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Otocinclus cocama, a new uniquely colored loricariid catfish from Peru (Teleostei: Siluriformes), with comments on the impact of taxonomic revisions to the discovery of new taxa

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Abstract

A new, uniquely colored species of the loricariid catfish genus Otocinclus, O. cocama is described from a tributary to the lower río Ucayali in northern Peru. The new species is distinguished from other Otocinclus species by two putatively autapomorphic features, the distinct color pattern, consisting of vertically elongated blotches spanning from the dorsal midline to the ventral border of flanks, and by a complete lateral line. The phylogenetic relationships of the new species are investigated and it is apparently more closely related to a clade formed by O. huaorani, O. bororo, O. mariae, and O. mura. Comments on the impact of taxonomic revisions for the discovery and description of previously undetected biodiversity are also presented. Uma nova espécie de bagre loricariídeo de coloração única do gênero Otocinclus, O. cocama, é descrita de um afluente do baixo río Ucayali no norte do Peru. A nova espécie se distingue das demais espécies de Otocinclus por dois caracteres supostamente autopomórficos, o padrão de coloração diferenciado, que consiste em marcas alongadas verticalmente desde a linha média dorsal até a porção ventral dos flancos, e por uma linha lateral completa. As relações filogenéticas da nova espécie são investigadas e ela é aparentemente mais proximamente relacionada ao clado formado por O. huaorani, O. bororo, O. mariae e O. mura. Ao final, são apresentados comentários sobre o impacto de revisões taxonômicas no descobrimento e descrição de biodiversidade previamente não detectada.
Neotropical Ichthyology, 2(3):109-115, 2004
Copyright © 2004 Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia
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109
Otocinclus cocama, a new uniquely colored loricariid catfish from Peru
(Teleostei: Siluriformes), with comments on the impact of taxonomic
revisions to the discovery of new taxa
Roberto E. Reis
A new, uniquely colored species of the loricariid catfish genus Otocinclus,O. cocama is described from a tributary to the lower
río Ucayali in northern Peru. The new species is distinguished from other Otocinclus species by two putatively autapomorphic
features, the distinct color pattern, consisting of vertically elongated blotches spanning from the dorsal midline to the ventral
border of flanks, and by a complete lateral line. The phylogenetic relationships of the new species are investigated and it is
apparently more closely related to a clade formed by O. huaorani,O. bororo,O. mariae, and O. mura. Comments on the impact
of taxonomic revisions for the discovery and description of previously undetected biodiversity are also presented.
Uma nova espécie de bagre loricariídeo de coloração única do gênero Otocinclus,O. cocama, é descrita de um afluente do
baixo río Ucayali no norte do Peru. A nova espécie se distingue das demais espécies de Otocinclus por dois caracteres
supostamente autopomórficos, o padrão de coloração diferenciado, que consiste em marcas alongadas verticalmente desde a
linha média dorsal até a porção ventral dos flancos, e por uma linha lateral completa. As relações filogenéticas da nova espécie
são investigadas e ela é aparentemente mais proximamente relacionada ao clado formado por O. huaorani, O. bororo, O.
mariae e O. mura. Ao final, são apresentados comentários sobre o impacto de revisões taxonômicas no descobrimento e
descrição de biodiversidade previamente não detectada.
Key words: Systematics, Taxonomy, South America, Neotropical, Loricarioidei, Loricariidae, Phylogeny.
Laboratory of Ichthyology, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 6681, P.O.Box 1429, 90619-900 Porto
Alegre, RS, Brazil. e-mail: reis@pucrs.br
Introduction
The genus Otocinclus has 15 species and a few other
undescribed are already known to scientists. It was recently
revised by Schaefer (1997) who recognized 13 species as valid,
five of which were originally described in that paper. The
species of Otocinclus are widely distributed in cis-Andean
South America, from northern Venezuela to northern
Argentina, usually inhabiting small to medium sized water
bodies, often associated with marginal vegetation.
Otocinclus is the most basal genus in the tribe Hypopto-
pomatini (Schaefer, 1998). It’s monophyly being supported
by seven uniquely derived features (Schaefer, 1997).
A 55-year span has occurred between the description of
O. macrospilus Eigenmann & Allen, 1942 and Schaefer ’s (1997)
revision of Otocinclus, where five new species were described.
After 1997, four additional species have already been found,
O. tapirape Britto & Moreira, 2002, O. mimulus Axenrot &
Kullander, 2003, the one being described in the present paper,
and another, yet undescribed, species from Peru and Colombia.
