relationships, bonding relationships are all significant predictors to subjective well-being. Furthermore, the perceptions of social integration and social capital could play the crucial mediating roles in the connection between WeChat use and the dependent variable of subjective well-being. Therefore, these outcomes may shed light on a more nuanced comprehending of the influence of the new social media interaction on sojourner’s social adaption and overall life quality in the digital age.
... Research, as well as intuition, suggests that SNSs usage can affect users' personal life and work (Li et al., 2020;Verduyn et al., 2017;Erfani and Abedin, 2018). This technology not only acts as the pipe of information but communities for participation (Pandey et al., 2019), where users can build long-term and reciprocal relationships with acquaintances and even strangers and then acquire friendships and emotional support, perform social integration, improve self-esteem, satisfy individuals' needs for disclosure and experience positive affect (Ko and Kuo, 2009;Bateman et al., 2011;Nabi et al., 2013;Wang et al., 2014Wang et al., , 2018. Additionally, SNSs are instrumental tools and help to improve users' health conditions by gathering health knowledge such as sexual health, drug use and mental health, which are difficult to discuss with others (Plaisime et al., 2020). ...
... Subsequently, others have uncovered the process that SC (both bridging and bonding) can mediate the relationship between SNSs usage and its outcomes (e.g. life satisfaction) (Ko and Kuo, 2009;Pang, 2018). ...
... Ahmad et al., 2016;Ahn, 2012;Chang and Hsiao, 2014;Choi et al., 2011;Phua and Jin, 2011). Moreover, empirical studies also unraveled the mediating roles that SC played in the relationship between SNSs usage and well-being (Ko and Kuo, 2009;Pang, 2018). As a temporary conclusion, the review study by Verduyn et al. (2017) claimed that SC is the most frequently studied mechanism underlying the effects of SNSs on subjective well-being. ...
Article
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Purpose The use of social networking sites (SNSs) can promote life satisfaction mainly because of their social relationship benefits. Although prior studies examined the roles of different types of social capital (SC), the association between online and offline SC is ignored. This research addresses this gap by uncovering a mechanism of transformation between online and offline SC in terms of bonding and bridging types when linking SNSs usage and life satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach Categorizing the concept of SC into four sub-types from bonding/bridging and online/offline dimensions, the paper establishes a theoretical framework based on the transformation mechanism among these four kinds of SC. A component-based approach, partial least square method, is chosen for hypothesis testing with a survey-based sample collected from WeChat users. Findings First, SNSs usage is positively related to life satisfaction and four types of SC (i.e. online/offline and bonding/bridging SC). Second, both online bonding SC and offline bridging SC are positively related to life satisfaction and can mediate the relationship between SNSs usage and life satisfaction. Third, offline bonding SC is positively related to online bonding SC and can mediate the relationship between SNSs usage and online bonding SC; on the contrary, online bridging SC is positively related to offline bridging SC and can mediate the relationship between SNSs usage and offline bridging SC. Practical implications In the environment of SNSs, users can take vigorous strategies to better balance online and offline spaces and improve life satisfaction by adapting to the characteristics of SNSs in developing different types of SC. Specifically, it is encouraged for users to transfer online bridging SC into offline space and offline bonding SC into online space. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study exploring the association between online and offline SC when linking SNSs usage and life satisfaction. Instead of the single transformation direction from online to offline in prior Internet research, this research has revealed different transformation directions between online and offline SC in terms of bonding and bridging types in the context of SNSs.
... Unlike the silent composition books of our past, blogs offer authors a unique opportunity in the form of physically removed self-disclosure. As stated by Ko and Kuo (2009), "self-disclosure is communicating with others using one's own information, including personal thoughts, feelings, and experiences, for the purpose of sharing" (p.75). Bloggers have the option to share personal information, revelations, and experiences with their audiences, granting them access to a larger support network from the (relative) comfort of their computer screens. ...
... They also acknowledge that dedicated readers who provide encouragement and feedback are a significant factor to bloggers' well-being. Similarly, Ko and Kuo (2009) found that, "self-disclosure may help bloggers to both maintain existing human relations and extend their human network, both of which are considered important to people's 'social capital'" (p.75). In turn, social capital greatly influences a blogger's perception of their well-being. ...
Article
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Blogging has its roots in journal writing and has risen in popularity as a form of self-care practice. As the modern day diary, blogs are a medium through which authors can share their thoughts, feelings, and experiences with peers in the form of self-disclosure. Unlike the key-locked diaries of the past, blogs provide student affairs practitioners with the unique opportunity for reader feedback in the form of commentary. The giveand- take between blog authors and their readers has been associated with many physical and psychological benefits that go far beyond the keyboard. Many higher education professionals have already begun tapping into these benefits and are finding camaraderie through reading and writing blogs. Practitioners seeking community and an outlet for self-disclosure should consider blogging as a form of self-care.
... High online social capital is indicative of a meaningful and emotionally supportive online community (31,32). However, social capital can also result in negative consequences. ...
... First, the present study provided further evidence that in-game social interaction can influence gamers' problematic video game play (15). Second, previous studies tended to regard social capital as a predictor of users' positive outcomes (31,32), but the results of our study indicate that online social capital is a significant predictor of gaming disorder. Third, although previous studies have confirmed the relationship between ingame social interaction and gaming disorder (62,64), there are few studies that capture the essence of why an in-game social interaction increases the risk of gaming disorder. ...
Article
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Background and Aims: Social interaction in the online games has been found to predict gaming disorder, but little research has examined the mechanism of this association. Drawing on the social capital theory, the present study investigated the mediating role of online social capital on the relationship between in-game social interaction and gaming disorder and the moderating role of alienation on the relationship between online social capital and gaming disorder. Methods: A sample of 457 Chinese massively multiplayer online role-playing game gamers was recruited to complete the In-game Social Interaction Questionnaire, Online Social Capital Scale, Alienation Scale, and Pathological Gaming Scale. Results: The results showed that online social capital was a mediator in the relationship between in-game social interaction and gaming disorder. Moreover, for individuals with low alienation, the effect of online social capital on gaming disorder was weaker than for those with high alienation. Conclusions: The present study provides new insight into the complex processes involved in the effect of in-game social interaction on gaming disorder, and the results have important theoretical and practical implications.
... Social capital is defined as the social networks and associated norms of reciprocity that generate personal relationships and the resulting benefits (Williams, 2006). Ko and Kuo (2009) split social capital into social bonding (individuals sharing an intimate and reciprocal relationship), social bridging (individuals from different networks enabling network members to share diversified resources), and social integration (an evaluation of an individual's relationship quality to a community). Reciprocity is central to social capital, representing the give and take of relationships. ...
... Social capital and utilitarian value are the two constructs representing social benefits, and fear represents social costs. Social capital was originally represented by three subconstructs (social bridging, social bonding, and social integration) as modeled in Ko and Kuo (2009). The three social integration items from Keyes (1998) were used. ...