This pattern of new species being described soon after the
publication of a revision is relatively common and will be
discussed below.
During the course of an expedition of the Ucamara Project in
the lower río Ucayali, we found the specimens used in this paper
with aquarium fish collectors in the locality of Jenaro Herrera.
The species described herein is already known and very popular
in the aquarium trade at least since 2000, where it is known as
Otocinclus “zebra”. The aim of this paper is to formally describe
and make a scientific name available to this species.
Material and Methods
Most of the methods employed in this paper follow those
New uniquely colored Otocinclus species
110
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of Schaefer (1997), except as noted below. Digital images of
lateral aspect of body and dorsal view of head of individual
specimens were generated using a video digitizer. Morpho-
metric data were acquired as homologous (geometric)
landmark coordinates with the software TPSDig v. 1.11 by
James Rohlf. In addition to the 25 landmarks described by
Schaefer (1997), the end of the caudal peduncle (landmark 26)
and two extra points on a millimetric ruler were digitized.
Standard length, as well as other interlandmark distances,
was obtained with the software LMDis v. 1.0 by R. E. Reis.
Four measurements, in addition to the 13 presented by Schaefer
(1997), and standard length, were obtained as follows:
standard length [interlandmark distance 1-26], pre-dorsal
length [1-8], pre-pelvic length [1-10], pre-anal length [1-12],
and snout length [1-13]. Specimens examined are housed in
the following institutions: AMNH, American Museum of
Natural History, New York; MCP, Museu de Ciências e
Tecnologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande
do Sul, Porto Alegre, and MUSM, Museo de Historia Natural,
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.
Otocinclus cocama, new species
Figs. 1-4
Holotype. MUSM 20686, 43.5 mm SL, female, quebrada
Yanayacu (approx. 04°55’S, 073°43’W), tributary to the caño
of the cocha Supay in Jenaro Herrera, Provincia Requena,
Departamento Loreto, Peru; Jan 2004, employees of Mr.
Grimaldo Mendoza Oviedo collected.
Paratypes. MUSM 20687 (5, 29.6-43.2 mm SL), MCP 34842 (8,
+ 2 c&s, 29.8-40.7 mm SL + 1 tissue sample), and AMNH
233730 (3, 36.4-43.8 mm SL), all collected with the holotype.
Diagnosis. The following putative autapomorphies distin-
guish Otocinclus cocama from all its congeners: (1) a unique,
distinct color pattern consisting of vertically elongated
blotches spanning from the dorsal midline to the ventral border
of flanks (Figs. 1 and 4), and (2) a complete lateral line, without
the gap plates (midbody plates without lateral line perfora-
tions) present in other Otocinclus. In addition, the new species
can be distinguished from most other Otocinclus by its high
number of teeth (30-45 in premaxilla and 23-36 in dentary vs.
10-29 and 9-22 in most species except O. huaorani Schaefer,
1997 [18-34 and 16-30], O. mura Schaefer, 1997 [22-30 and 18-
27], and O. bororo Schaefer, 1997 [17-31 and 17-26]). From O.
huaorani,O. mura, and O. bororo, the new species can be
further distinguished by the presence of a small metapterygoid
channel (vs. absent in these three species), and by having
one W-shaped mark in the caudal fin (vs. two W-shaped mark
in the above three species).
Description. Standard length of examined specimens 29.6-
43.8 mm SL. Other morphometric data presented in Table 1,
counts in Table 2.
Body moderately short, robust. Dorsal profile of head from
snout tip to dorsal-fin origin straight to slightly convex;
slightly concave between snout tip and nares. Dorsal profile
of trunk from dorsal-fin origin to caudal peduncle straight to
slightly concave. Ventral profile of head and abdomen from
snout tip to anus straight, transversely flat. Ventral profile of
trunk slightly concave between anal-fin origin and caudal fin.
Snout rounded, rostrum convex; region anterior to nares
slightly depressed. Greatest body depth at dorsal-fin origin,
19.8-24.9% SL. Body between pectoral and pelvic-fin origins
ovoid in cross section; trunk ovoid and compressed in cross
section anteriorly, progressing to slightly rectangular towards
caudal fin. Dorsal and ventral surface of caudal peduncle
slightly flattened; margins of dorsal and ventral lateral plate
series bearing enlarged odontodes forming ridge-like keels,
especially pronounced in smaller individuals.
Head depressed. Eyes moderately large, visible from ventral
side. Orbit length 18.5-25.9% HL; positioned approximately
midway between snout tip and compound pterotic posterior
process; distance between orbit margin and ventral surface of
head less than half orbit length. Dorsal iris diverticulum absent.
Lateral ethmoid with small subnasal lamina.
Dorsal fin II, 7; origin approximately at or slightly beyond
vertical through pelvic-fin origin; when depressed, reaching
to vertical line through end of anal-fin base. Nuchal plate
narrow, roughly triangular, articulated with V-shaped, dorsal-
fin spinelet; dorsal-fin locking mechanism functional. Pectoral
fin I, 6; reaching to middle of pelvic fin length. Pectoral pore
present on skin above pectoral-fin insertion, below lateral
process of cleithrum. Pelvic fin I, 5; when depressed reaching
beyond anus but not reaching anal-fin origin; skin flap on
dorsal surface of unbranched pelvic-fin ray of males. Anal fin
I, 5. Caudal fin I, 7/7, I; upper caudal fin lobe slightly longer
than lower one. Dorsal procurrent rays 4-5; ventral procurrent
rays 5 (in two c&s specimens).
Total plates in middle lateral series 22-24, usually 23.
Lateral line almost complete, pored tubes visible from
compound pterotic to caudal peduncle; 1-3 most posterior
plates in middle series without lateral line. Total vertebrae
28 (in two c&s specimens). Abdomen completely covered
by paired series of 4-7 (usually 5-6) large, sickle-shaped
lateral plates, intervening region covered by smaller, squarish
to rounded plates of irregular size and spacing, usually
arranged in 1-2 longitudinal series; median plates extending
posteriorly beyond lateral abdominal plate series to middle
of branched pelvic fins forming triangular pre-anal shield.
Subopercular plate present and well developed. Pelvic girdle
completely exposed ventrally and covered with odontodes;
arrector fossae closed.
Odontodes evenly distributed and regularly arranged on
head and body. Enlarged odontodes on anterior and lateral
snout margin, dorsal-, pectoral-, and pelvic-fin spines, and in
row along lateral corners of slightly flattened dorsal and
ventral caudal peduncle region. Males with small contact
organ formed by swirl of odontodes (Fig. 3) at ventral margin
of caudal fin base.
Premaxillary teeth 30-45, mandibular teeth 23-36. Oral disk
R. E. Reis 111
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Fig. 1. Otocinclus cocama, holotype, MUSM 20686, 43.5 mm SL, female, quebrada Yanayacu, Jenaro Herrera, Loreto, Peru.
roundish, covered with small papillae; margin of lower lip
heavily fringed; maxillary barbel short, its free portion about
one fourth to one third of orbit length.
Color in life. Ground color of head and dorsum bluish white to
slightly creamy yellowish. Dorsum of head and snout between
nares black. Lateral portions of snout and postorbital region of
head also black, leaving narrow, V-shaped white band beginning
at snout tip, passing through nares and above orbits, and
progressing laterally through compound pterotic. Ventral mar-
gin of snout darkened but head otherwise white or pale yellow-
ish ventrally. Medial portions of compound pterotic, parieto-
supraoccipital, and first pre-dorsal plate black or dark gray.
Color pattern of dorsum of body and flanks formed by four
black or dark gray, saddle-shaped blotches; one at origin of
dorsal fin, second behind dorsal-fin base, third between dorsal
and caudal fins, and fourth at base of caudal fin. These dorsal
markings always prolonged ventrally into flanks, in wide, vel-
New uniquely colored Otocinclus species
112
PROOFS
vet black, transverse bands, usually duplicated or forming
roundish blotches in large specimens (Fig. 4). Additional layer
of dark gray pigment in subjacent skin form with lateral blotches
inconspicuous lateral stripe. Some pigmentation sometimes
scattered or forming few dots on lateral portion of belly, between
pelvic and anal fins, and on ventral face of caudal peduncle.
Fins mostly hyaline. Outer face of pectoral spine pigmented
with black; small patch of black chromatophores on unbranched
pelvic- and anal-fin rays, sometimes on first branched anal-fin
ray. Dorsal fin black at origin and with wide transverse, roughly
triangular black band from spine to last branched ray, but
leaving base and tip of rays white. Black spot on dorsal-fin
spine and first branched ray sometimes divided in two patches.
Caudal fin with W-shaped vertical band in distal half, but leaving
narrow hyaline band at margin. Base of two central caudal-fin
rays usually black, as prolongation of last caudal peduncle
black blotch (Fig. 2).