Article
During the COVID-19 pandemic, social media use increased significantly, and news media also reported increased levels of social shaming for behaviors that were now deemed high-risk for spreading or contracting the virus. This study examines how this pandemic-afflicted environment changed what and how individuals disclosed online during the 2020 holiday season. Using data collected at two time periods in December 2020 from Facebook and Instagram users, the data show that social calculus constructs comprise most of the significant predictors for online self-disclosure; evaluation apprehension is also a significant moderator. In a post-hoc analysis with 2019 disclosure data, this study finds that most of the significant predictors of behavior arise from privacy calculus, providing evidence of a shift in the salient predictors of online self-disclosure. The implications of this research to businesses and future research directions are discussed.
... Increased social networking opportunities raise self-esteem, feelings of belonging, and the chance for online self-disclosure, which may then indirectly impact upon feelings of wellbeing [32]. In turn, self-disclosing and associated positive feedback can enhance perceptions of community integration and social support [33][34][35]. Valkenburg et al. [32] found that adolescents use social networks to find out how others react to them, to overcome shyness, and to facilitate relationship formation. Interestingly, those who feel less secure in face-to-face contexts report a preference for Internet interactions [32,36,37]. ...
... Pittman and Reich [72], in particular, indicated that Instagram and other image-based platforms, in contrast to text-based platforms (e.g., Twitter) or mixed platforms (e.g., Facebook), ameliorated loneliness due to the enhanced intimacy they offer. Nevertheless, evidence of a "rich-get-richer" phenomenon is provided, whereby young people whose offline friendship quality is perceived as being "high" had greater benefits from online communicative activities, whereas individuals with limited offline social networks do not develop quality friendships online, and may spend excessive amounts of time on SNSs, which can increase social isolation [34,73]. The results of the present study confirmed this increase in social isolation only when participants evaluated themselves after receiving no "likes". ...
Article
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In the last few years, Instagram has been a topic of much contention, as it has been shown to be associated with both risks and benefits for young users. This study explores the influence of the use of Instagram on adolescents' constructions of self and interpersonal experience. Forty Italian adolescents aged between 11 and 16 years were interviewed and completed repertory grids. The results showed that the adolescents' self-construction and distance from others were mostly influenced by receiving, or not receiving, positive feedback, rather than by using Instagram itself. Specifically, there was an increase in self-acceptance and social desirability after receiving a "like" and an increase in social isolation after receiving no "likes". The regression model also showed a decrease in self-acceptance on Instagram in the case of female adolescents, and in participants who edited photos. These findings are useful for understanding the constant need for approval adolescents require today and could be used as a guiding tool for future studies and intervention policies. The present study offers an innovative methodology that refers to the relevant dimensions of adolescents' self-construction rather than investigating the more general relationship between personality traits and social networks' use.
... Thus, we introduce online self-disclosure as a key moderator in this line of research. Studies showing that online self-disclosure has several benefits for relationships and mental health [6][7][8] suggest that intensive smartphone use may not always result in negative consequences, but rather depend on the extent users engage in online self-disclosure. ...
... 36,37 Sharing personal information online has been associated with a number of benefits for relationships and mental health. [6][7][8] For instance, online self-disclosure has been found to buffer stress by moderating the relation between stressful life events and life satisfaction. 38 Individuals experienced fewer depressive symptoms and heightened life satisfaction when engaging in online self-disclosure during stressful periods. ...
Article
The present study investigates how excessive smartphone use predicts users' stress and loneliness while taking the moderating role of online self-disclosure into account. We conducted a two-wave panel survey with a quota sample of smartphone users (n = 461 at time 2 [T2]). We found no direct effects of excessive smartphone use on stress or loneliness. However, our results showed that online self-disclosure moderates the postulated relationships. That is, excessive smartphone use (time 1 [T1]) predicts increased stress (T2), for those smartphone users who do engage in little online self-disclosure. However, for those who communicate their feelings, anxieties, and problems online, excessive smartphone use (T1) can even reduce loneliness (T2) and relieve stress (T2).
... Media System Dependency theory (Kim & Jung, 2017) addresses the extent to which individuals will use ONS. Online communication increases social support, reduces social anxiety, increases self-esteem and reduces social isolation (Davis, 2012;Dolev-Cohen & Barak, 2013;Gross, 2009;Ko & Kuo, 2009;Selfhout et al., 2009;Valkenburg et al, 2006). Individuals who will to depend upon a specific media to meet their goals are more likely to use this media more often (Grant et al., 1991). ...
... These factors generate and facilitate group identity (Ren et al., 2012;Shen et al., 2010) especially when sociability interferes with sense of identification, loyalty and satisfaction within a group setting (Pai & Tsai, 2011). Recent evidence shows, for example, that while some individuals report they strengthen social relationships via Facebook (Papacharissi & Mendelson, 2011), others claim that OFS is of higher quality and generates greater WB (Davis, 2012;Ko & Kuo, 2009;Selfhout et al., 2009). ...
... For instance, Gable et al. (2004) found that when participants shared their most positive personal events with others, they experienced significantly higher daily positive affect and life satisfaction compared to the effects of the positive event itself. Ko and Kuo (2009) reported that blogging improves perceived social capital, which positively influences positive affect. Based on a four-week journal experiment, Lambert et al. (2013) demonstrated a causal relationship between positive event sharing and increased positive mood; specifically, participants who kept a journal of positive events and shared them with others experienced greater positive affect, happiness, and life satisfaction. ...
... For example, J. R. Baker and Moore (2008) found blogging to be positively associated with perceived social support and friendship satisfaction. Ko and Kuo (2009) discovered that blogging can improve perceived social capital, which promotes positive affect. ...
Article
Social media has changed travelers’ behavior in many aspects, including tourism experience sharing. This study examines the influence of tourism experience sharing on travelers’ posttrip evaluations, by considering three facets of experience sharing on social media: expressive writing, sharing on social media, and audience response on social media. Through an experimental design, this study reveals that (1) travelers’ posttrip evaluations increase when they write expressively about their positive travel experiences in a private setting; (2) travelers’ posttrip evaluations also increase when they share their positive travel experiences on social media, although the increase shows no significant difference between sharing and expressively writing about their experiences; and (3) constructive responses from online viewers increase travelers’ positive moods when they share positive travel experiences, thereby enhancing their posttrip evaluations.
... It can also extend and augment the reach of face-to-face interactions with peers (Ellison, Steinfield, & Lampe, 2007;, increasing intimacy through increased self-disclosure of personal information or mental health challenges, self-esteem, and perceived social support (Rae & Lonborg, 2015;Valkenburg, Koutamanis, & Vossen, 2017;Nguyen, Bin, & Campbell, 2012;Valkenburg & Peter, 2007b;Valkenburg & Peter, 2007c;Park, Jin, & Jin, 2011). Studies indicate that online self-disclosure is just as frequent as in-person disclosure (Nguyen et al., 2012) and provides a unique source of empathy and social support for adolescents (Best, Ryan, Gray, McInerney, & Waters, 2014b;Ko & Kuo, 2009). Yet, the recipient of online communication makes a difference. ...
... These interventions led to improvements in HRQoL, an increase in perceived well-being and self-rated health, greater mental health, a reduction in depressive symptomatology, a decrease in preventable mortality for diabetes mellitus, influenza, heart disease and infant mortality. 22 Prevalence and morbidity burden 27,28 Functional capacity 40 Life expectancy at birth, life expectancy in good health, and mortality for a variety of reasons: maternal, infantile and famine mortality 17 Anxiety-related symptomatology 23 Perceived health 29,30 Pain-related symptomatology 40,41 Perceived well-being and self-rated health 17,49 Eating disorders 24 Well-being and perceived quality of life [31][32][33][34][35][36][37] Dream quality 40,42,43 Preventable mortality for diabetes mellitus, influenza, heart disease and infant mortality 18 Perception of quality of life 24 between interventions and mortality reduction. Both studies are intersectoral interventions and they were based on the influence of health policies and governance mechanisms and their impact on health. ...
Article
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Objective To explore the typology of implemented salutogenic interventions and the health effects described by the authors. Method A scoping review of the literature published (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus) over the last ten years (2007-2016) was conducted. Articles that included interventions with assessments of health outcomes were selected for this review. The kappa index (86.4%) was calculated for the classification and extraction of information. Results 61 papers were selected out of the 676 works identified. These were categorized into individual, grouped, mixed and intersectoral interventions. A total of 85% of the interventions described positive effects. Adverse effects were not reported. Methodological limitations were identified in 75% of the papers. The interventions addressed a large variety of topics, especially in the field of mental health and chronic diseases. Collective actions described more positive effects. Intersectoral actions were the only type of interventions to have approached the impact of mortality reduction. Conclusions Findings support the existence of positive health effects of salutogenic approaches. Important methodological limitations were identified, such as biases in the selection of participants and sample sizes. Studies need to be conducted with improved monitoring and evaluation designs. A more robust theoretical framework and tools to evaluate the salutogenic contents are needed.
... Blogging improves social capital and subjective well-being. (Ko & Kuo, 2009) These challenging properties of blogging can develop a kind of self-awareness and individuals' PsyCap. ...
... Compared to face-to-face interactions, social media enable stronger feelings of distance in online interactions, which makes adolescents feel less self-conscious and allows these connections to obtain a higher level of intimacy (Blais, Craig, Pepler, & Connolly, 2008;Valkenburg & Peter, 2007;Valkenburg & Peter, 2009). The consequences of this might be translated to the school context, with an increase in well-being and stronger feelings of fitting-in at school (Haythornthwaite & Kazmer, 2002;Ko & Kuo, 2009;Valkenburg & Peter, 2007). Moreover, maintaining friendships on social media may enhance learning by fostering social support, help, and feedback among adolescents and their peers (Deng & Yuen, 2011;Hrastinski & Aghaee, 2012). ...
... Anticipated reciprocity is the degree to which an individual believes that they can improve mutual relationships with others . This signal of relationship worth from reciprocity is a very positive message that fosters social bonding and intimacy and can be very gratifying (Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe 2007;Ko and Kuo 2009). This finding suggests that when individuals perform activities on social media, they believe that they will obtain returns in the future (such as useful information, social relationship expansion or future cooperation). ...
Article
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Microblogs are revolutionising the way users produce, consume and distribute short content. The continuous content contributions of users are crucial for the sustainable development of microblogs. Knowledge regarding this user behaviour is scarce. Based on the uses and gratifications theory (U&G) and the social influence theory (SIT), this paper proposes an integrated research model with the aim of understanding the factors that affect users’ continuous content contribution behaviours (CCCB) on microblogs. The data were collected from 379 microblog users in China. The empirical results indicate that perceived gratification had a positive but surprisingly trivial effect on continuous content contribution behaviours. Social influence had a strong and significantly positive effect on users’ CCCB, it also had a positive moderating effect on the relationship between perceived gratification and CCCB. Users’ perceived gratification was positively affected by the antecedents of self-expression, anticipated extrinsic rewards and anticipated reciprocity but negatively affected by privacy concerns. The platform attributes of microblogs (i.e. accessibility and interactivity) also influenced users’ perceived gratification. This research contributes to social media research with regards to the theory of users’ CCCB.
... Self-disclosure as a social phenomena is the act of revealing information about oneself to others. It has been of particular interest to study what factors makes humans self-disclose (Miller et al., 1983;Dindia and Allen, 1992;Hill and Stull, 1987;Buhrmester and Prager, 1995;Stokes, 1987;Qian and Scott, 2007;Jourard and Friedman, 1970;Ko and Kuo, 2009), how do they do it (Chen, 1995;Greene et al., 2006;Chelune, 1975;Sprecher and Hendrick, 2004) and what are the effects of selfdisclosing (Gibbs et al., 2006;Mazer et al., 2009;Forest and Wood, 2012;Turner et al., 2007;Knox et al., 1997;Vittengl and Holt, 2000). ...
... Over the past several decades, research on well-being-boosting strategies has suggested that personal well-being may be largely under individuals' control through the activities they choose to participate in and their responses to situations in their lives (Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005). In particular, social activities (online and offline) have been seen as an important factor in well-being (Ko & Kuo, 2009;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010). Deep and meaningful close relationships play a vital role in people's lives (Feeney & Collins, 2015). ...
... This author studied in particular how the users of social media like Facebook can achieve their needs of relatedness and social connectedness, which in turn affect positively their psychological well-being. Ko and Kuo (2009) highlighted that SC and in particular social integration and social bonding and bridging are related to subjective well-being. Within a workplace, employees need strong ties to have emotional support and psychological safety and to fulfill their intrinsic need of affiliation, which in turn affect their well-being. ...
Article
Purpose The objective of this research is to examine the mediating role of employees' well-being in the workplace in the relationship between the dimensions of social capital, namely structural, relational and cognitive social capital and knowledge sharing, as well as the moderating role of enterprise social networks between knowledge sharing and employees' well-being. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative approach was performed within a sample of 168 middle managers working in knowledge-intensive firms in Tunisia. The Partial Least Squares method was used to analyze the data collected. Findings Results highlight the importance of the dimensions of social capital as a lever for boosting knowledge sharing. It also reveals that employees' well-being plays a mediating role in the link between structural and relational social capital and knowledge sharing. Moreover, findings show that while enterprise social networks use does not moderate the relationship between employees' well-being and knowledge sharing, it has a positive and significant effect on knowledge sharing. Originality/value On the basis of a socio-technical perspective of knowledge management, this research pioneers the examination of the mediating effect of employees' well-being in the link between dimensions of social capital and knowledge sharing and the moderating role of enterprise social networks use within knowledge-intensive firms. Findings of this study may help managers of knowledge-intensive firms in boosting knowledge sharing within organizations, in improving knowledge workers' well-being and thus in motivating and retaining these talented employees.
... Disclosure behavior is based on the perception of reciprocity. Several studies demonstrate that the reciprocal perception of "relationship worth" is a positive factor that builds intimate relationships and increases the user's benefits from social exchange and the construction of social networks (Dindia 2002, Ellison, Steinfield et al. 2007, p. 1143, Ko and Kuo 2009. Reciprocity is a social norm during interaction. ...