Color in alcohol. Color pattern as in living specimens, but
white background turns into pale yellowish and black
markings become faded or brownish (Fig. 1).
Sexual dimorphism. Males of Otocinclus cocama are less
common and smaller than females (the only two males
examined out of 20 specimens are 30.4 and 36.2 mm SL). As
usually among hypoptopomatines, males of Otocinclus
cocama have a conical urogenital papilla behind the anal tube,
which is not present in females. Also, males possess a skin
flap on the dorsal surface of the unbranched pelvic-fin ray,
which is absent in females. Finally, males have a small contact
organ formed by an odontode swirl (Fig. 3) at ventral margin
of the caudal peduncle, near the caudal fin base.
Distribution.Otocinclus cocama is so far known from its
type locality, in the quebrada Yanayacu, near Jenaro Herrera,
Fig. 2. Caudal fin of Otocinclus cocama, holotype, MUSM
20686, 43.5 mm SL, female, quebrada Yanayacu, Jenaro Herrera,
Loreto, Peru.
Fig. 3. Caudal peduncle of Otocinclus cocama, paratype, MCP
34842, 36.2 mm SL. Odontode swirl forming a contact organ
(arrow), a male sexual dimorphism in the arrangement of
odontodes near the caudal-fin base.
Loreto, Peru (Fig. 5). This species has been in the aquarium
trade since early 2001 and is quite common in the aquarium
shops in Iquitos, Peru, being likely to occur in other places in
lower Ucayali and Marañon rivers.
Ecology. The type locality of Otocinclus cocama is a medium
size creek, with clear water and lots of marginal vegetation.
According to the collectors, the fishes are usually caught by
seining and dipnetting in that vegetation.
Etymology.Otocinclus cocama is named after the Cocama-
Cocamilla Indians that used to be dominant in the lower
Ucayali and Marañon rivers. The present estimations point
to a little more than 10,000 people in Peru, plus a few hundreds
in Colombia and Brazil. During the last century, the Cocama
culture has been mostly assimilated by the regional society,
losing their language and identity, being thus threatened as a
group. The name is treated as a noun in apposition.
Discussion
Otocinclus cocama is readily distinguished from all other
Otocinclus species by its complete lateral line and higher
number of teeth, as detailed in the diagnosis above. The most
striking feature, however, is its unique color pattern, which
caused aquarists worldwide to call it Otocinclus “zebra”
(Wendenburg, 2001; Evers & Seidel, 2002).
The phylogenetic relationships of Otocinclus cocama
was investigated, although a full phylogenetic analysis is
not presented here, and is deferred to a future paper by
Pablo Lehmann, who is describing another new Otocinclus
species. Otocinclus cocama is most probably closely related
to the clade “B” of Schaefer (1997). It shares all characters
R. E. Reis 113
PROOFS
Fig. 4. Live specimen of Otocinclus cocama, collected in Peru in 2000; not preserved. Photo by Ingo Seidel.
(but characters 6 and 7 not examined) that are synapomorphic
to the genus, according to Schaefer (1997): (1) Mesethmoid
bifurcate, with expanded anterolateral buttress [character 1
of Schaefer (1997)]; (2) absence of the ventral lateral ethmoid
ridge [character 3]; first epibranchial flange present
[character 9]; and (3) esophageal diverticulum expanded as
accessory air bladder [character 26]. It also possesses at
least part of the derived features of Schaefer’s (1997) vestitus
clade: (1) Lateral ethmoid with expanded subnasal lamina
[character 2]. Two other features of the vestitus clade are
ambiguous in the new species: (2) a reduced number of
vertebrae [character 10] does not occur in O. cocama, which
has 28 vertebrae. This high vertebrae count can be either
reversed and autapomorphic in O. cocama, or be a
synapomorphy of O. cocama and O. mura; (3) twenty-three
of fewer total lateral plates [character 15] is also not present
in O. cocama. The alternative state of having 24 or more
plates, as in O. affinis Steindachner, 1877, O. flexilis Cope,
1894, and O. mura, however, is also not the case, as the new
species has 22-24 lateral plates in the middle series.