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As people across the world increasingly reveal private information and political opinions on SNSs, the boundary between “the private” and “the public” becomes blurred while different understandings of this boundary across countries begin to exhibit some similarities. Based on these phenomena, this dissertation aims to answer the following questions: 1) where is the boundary between “the private” and “the public” on SNSs? 2) Is there a difference or a similarity in the boundary between “the private” and “the public” on SNSs across different countries? By reviewing different notions of “the private” and “the public” using different social approaches and procedures, I select the framework of sociability to investigate the distinction between private and public. Research using this theoretical framework is conducted by online surveys and interviews with selected SNSs users in Germany and China. My study points out that the clear boundary of “the private” and “the public” on SNSs is a result of acts of disclosure and/or withdrawal of personal information and political opinions. Globalization and mediatization, to a certain extent, contribute to similarities among different countries but do not erase the differences in their respective boundaries.
... For instance, after analyzing the statistical data gathered from Facebook users, Ellison et al. documented a positive relationship between college students' perceived social capital and satisfaction with their campus life (Ellison et al., 2007). Likewise, Ko and Kuo discovered that bloggers who engage in deeper degrees of online self-disclosure tend to acquire social support as well as experience the higher degree of well-being (Ko & Kuo, 2009). Recently, utilizing the one-year longitudinal panel data, Yoo and Jeong noted that SNS use can definitely provide many benefits, such as reducing users' sense of loneliness or enlarging their network size, thereby further improving the level of life satisfaction (Yoo & Jeong, 2017). ...
Article
The objective of this exploratory research is to investigate whether and how different types of social networking site (SNS) interactions are related to Chinese international students’ various dimensions of social capital and perceived psychological well-being. Based on a sample of 206 Chinese international students in Germany, findings indicate that after controlling for demographic characteristics, social use of SNS is positively associated with improvements in users’ well-being while entertainment use is not. Additionally, using SNS for entertainment proposes is a significant predictor of users’ bridging social capital. However, bridging social capital on SNS is not related to the perceived psychological well-being. Furthermore, the study demonstrates a positive indirect effect mechanism by which social use of SNS would influence and psychological well-being through bonding and maintained social capital. Therefore, these empirical results offer significant implications for a more nuanced understanding of the crucial role of social media in sojourners’ social connectedness as well as quality of life in an intercultural context.
... Self-Disclosure Task. We chose a self-disclosure task as a prosocial outcome because self-disclosing increases perceived belonging with others (Aron, Melinat, Aron, Vallone, & Bator, 1997;Ko & Kuo, 2009). The measure included 20 questions previously ranked according to degree of self-disclosure (Aron et al., 1997). ...
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Historically, one of the biggest paradoxes in the rejection literature was that rejected people sometimes behaved antisocially and at other times prosocially. Researchers responded to this paradox by demonstrating that the prospect of fulfilling belonging predicted these varied responses. A close inspection of the foundational studies, however, revealed small sample sizes relative to today’s standards. Hence, we conducted a conceptual replication of the prospect of fulfilling belonging hypothesis using a high-powered 2-day preregistered study. On Day 1, we manipulated the prospect of fulfilling belonging through a profile exchange with a confederate. On Day 2, we manipulated rejection using a recall paradigm and then measured prosocial and antisocial responses toward the confederate. Rejected participants who expected the confederate to fulfill belonging showed similar levels of prosocial and antisocial responses compared with those who did not. These results suggest that the prospect of fulfilling belonging hypothesis needs further refinement.
... Online self-disclosure could help people with depression improve their level of mental health (Zhu, 2011), increase Facebook users' self-esteem (Gonzales & Hancock, 2011), and ease a person's sense of tension and social anxiety (Green, Wilhelmsen, Wilmots, Dodd, & Quinn, 2016). In addition, many studies reveal that a higher level of online self-disclosure results in a higher level of perceived subjective well-being (Ko & Kuo, 2009;Lee et al., 2011;Liu et al., 2015). As mentioned above, online self-disclosure may interact with positive and negative affect and eventually exert an influence on one's life satisfaction. ...
Article
Although affect is widely accepted to be a critical factor in improving one's life satisfaction, little is known about how this association works. This study proposes a moderating role of online self-disclosure between affect and life satisfaction. We conducted a survey with 621 valid respondents at 10 Chinese universities and performed correlation and regression analyses to explore the hypotheses. The findings confirm that positive affect is positively associated with life satisfaction, while negative affect is negatively associated with life satisfaction. Meanwhile, negative affect is not a strong predictor of life satisfaction in China's context compared to that of more individualistic nations. For individuals with higher online self-disclosure, the moderating effect is much stronger and weakens the association between negative affect and life satisfaction. The conclusions in this study contribute to the understanding of the moderating mechanism between affect and life satisfaction that is caused by online self-disclosure. The results further imply that frequent online self-disclosure may have a blocking effect on the connection between negative affect and life satisfaction.
... Self-disclosure through online communication has been found to significantly and positively affect perceptions of social integration, bonding and social capital (Ko & Kuo, 2009) and hence also psychosocial wellbeing . This is particularly the case for some adolescents who have more difficulties engaging in face-to-face social interactions. ...
... Similar to self-disclosure, self-presentation can enhance well-being and decrease depressive symptoms (Huang 2016;Ko and Kuo 2009;Yang and Brown 2016;Zhu 2011). One empirical study has found that the more real pain and needs that individuals present online, the more help they will get and then less depressed they will feel (Zhu 2011), and the more honest information individuals disclose online, the higher level of well-being they perceive (Huang 2016). ...
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The present study aimed to test the relation between adolescents’ online realself presentation and depression, as well as the mediating role of social support and moderating role of dispositional optimism. A sample of 1742 Chinese adolescents (girl = 961, mean age = 14.35 ± 1.52 years) completed questionnaires of depression, online real-self presentation, social support, and dispositional optimism. Results of correlation and regression analyses showed that adolescents’ online real-self presentation could predict decreased depression via increasing social support. What’s more, the mediation effect was moderated by dispositional optimism, in which the mediation effect was stronger among adolescents with low dispositional optimism than those with high dispositional optimism. This study explained how and when online real-self presentation affected adolescents’ depressive symptoms, and provided a deeper understanding of the relation between online self-presentation and adolescents’ mental health. The implications and limitations were discussed.
... For instance, by making lengthy conversations and intimate self-disclosures, friends listen to, try to encourage, give advice, and show social support for each other (Davis, 2012;Rubin, Bukowski, & Parker, 2006). Ko and Kuo (2009) document the effect of self-disclosure on social support in the context of social media. As bloggers shared their inner thoughts or moods with their audience through their posts, they gained greater care and love from the audience and developed tightly knit relationships with them. ...
... Researchers who have focused on the social benefits rather than the harmful distractions of SNS suggest that SNS use can increase overall performance. For example, studies have found that it can encourage cooperation [7], interaction [8], knowledge generation and sharing [9], strengthened relationships among members [10], enhanced psychological well-being [11], and increased emotional capital of an organization [6] and thereby enhance performance. ...
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As the use of social network sites (SNS) has become increasingly prevalent, its effect on sustainable performance has received much attention. The existing literature has taken either a positive or negative view of SNS, arguing that it either decreases performance by taking time and effort away from work, or increases performance by providing social benefits for enhancing performance. In contrast, this experimental study, investigates how SNS use can disturb or enhance the performance of different types of tasks differently, thus influencing the sustainability of task performance. Based on distraction-conflict theory, this study distinguishes between simple and complex tasks, examines the role of SNS, and analyzes data including electroencephalography data captured by a brain-computer interface. The results show that task performance can be sustainable such that SNS use positively influences performance when participants are engaged in a simple task and influences performance neither positively nor negatively when participants are engaged in a complex task. The study finds the former result is attributable to the positive effect of the psychological arousal induced by SNS use and the latter result to the negative effect of the psychological arousal offsetting the positive effect of reduced stress resulting from SNS use.
... Einerseits weist beispielsweise eine Längsschnittstudie unter jungen Erwachsenen darauf hin, dass eine vermehrte Nutzung zu einem sinkenden Wohlbefinden führen kann(Kross et al., 2013). Andererseits gibt es Studien, wie beispielsweise zu Blogging-Aktivitäten, die sich als förderlich für das subjektive Wohlbefinden erwiesen, da es unter anderem das Gefühl der sozialen Eingebundenheit erhöhte (z.B.Ko & Kuo, 2009). Verduyn et al. (2017) kommen zu dem Ergebnis, dass es für eine positive Wirkung von Kontakten über das Internet für das subjektive Wohlbefinden auf das aktive Nutzen der Seiten der sozialen Netzwerke ankommt, da passive Nutzung eher zu einem gegenteiligen Effekt auf das subjektive Wohlbefinden führt. ...
Thesis
Einflussfaktoren auf das subjektive Wohlbefinden und Zusammenhänge mit der Studienabbruchsintention
... Indeed, studies have shown that active mediation serves as a protection against violent, scary, or negative content in media (Nathanson, 2004;Nathanson & Botta, 2003;Nathanson & Cantor, 2010). From this perspective, it is possible that media, actively mediated by the parent, could serve to strengthen attachment (Cole & Griffiths, 2007;Ko & Kuo, 2009;Nathanson, 2002;Valkenburg et al., 2006). More specifically, the media device or content, if used effectively, could be the focus of joint attention and the impetus for a parent's sensitive responses to a child's confusion, distress, and struggles with the device/content. ...
Article
With the rise in affordability of digital media and mobile devices, children under age 2 on average spend significantly more time with digital media than is recommended. Although concerns have been expressed about how parent and child media use might negatively impact parent–child attachment, there continues to be a scarcity of research on the topic. The current study assessed both the amount and the way in which children (11–26 months) and their parents engage with digital media and the impact on early attachment after controlling for temperament, parent income, parent age, marital status, and access to support. The study utilizes data from a diverse sample: 248 parents of infants completed an attachment q‐sort and surveys assessing the amount of media use, parental absorption in media, types of parental mediation, temperament, and demographics. Results showed that for both parent and child, time using digital media and co‐viewing was not predictive of attachment insecurity. Parental absorption in media was found to significantly predict attachment insecurity. Greater child TV media use was associated with poorer attachment security when there was limited to no parental active mediation. Active mediation served as a protective factor for attachment while parental absorption in media serves as a risk factor for attachment.
... Valenzuela et al. (2009) finds a positive relationship between online social network use and well-being. Proper use of the Internet and social networks can help improve the user's quality of life and enhance their overall well-being (Ko & Kuo, 2009). Sirgy et al. (2006) find that Internet users can strengthen connections with their close friends, in turn contributing to the improvement of the user's subjective well-being. ...
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The acculturation process of adjusting to life in North America comes with challenges and often leads to culture shock. To promote subjective well-being, immigrants with an ingroup (vs outgroup) orientation may cling tightly to their original culture (integrate with the mainstream). Both paths can be facilitated by social media usage, and through reference group influence, both may foster materialism. Leveraging psychological theories connected to self-concept, we examine how minorities’ subjective well-being and materialism are indirectly (through social media usage) and directly related to ethnic identity, acculturation to mainstream society, identification with global consumer culture (IDGCC), and cosmopolitanism, using a sample drawn from two immigrant communities. While ethnic identity and acculturation did not foster social media usage, cosmopolitanism, and identification with GCC did. Materialism, which was encouraged by IDGCC, was negatively linked to subjective well-being. Social media usage did not exacerbate materialism, and it was independent of subjective well-being.
... Individuals' intimacy needs to be formed through the interactive process of their self-disclosure (Perlman and Fehr, 1987;Prager, 1995;Park et al., 2011). Since VC audiences' intimacy (i.e., individuals' personal and subjective sense of connection) could reduce their self-alienation, advance their well-being (Ko and Kuo, 2009;Lee et al., 2010), and eventually help build their trust and reciprocal relationships in topic-based VCs (Baumeister and Leary, 1995;Laurenceau et al., 1998), we can consider intimacy as individuals' perception of their close relationships with others in topic-based VCs. ...
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Introduction: With the normalization of COVID-19 prevention and control, a large number of intergenerational audiences with different cognition preferences and value orientations have started to pour into non-acquaintance virtual communities (VCs) to address their social needs by disclosing their own thoughts, feelings and experiences toward certain topics. To avoid the negative impacts of self-disclosure, this study introduced the concept of social integration into cyber society among non-acquaintance VCs, such as the topic-based VCs. Our theoretical model considers both the psychological antecedents and consequences of VC audiences' social integration and our findings have implications for public online (and even offline) social life. Moreover, this research could play a guiding role in improving VC audiences' social integration status in future online learning and telecommuting scenarios. Method: To assess the theoretical model constructed in this manuscript, we conducted an online survey in two different topic-based VCs among Microblog and yielded 472 useable responses from intergenerational audiences, among which 28.81% were born before 1985, 26.67% were born from 1985 to 1995, and 48.52% were born after 1995. Our sample consisted of 208 individuals from Health Regimen VC and 264 individuals from Star Chasing VC, 200 (42.37%) were men and 272 (57.63%) were women. Results: Our structural equation model (SEM) indicated that individuals' self-disclosure in topic-based VCs might not directly guide them to acquire social integration. However, intimacy and cognitive communion derived from VC audiences' self-disclosure might not only enhance their social integration, but also improve their psychological well-being. In addition, VC audiences' social integration mediated the relationship between intimacy and psychological well-being, and the relationship between cognitive communion and psychological well-being. Moreover, VC audiences' intimacy was found to have a direct influence on their cognitive communion. Conclusion: In the context of topic-based VCs, audiences' self-disclosure could significantly foster their intimacy and cognitive communion with others, and both intimacy and cognitive communion are conductive to VC audiences' social integration. Thus, audiences in topic-based VCs who wish to improve their psychological well-being need to disclose themselves and build corresponding psychological foundations (i.e., intimacy and cognitive communion) to enhance their social integration. Meanwhile, topic-based VCs should pay attention to the cultivation of intimacy and cognitive communion among audiences while encouraging them to reveal themselves.
... Due to the early exposure of SM, it may be the case that these individuals react differently to SM usage than individuals who did not grow up with exposure to SM. Some research suggests that SM allows for identity experimentation and opportunities for social support and self-disclosures (Davis, 2012;Ko & Kuo, 2009). It is possible that the age group of our sample may actually benefit from some types of SM usage in some circumstances. ...