Likewise, characters defining Schaefer’s (1997) clade “A”
are present in O. cocama: (1) nuchal plate roughly triangular,
with lateral margins reduced [character 11]; and (2) caudal
fin with paired W-shaped marks [character 22]. Otocinclus
cocama, however, possess only one, well defined, W-shaped
mark in the caudal fin, probably representing a second
derived state for this character. Whether the new species
lost the anterior W-shaped mark or the two marks became
fused in uncertain. Of the two characters defining the “orbis
clade, only one is present in O. cocama: (1) iris diverticulum
absent [character 25]. The other character used by Schaefer
to define the “orbis” clade was (2) the loss of the
metapterygoid channel [character 5]. Otocinclus cocama has
a small laminar shelf on the metapterygoid, forming a small
channel. This metapterygoid channel can be either reversed
and autapomorphic in O. cocama, or be a synapomorphy of
O. cocama and O. mariae.
One single character was used to define the clade “B”,
and that is an increased number of teeth in both premaxilla
and dentary [character 27]. Otocinclus cocama has the
highest teeth counts among Otocinclus species, and thus
the derived condition for this character. Finally, Schaefer’s
clade “E” (O. bororo,O. mariae, and O. mura) is defined by
one feature: eight or more canal-bearing plates in the anterior
field of the lateral line [character 18]. Otocinclus cocama
has a complete lateral line, without the typical gap plates of
other Otocinclus species. Possessing a complete lateral line
can be viewed as having more than eight anterior field canal-
bearing plates, thus including O. cocama in clade “E”. More
likely, however, having a complete lateral line is a second,
derived state for character 18, and to resolve the relationships
of O. cocama in the clade “B”, additional characters will be
necessary.
Besides the obvious benefits taxonomic revisions
provide for the inventory and understanding of biodiversity,
they play another, not always acknowledged, significant
role in the discovery and description of additional
biodiversity. Last species of Otocinclus described prior to
Schaefer’s (1997) revision was O. macrospilus. A 55-year
span has occurred between the description of O. macrospilus
and Schaefer’s revision of Otocinclus. After 1997, however,
four additional new species have already been detected, O.
tapirape,O. mimulus,O. cocama, and another species from
Peru and Colombia being described by Pablo Lehmann (pers.
comm.). Fish groups that deserve a taxonomic revision are
usually confuse, with unsettled taxonomies, and with
difficult to identify species, features that often preclude the
unambiguous detection of undescribed taxa. Taxonomic
revisions of such groups allow researchers to find and more
easily identify previously undetected diversity, because
New uniquely colored Otocinclus species
114
PROOFS
information becomes clearly arranged and organized in the
revisions.
Additional, similar cases of previously undetected diversity
of fishes being described soon after the publication of a
taxonomic revision are present in the literature. Curimata
acutirostris Vari & Reis, 1995 was described six years after the
revision of Curimata by Vari (1989). Last Curimata species
described prior to the works of Vari (1984, 1989) was C. murieli
Allen in Eigenmann & Allen, 1942. Xenurobrycon polyancistrus
Weitzman, 1987 was described soon after the revision of
Xenurobrycon by Weitzman & Fink (1985). Last and only
species described prior to the revision was X.macropus Myers
& Miranda Ribeiro, 1945. Pogonopoma obscurum Quevedo &
Reis, 2002 was published four years after the revision of the
tribe Rhinelepini by Armbruster (1998). Last Rhinelepini species
described prior to Armbruster’s revision was Monistiancistrus
carachama Fowler, 1940 (syn. Pseudorinelepis genibarbis
[Valenciennes, 1840]). Gymnogeophagus setequedas Reis,
Malabarba & Pavanelli, 1992, and Gymnogeophagus che
Casciotta, Gómez & Toresanni, 2000, were both described after
the revision of Gymnogeophagus by Reis & Malabarba (1988).
Last species of Gymnogeophagus described prior to the
revision was G. cyanopterus Miranda Ribeiro, 1918 (syn. G.
balzanii [Perugia, 1891]).
Previously undetected diversity detected and described
soon after taxonomic revisions is also found broadly among
other taxa. For example, among Neotropical spiders, Acacesia
graciosa Lise & Braul Jr., 1995 was described immediately
after a revision of Acacesia by Glueck (1994). Last species of
Acacesia described prior to Glueck’s revision was A.
pentagona Caporiaco, 1954 (syn. A. cornigera Petrunkevitch,
1925). Another example among Neotropical snakes is the
descriptions of Echinanthera cephalomaculata Di-Bernardo,
1994 and E. cephalostriata Di-Bernardo, 1996, published soon
after the revision of Echinanthera by Di-Bernardo (1992).
Last species of Echinanthera described prior to the revision
was Liophis insignissimus Amaral, 1929 (syn. E. persimilis
[Cope, 1869]).