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Suicide is a major public health problem. For young adults in the United States, the rate of death by suicide has increased substantially. The evidence for the effects of social media on mental health are contradictory. However, there is limited research investigating effects of social media usage on suicide ideation. Given the interpersonal nature of social media (SM), we examined the relationship between Instagram, Twitter, and suicidal ideation in the context of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide in 449 young adults. We found a significant indirect effect of Instagram use on lower suicide ideation through lower perceived burdensomeness. Our results are inconsistent with the literature demonstrating negative mental health effects associated with SM usage. Rather, our results indicate that some SM platforms may be associated with positive mental health outcomes. Our results also demonstrate that different SM platforms may result in differing effects on mental health and interpersonal factors specifically. Future research should examine the content and activities that users engage in while using SM to provide a deeper understanding of these relationships.
... Until now, researchers have dealt mainly with other social media, websites, blogs, instant messaging tools, chats, or forums. 3,13,19,[27][28][29][30][31][32] Research presented here contributes to filling this gap, as Instagram is an important platform for telling one's life story. It allows uploading photos, tagging other users, describing photos and using hashtags, recording videos and adding comments. ...
Article
Objectives Women with breast cancer share their experiences and emotions about the illness on Instagram – a tool understudied when it comes to chronic illness. The paper characterizes the women's activities, and both online self-disclosure and social sharing of emotions concepts are used to help explain the women's practices. Methods Using qualitative conventional content analysis, four profiles of women are manually analysed, with posts as the unit of analysis ( n = 811). Based on eleven subcategories, three broad analytical categories are introduced: self-disclosure of negative information (C1), self-disclosure of positive information (C2) and disclosure of information about other people (C3). Results The women post narratives about suffering resulting from cancer, and the fears they experience. Also, the posts relate to positive emotions, joyful life events, self-acceptance, or self-affirmation. While writing, the women share information about people supporting them on their way to recovery. Discussion The activity of women cannot be explained only by their online self-disclosure, where anonymity and lack of offline support are often emphasized. Women on Instagram are not anonymous and report on support by relatives and other people. Rimé's concept of social sharing of emotions is used to explain this phenomenon.
... The SOVA Blogging Ambassador Program is an accompanying intervention to SOVA, where participating adolescents and young adults (AYA) contribute authentic article content as a more interactive opportunity to offer peer support. Several observational studies found that individuals who write on web about their health experience improvement in social connectedness [19] related to self-disclosure [20] and an increase in meaning making [21], including making sense of illness [22]. Adolescents writing about peer difficulties as part of an experimental study had a decrease in their social-emotional difficulties when they wrote in a web blog open to reader commenting versus one that was closed [23]. ...
Article
Background Supporting Our Valued Adolescents (SOVA) is a moderated and anonymous social media website intervention. SOVA ambassadors are adolescents and young adults (AYA) asked to write monthly blog posts and comments on others’ posts on topics surrounding mental health. Objective This study aims to understand the feasibility and acceptability of peer blogging for a moderated mental health intervention website and explore whether bloggers—AYA who self-report symptoms of depression and anxiety—experience potential benefits. Methods AYA aged 14 to 26 years with a self-reported history of depression or anxiety were recruited to the SOVA Peer Ambassador Program. Participants were asked to write one blog post a month and comment at least four times a month on other blog posts, for which they were compensated for up to US $15 monthly. Outcome variables measured at baseline and 3 months after intervention included website usability and feasibility, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, mental health treatment history, cybercoping, personal blogging style, self-esteem, loneliness, mental health stigma, social support, and positive youth development characteristics. Open-ended questions were asked about their blogging acceptability and usability. Results Of 66 AYA showing interest and completing onboarding, 71% (47/66) wrote at least one blog post, with an average of 3 posts per person. A sample of 51% (34/66) of participants completed a 3-month survey for the full analysis. Almost all 34 participants were satisfied with the experience of blogging (32/34, 94%) and rated the website usability as good (80.1, SD 14.9). At 3 months, self-esteem scores increased by 2.1, with a small-medium effect size (P=.01; Cohen d=0.45), and youth competence and confidence increased by 0.7 (P=.002) and 1.3 (P=.002), with medium effect sizes (Cohen d=0.62 and 0.60), respectively. Conclusions A blogging intervention for AYA with a history of depression or anxiety was feasible with regular and active engagement and shows evidence in a one-sample design for positive changes in strength-based assets—self-esteem, competence, and confidence—which map onto resilience.
... Additionally, users may benefit from self-disclosure to others. Self-disclosure, or the extent of what one reveals about themselves, can enhance intimacy and well-being in the context of positive social support, and has been found to enhance subjective well-being and perceptions of social integration through blogging (Ko & Kuo, 2009). Self-disclosure is likely to occur in online support spaces and may promote positive mental health (Moreno et al., 2011) by inducing reciprocity of self-disclosure in others (Barak & Gluck-Ofri, 2007). ...
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Blogging in the lay community has been shown to be a popular means of expression for all ages exhibiting mental illness symptoms. With the recent rise of mental illness rates among adolescents, blogging in a space specifically designated to discuss mental health topics for adolescents could potentially be beneficial for this demographic. In order to reveal whether or not blogging has positive effects on adolescents and young adults, we created a moderated, anonymous eHealth intervention for those in this demographic experiencing depression and/or anxiety symptoms. This intervention, called Supporting Our Valued Adolescents (SOVA), allows a safe place for participants aged 14–26 (inclusive) to read, write, and comment on blog posts regarding various mental health topics. In this paper, we analyze 40 SOVA blog posts and their corresponding comments written by 18 participants over a 6-month period to see if actively engaging on the website was beneficial for their mental health. These posts and comments were analyzed on their degree of self-disclosure, regulatory and interpersonal support, acknowledgement of others, and reader feedback. We found that the content analyzed implied that blogging had a positive effect on participants using this online intervention.
... La creazione e il mantenimento di reti amicali sono, infatti, processi importanti per lo sviluppo durante questa fase di vita (Manago, Taylor, & Green eld, 2012), in quanto il gruppo dei pari assume un'importanza fondamentale, andando a sostituire le relazioni parentali come principale fonte di sostegno sociale (Coleman, 1974;Boyd & Bee, 2012;Standlee, 2019). A tal proposito, il sostegno ottenuto tramite siti di social networking fornisce una serie di bene ci speci ci, quali: maggior supporto sociale ed emotivo percepito, opportunità di sperimentazione identitaria (Ahn, 2012;Leung, 2011;Sarriera, Abs, Casas, & Bedin, 2012;Dolev-Cohen & Barak, 2013), maggior apertura verso l'altro, riduzione dell'ansia sociale e integrazione sociale (Tichon & Shapiro, 2003;Valaitis, 2005;Ko & Kuo, 2009;Best et al., 2014). Sebbene la rivoluzione digitale paia apportare dunque numerosi vantaggi agli adolescenti, va sottolineato come un uso scorretto e non consapevole di queste nuove tecnologie e dei social media possa esporre a notevoli pericoli, andando spesso a impattare negativamente in diverse aree della loro vita. ...