For this reason, taxonomic revisions of genera and other
supraspecific taxa play a double role in our understanding of
Table 1. Descriptive morphometrics of Otocinclus cocama.
Values are given for the holotype and ranges given for the 16
remaining specimens. SOC = parieto-supraoccipital posterior
process; SD = standard deviation; Hol = holotype.
Table 2. Frequency distribution and summary statistics for meristics of Otocinclus cocama. Holotype values are marked with
an asterisk. N = number of individual counted, SE = standard error of the mean; ** = counted in c&s specimens
the biodiversity, settling the current taxonomic and nomen-
clatural situation of a given taxon, and thus fostering the
discovery of additional undescribed diversity.
Acknowledgements
I am much indebted to Hernán Ortega (MUSM) for his help
in locating information on the Cocama Indians and other topics,
to Rainer Stawikowski for locating the photograph of the living
specimen, and to Ingo Seidel, for allowing me to use his superb
photo of the living fish. Arno Lise and Marcos Di Bernardo
helped locating literature. Marcelo Britto and an anonymous
reviewer offered valuable suggestions to the manuscript. The
fieldwork associated with this paper was supported by the
Ucamara Project (NSF-DEB 0215388) and the All Catfish Species
Inventory (NSF-DEB 0315963). The author is partially
supported by CNPq (Process # 305344/87-0).
R. E. Reis 115
PROOFS
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Harnischwelse. Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift,
Sonderhelf 2. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.
... Otco01 MH411433, Otco02 MH411434, Otco04 MH411435. Reis, 2004;Galvis et al., 2006;Froese & Pauly, 2019. . I I I II I I I I I I II I I II II I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I II III II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II II III I I I II I I II I I I I I I I I I II I II I I IIII III I I I II I II III I I I II I I I III I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I IIII I I II I I II I I I I I I IIIIII I I I II I I I II II I II I I I II I I I II III I II I I I I I III I I I I II II II I I II II I II I I I I I III IIII II I II III I II I II I I I I I I II II I II I I I I I I II I I I IIIII II II I I I II I I III I I I II II I IIII I II II I II I I I II I I I I I II I I I I II I II II I I II I I IIIII II I III II IIIIII I I I I I I II I I I II I II II I II I I I I I II I II II I I II I II I III I I II I III I I I I I I I I I I I I I II II I I III III I I II II I I I I I II I I I I I II I II II I III II I I I II I I I III II II I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I tocincl s cocama Reis 2004 Nombre com n: Otocinclus cebra. ...
... Reis, 2004;Galvis et al., 2006;Froese & Pauly, 2019. . I I I II I I I I I I II I I II II I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I II III II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II II III I I I II I I II I I I I I I I I I II I II I I IIII III I I I II I II III I I I II I I I III I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I IIII I I II I I II I I I I I I IIIIII I I I II I I I II II I II I I I II I I I II III I II I I I I I III I I I I II II II I I II II I II I I I I I III IIII II I II III I II I II I I I I I I II II I II I I I I I I II I I I IIIII II II I I I II I I III I I I II II I IIII I II II I II I I I II I I I I I II I I I I II I II II I I II I I IIIII II I III II IIIIII I I I I I I II I I I II I II II I II I I I I I II I II II I I II I II I III I I II I III I I I I I I I I I I I I I II II I I III III I I II II I I I I I II I I I I I II I II II I III II I I I II I I I III II II I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I tocincl s cocama Reis 2004 Nombre com n: Otocinclus cebra. ...
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El libro profundiza en el conocimiento de 212 especies de peces ornamentales que habitan las aguas de la Amazonia peruana. Para cada una de ellas, no solo se abordan los aspectos taxonómicos, ecológicos y biológicos, sino que también se especifican las zonas geográficas donde fueron registradas, así como los datos de comercialización, nacional e internacional del 2000 al 2017. Se espera que el conocimiento de la biología, ecología, sistemática y genética de las especies amazónicas en las que se focaliza este libro, contribuyan al desarrollo de una verdadera política de manejo sostenido de las especies, incluyendo la protección de los ecosistemas amazónicos. Esto posibilitaría que en el futuro las limitaciones o prohibiciones de colectas de peces ornamentales en su medio natural sean compensadas con el desarrollo de una piscicultura ornamental sostenible. link descarga: https://repositorio.iiap.gob.pe/handle/20.500.12921/596?fbclid=IwAR2Nx0hdV2rH6F8dOEq7FdX4pWdd1xkYn1rpj-nhcSfmapUEqFku3taKrwU
... Species of Otocinclus are widely distributed in South America, specifically east of the Andes, and often inhabit small lowland tributaries of the main rivers associated with marginal vegetation (Schaefer, 1997). Among these, Otocinclus cocama Reis, 2004 known as "zebra otocinclus" is very popular in the aquarium trade and it is one the most important aquarium fish exports from Iquitos based on international sales (Moreau and Coomes, 2007). O. cocama is endemic to Peruvian Amazon, specifically from the Yanayacu small stream, near district Jenaro Herrera, Department of Loreto (Reis, 2004). ...