Article
Il progetto s’inserisce nell’ambito delle azioni che mirano a promuovere un uso consapevole dei social media. L’intervento, tramite l’utilizzo della peer education, si propone d’attivare un percorso di promozione all’uso consapevole delle nuove tecnologie rivolto ai ragazzi delle classi prime della scuola secondaria di secondo grado, allo scopo specico d’incrementare la conoscenza dei rischi ad esse connesse e le strategie per farvi fronte in maniera adattiva. I risultati indicano che la partecipazione al progetto ha favorito nei peer educator una maggior consapevolezza di sé, delle proprie emozioni e anche della possibilità di gestirle. Nei ragazzi della classe prima di scuola secondaria di secondo grado in cui il progetto è stato realizzato si è riscontrato un incremento della conoscenza sul tema, oltre che un livello alto di soddisfazione per il corso.
... More importantly, as Tichon and Shapiro [72] stated, the social benefits of self-disclosure are largely derived from the supportive reactions from others. Sharing health-related posts thus offers a mechanism for obtaining supportive resources through receiving supportive responses from others, similar to how disclosing personal information leads to greater support and social capital [37]. Further supporting this reasoning in a health context, Oeldorf-Hirsch and colleagues [53] found that frequent sharing of tracked health information and receiving feedback from network members on social network sites contributed to users' all forms of supportive resources. ...
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This study aims to examine how the users’ engagement with health information benefits their well-being and to demonstrate the underlying mechanism of the relationships through bonding and bridging social capital. An online survey was conducted with 522 WeChat users in China. Structural equation modeling using the maximum likelihood of estimation was employed to test the study’s hypothesized model. Bootstrapping methods were used to examine mediation effects. The results revealed that users’ liking, sharing, and commenting behaviors were positively related to the bonding and bridging capital accumulated on WeChat. These two forms of social capital were also positively associated with users’ psychological well-being, though bridging capital exerted more power in our research model. Moreover, both bonding and bridging capital mediated the relationship between WeChat affordances and psychological well-being. The findings shed new light on directions for leveraging mobile social media as an alternative means to bring about improvements in well-being in mobile-phone-saturated China. This is likely to be the first study that examines the mediating roles of bonding and bridging social capital on the relationship between users’ health information engagement and users’ psychological well-being. By providing robust findings by adopting the variable-centered approach in a health context, the findings of this study are promising for the extension and theoretical development of mobile social media research in the context of health information engagement.
... Although positive effects of social interaction on FB are mostly derived from interactions with strong tie friends, recent evidence suggests that weak tie friendships also provide certain benefits to users (Vitak and Ellison 2013). In particular, scholars have posited that the unique characteristic of an SNS-which is an effective, low-cost platform where users can easily maintain a diverse social network-enables users to bridge social capital with weak-tie friends (Donath and Boyd 2004;Ellison et al. 2007), in which the perceived social bridging is a significant predictor of one's SWB (Ko and Kuo 2009). Furthermore, Vitak and Ellison (2013) found that when people shared a negative event (e.g., illness) on their FB timelines, they often received supportive messages from not only strong tie but also from weak tie friends. ...
Article
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The current study examines how strategic versus true self-presentation strategies affect Facebook (FB) users’ subjective well-being (SWB) depending on their tie strength with existing FB friends. Results of a two-experiment study of FB users aged 18 to 67 demonstrate that users report greater happiness (Experiment 1) and higher degrees of subjective vitality (Experiment 2) when adopting a strategic self-presentation style to post content on FB, rather than a true self-presentation style, while imagining weak tie friends as the target audience. When targeting weak tie friends, strategic self-presentation helps FB users fulfill relationship maintenance goals, which in turn enhances SWB. When imagining posts to strong tie friends, both strategic and true self-presentation strategies had similar effects on FB users’ SWB.
... Online Disclosure: Self effects vs. Reception effects In addition to asking for resources, members of marginalized groups may also use SNS for identity formation and self-disclosure. In a survey of 692 student bloggers in Taiwan, Ko and Kuo (2009) found that bloggers' disclosure predicted perceived social integration and bridging and bonding social capital, which in turn predicted participants' reports of well-being. According to communication theories, "self effects" are the impacts of the writing process on the writer's emotions, cognitions, or behaviors (Valkenburg, 2017). ...
Article
The present study examined personal disclosures about mental illness and the responses of online community members on the social media platform, Tumblr. We sampled public blog posts of 14,626 Tumblr users disclosing ten different mental health diagnoses using hashtags (e.g., #depression, #anxiety, and #anorexia). We examined the content of users’ disclosures, predictors of disclosure frequency, and predictors of online community response. The content of most disclosures was related to users’ emotions and cognitions about their mental health and their feelings of interpersonal loss and change over time. Disclosed content varied with users’ disclosure frequency and with self-identified mental health diagnoses. Predictors of disclosure frequency included the “self effects” of writing about oneself or one’s opinions, such as self-concept formation, and “reception effects” of receiving responses to one’s writing. User disclosures generally increased with frequency of community response (reception effects), and the degree of this effect differed depending on the disclosed diagnosis (self effects). The responses of online community members also varied significantly across disclosed diagnoses. The implications of our findings for community research and action are discussed.
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Fundamental Liberties are the basic rights of individuals which govern the right to life, prohibition on slavery and labour force, protection against retrospective criminal law and repeated trials, equality before the law and equal protection of the law, right to move freely and reside throughout the federation, right to freedom of speech and expression, right to profess and practise religion, rights in respect of education and rights to property. These rights derived from the Federal Constitution of Malaysia in particular Articles 5 to Articles 13. Since the Federal Constitution is the supreme law in Malaysia, it is vital for the nations to know their basic rights. Lack of information on fundamental liberties despite its accessibility in the internet will make the citizens uninformed of their rights which lead to the innovation of this ‘1 Click 2 Liberties Kit’. A prototype of the kit been circulated to young adult generation, in particular university’s students to test the effectiveness of the kit. An approach had been taken to test the effectiveness based on the responses received via online survey. Findings from the survey confirmed that the prototype is useful and give simple yet essential information on basic rights. The kit is effective in disseminating information on fundamental liberties to university students.
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Although past research has shown that social comparisons made through social media contribute to negative outcomes, little is known about the nature of these comparisons (domains, direction, and extremity), variables that determine comparison outcomes (post valence, perceiver’s self-esteem), and how these comparisons differ from those made in other contexts (e.g., text messages, face-to-face interactions). In four studies (N=798), we provide the first comprehensive analysis of how individuals make and respond to social comparisons on social media, using comparisons made in real-time while browsing news feeds (Study 1), experimenter-generated comparisons (Study 2), and comparisons made on social media vs. in other contexts (Studies 3-4). More frequent and more extreme upward comparisons resulted in immediate declines in self-evaluations as well as cumulative negative effects on individuals’ state self-esteem, mood, and life satisfaction after a social media browsing session. Moreover, downward and lateral comparisons occurred less frequently and did little to mitigate upward comparisons’ negative effects. Furthermore, low self-esteem individuals were particularly vulnerable to making more frequent and more extreme upward comparisons on social media, which in turn threatened their already-lower self-evaluations. Finally, social media comparisons resulted in greater declines in self-evaluation than those made in other contexts. Together, these studies provide the first insights into the cumulative impact of multiple comparisons, clarify the role of self-esteem in online comparison processes, and demonstrate how the characteristics and impact of comparisons on social media differ from those made in other contexts.