... Among these, Otocinclus cocama Reis, 2004 known as "zebra otocinclus" is very popular in the aquarium trade and it is one the most important aquarium fish exports from Iquitos based on international sales (Moreau and Coomes, 2007). O. cocama is endemic to Peruvian Amazon, specifically from the Yanayacu small stream, near district Jenaro Herrera, Department of Loreto (Reis, 2004). As a direct consequence of the increasing exploitation by the ornamental trade, with continuing decline of mature individuals, O. cocama is currently considered an endangered species in Peru and it is included on the Red List of Threatened Species-IUCN (Hidalgo and Chocano, 2016). ...
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A new Myxobolus species is described infecting gill filaments of the endangered ornamental fish Otocinclus cocama from Peruvian Amazon. In a total of 35 fish examined, five (14.3%) had myxozoan plasmodia. Taxonomic analysis was performed integrating multiple characters, including morphometrical, biological traits, ssrDNA sequence data and host ecological characters. Myxospores of M. iquitoensis n. sp. were ovoid in shape from the frontal view and measured 17.6±1.2 µm (16.2–19.8 µm) in length and 10.5±0.7 µm (9.8–12 µm) in width. The two polar capsules were elongate in shape, equal in size and occupying almost half of the myxospore body. They measured 8.7±0.4 µm (6.9–9.3 µm) in length and 3.3±0.2 µm (3–3.6 µm) in width. The polar tubules presented six to seven turns. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the obtained ssrDNA sequence did not match any existing sequences in GenBank but showed M. iquitoensis n. sp. to be a close species of M. figueirae. Nonetheless, the ssrDNA sequences of those species show large genetic divergence. This is the first description and phylogenetic study of a myxozoan parasitizing fish of the genus Otocinclus from South America, as well the first report of these parasites infecting a fish belonging to the Loricariidae family from Amazon basin. Considering the endangered status of the host, the high degree of host-specificity of freshwater histozoic myxobolids, the low occurrence shown by the new myxozoan, and the fact that this is the only host known for this myxozoan, the conservation status of the new species of myxozoan is likely to be connected to the future survival of its host.
... La familia Loricariidae se incluye dentro de los Silúridos más numerosos con aproximadamente 600 especies distribuidas en Centro América y Suramérica (Reis et al., 2003;Reis, 2004;Lehmann, 2006), siendo la variedad de formas, comportamientos y alimentación lo que las hace altamente llamativas en especial para la acuarofilía, participando de manera significativa en el mercado mundial de peces ornamentales. En la Orinoquía colombiana los loricaridos son el 59 % de la captura de peces de acuario para exportación con alrededor de 61 especies (Incoder, 2005;Arias, 2006). ...
... Otocinclo, como se le conoce vulgarmente, es el representante típico de la familia y el más comercializado de la región, con 8,6 % de participación en el mercado (Arias, 2006), es un pez de comportamiento pacifico y porte pequeño, alrededor de 0,40 cm de longitud, que tiene hábitos diurnos y nado en cardumen, prefiriendo ambientes lénticos bien oxigenados en las riveras de los caños con aguas de 20 -25 ºC de temperatura, 6,0 -7,5 de pH y 70 a 210 ppm de dureza (Schaefer, 1997;Reis, 2004). Se alimenta en la naturaleza de algas y perifiton que obtiene explorando diversos sustratos (Castro, 1994;Britto y Moreira, 2002). ...
... La familia Loricariidae se incluye dentro de los Silúridos más numerosos con aproximadamente 600 especies distribuidas en Centro América y Suramérica (Reis et al., 2003;Reis, 2004;Lehmann, 2006), siendo la variedad de formas, comportamientos y alimentación lo que las hace altamente llamativas en especial para la acuarofilía, participando de manera significativa en el mercado mundial de peces ornamentales. En la Orinoquía colombiana los loricaridos son el 59 % de la captura de peces de acuario para exportación con alrededor de 61 especies (Incoder, 2005;Arias, 2006). ...