Article
Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS) can impair social participation and lead to isolation. Online platforms could help to increase this participation for individuals with MS, circumventing potential physical, emotional and cognitive barriers. Yet, minimal research has examined the differential impact of online versus face-to face interaction on happiness. Objective In our study we analyzed the relationship between honesty, anonymity, and happiness in individuals diagnosed with MS, who reported using online social networks. Methods We merged answers of 440 individuals from the Davidson Social Participation Survey with the NARCOMS Enrollment and Update Surveys. Descriptive analysis, T-tests, Pearson correlations and OLS multivariate regression analysis were conducted. Results Individuals reported they could be more honest in face-to face interactions than with online contacts, regardless of whether they were anonymous or identifiable. Happiness was associated with honesty or authenticity in in-person interactions. We found a negative association between happiness and honesty for anonymous participants online, and no association between happiness and honesty when using real names. Consistent results emerged for individuals using patient-specific and generic platforms. Conclusion Our study implies that anonymity may not improve happiness of individuals with MS. We need to address structural barriers to enable their in-person interactions.
Article
Online health communities offer the promise of support benefits to users, in particular because these communities enable users to find peers with similar experiences. Building mutually supportive connections between peers is a key motivation for using online health communities. However, a user's role in a community may influence the formation of peer connections. In this work, we study patterns of peer connections between two structural health roles: patient and non-professional caregiver. We examine user behavior in an online health community---CaringBridge.org---where finding peers is not explicitly supported. This context lets us use social network analysis methods to explore the growth of such connections in the wild and identify users' peer communication preferences. We investigated how connections between peers were initiated, finding that initiations are more likely between two authors who have the same role and who are close within the broader communication network. Relationships---patterns of repeated interactions---are also more likely to form and be more interactive when authors have the same role. Our results have implications for the design of systems supporting peer communication, e.g. peer-to-peer recommendation systems.
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Although past research has shown that social comparisons made through social media contribute to negative outcomes, little is known about the nature of these comparisons (domains, direction, and extremity), variables that determine comparison outcomes (post valence, perceiver's self-esteem), and how these comparisons differ from those made in other contexts (e.g., text messages, face-to-face interactions). In 4 studies (N = 798), we provide the first comprehensive analysis of how individuals make and respond to social comparisons on social media, using comparisons made in real-time while browsing news feeds (Study 1), experimenter-generated comparisons (Study 2), and comparisons made on social media versus in other contexts (Studies 3 and 4). More frequent and more extreme upward comparisons resulted in immediate declines in self-evaluations as well as cumulative negative effects on individuals' state self-esteem, mood, and life satisfaction after a social media browsing session. Moreover, downward and lateral comparisons occurred less frequently and did little to mitigate upward comparisons' negative effects. Furthermore, low self-esteem individuals were particularly vulnerable to making more frequent and more extreme upward comparisons on social media, which in turn threatened their already-lower self-evaluations. Finally, social media comparisons resulted in greater declines in self-evaluations than those made in other contexts. Together, these studies provide the first insights into the cumulative impact of multiple comparisons, clarify the role of self-esteem in online comparison processes, and demonstrate how the characteristics and impact of comparisons on social media differ from those made in other contexts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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Although past research has shown that social comparisons made through social media contributeto negative outcomes, little is known about the nature of these comparisons (domains, direction, and extremity), variables that determine comparison outcomes (post valence, perceiver’s self- esteem), and how these comparisons differ from those made in other contexts (e.g., text messages, face-to-face interactions). In four studies (N=798), we provide the first comprehensive analysis of how individuals make and respond to social comparisons on social media, using comparisons made in real-time while browsing news feeds (Study 1), experimenter- generated comparisons (Study 2), and comparisons made on social media vs. in other contexts (Studies 3-4). More frequent and more extreme upward comparisons resulted in immediate declines in self-evaluations as well as cumulative negative effects on individuals’ state self- esteem, mood, and life satisfaction after a social media browsing session. Moreover, downward and lateral comparisons occurred less frequently and did little to mitigate upward comparisons’ negative effects. Furthermore, low self-esteem individuals were particularly vulnerable to making more frequent and more extreme upward comparisons on social media, which in turn threatened their already-lower self-evaluations. Finally, social media comparisons resulted in greater declines in self-evaluation than those made in other contexts. Together, these studies provide the first insights into the cumulative impact of multiple comparisons, clarify the role of self-esteem in online comparison processes, and demonstrate how the characteristics and impact of comparisons on social media differ from those made in other contexts.
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The findings provide strong evidence to support the Extended Satisfaction with Life Scale (ESWLS) as a valuable research technique for the study of subjective quality of life. Alfonso et al. (1996) developed the ESWLS applying research of leading scholars who have focused on improving the measurement of quality of life over the past 30 years. Factor analysis and psychometric tests were applied to document the excellent properties of the ESWLS as a survey instrument. The current research proposes important modifications of the ESWLS that extend its value for survey studies of diverse populations. The major modifications include: adding survey items to measure income, health, and safety domains which have been demonstrated to be important components of life quality (Cummins, 1996); reducing the number of survey items for each quality of life domain from five to two, thus decreasing the number of items on the revised ESWLS to 22 from the original 50; and, reducing the seven-point Likert scale to five points. The last two changes were made to reduce response time and respondent fatigue in completing the self-report survey instrument. Respondents included low income welfare clients and recently dislocated workers (n = 151); and, adult, part-time students in social work and counseling programs (n = 101). Orthogonal and oblique solutions for the modified ESWLS delineate very comparable, stable factor structures using responses from diverse populations. Using the additional, rescaled survey items, these findings provide strong support for the ESWLS in its simplified and expanded formats. This application of the original and expanded versions of the ESWLS finds the expanded version adds to the strength and usefulness of the instrument for the measurement of quality of life in a broader range of circumstances.
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This study investigated the relationships between self-disclosure in ICQ ("I seek you") chat, level of loneliness, and ICQ usage. The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Revised Self-Disclosure Scale (RSDS) were administered to a multistaged stratified random sample of 576 college students. The results indicate that loneliness is not related to level of ICQ use, but inversely related to valence, accuracy, and the amount dimensions of self-disclosure in ICQ chat, and that ICQ usage is significantly related to control of depth and intent of disclosure. Specifically, it was found that the lonelier the student, the more dishonest, more negative, and the less revealing was the quality of the self-disclosure in their ICQ interaction. Conversely, appropriate, honest, positive, and accurate self-disclosure might lead to decreased loneliness when one feels understood, accepted, and cared about on ICQ. More important, as intimate relationships are based on high degrees of depth and intent of self-disclosure, heavy users of ICQ are usually open, personal, and consciously aware of what they are disclosing.