... Otocinclo, como se le conoce vulgarmente, es el representante típico de la familia y el más comercializado de la región, con 8,6 % de participación en el mercado (Arias, 2006), es un pez de comportamiento pacifico y porte pequeño, alrededor de 0,40 cm de longitud, que tiene hábitos diurnos y nado en cardumen, prefiriendo ambientes lénticos bien oxigenados en las riveras de los caños con aguas de 20 -25 ºC de temperatura, 6,0 -7,5 de pH y 70 a 210 ppm de dureza (Schaefer, 1997;Reis, 2004). Se alimenta en la naturaleza de algas y perifiton que obtiene explorando diversos sustratos (Castro, 1994;Britto y Moreira, 2002). ...
... La familia Loricariidae se incluye dentro de los Silúridos más numerosos con aproximadamente 600 especies distribuidas en Centro América y Suramérica (Reis et al., 2003;Reis, 2004;Lehmann, 2006), siendo la variedad de formas, comportamientos y alimentación lo que las hace altamente llamativas en especial para la acuarofilía, participando de manera significativa en el mercado mundial de peces ornamentales. En la Orinoquía colombiana los loricaridos son el 59 % de la captura de peces de acuario para exportación con alrededor de 61 especies (Incoder, 2005;Arias, 2006). ...
... Otocinclo, como se le conoce vulgarmente, es el representante típico de la familia y el más comercializado de la región, con 8,6 % de participación en el mercado (Arias, 2006), es un pez de comportamiento pacifico y porte pequeño, alrededor de 0,40 cm de longitud, que tiene hábitos diurnos y nado en cardumen, prefiriendo ambientes lénticos bien oxigenados en las riveras de los caños con aguas de 20 -25 ºC de temperatura, 6,0 -7,5 de pH y 70 a 210 ppm de dureza (Schaefer, 1997;Reis, 2004). Se alimenta en la naturaleza de algas y perifiton que obtiene explorando diversos sustratos (Castro, 1994;Britto y Moreira, 2002). ...
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La fecundidad en peces, es la estimación de la cantidad de ovocitos que una hembra podría expulsar en un desove, siendo uno de los indicadores más utilizados para evaluar el potencial reproductivo de una especie y sus posibilidades para la piscicultura. Para aportar al conocimiento de este criterio, se estudiaron los ovarios de hembras silvestres maduras, las cuales fueron pesadas individualmente al igual que sus ovarios y calculado el Índice gonadosómatico (IGS). Luego cada ovario fue digerido en solución Gilson durante 20 días y luego tamizado en malla de 500 μm y los ovocitos retenidos fueron contados y obtenida la fecundidad. La fecundidad relativa a peso (FRP) también fue calculada así como los diámetros ovocitarios medidos bajo estereoscopio. Una decima parte de cinco ovarios fueron procesados para histología convencional H & E y una vez analizados, deducido el desarrollo de los ovocitos y el tipo de desove comparando la información obtenida. Se obtuvo una fecundidad de 62 ± 8 ovocitos / hembra y una FRP = 91 ± 10 ovocitos g-¹ peso total, el IGS fue de 13,2 ± 1,1 %, y el diámetro ovocitario de los ovocitos maduros fue de 1.366,5 ± 203,8 μm, siendo que las frecuencias de los diámetros de los ovocitos mayores de 500 μm encontradas en conjunto con las placas histológicas estudiadas, mostraron dos grupos de ovocitos en crecimiento, lo que permite concluir que el desarrollo del ovario es asincrónico y el desove parcial.
... In addition, Rineloricaria lanceolata is well known for having hypertrophied odontodes on the cheeks, the pectoral-fin spine, and the parietosupraoccipital and predorsal areas (Py-Daniel and Cox-Fernandes, 2005). Some species of hypoptopomatines have what were described as contact organs, on a portion of the caudal peduncle where the odontodes have a different orientation than those on the remainder of the peduncle (Aquino, 1994;Schaefer, 1997;Reis, 2004). With few exceptions, secondary sexually dimorphic odontode features are limited to males. ...
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A new neoplecostomine genus and species is described from headwater tributaries of the lower Rio Pardo basin, a coastal drainage in Bahia, eastern Brazil. Hirtella carinata is a small loricariid with a maximum standard length barely reaching 50 mm. The new genus and species are diagnosed among all other loricariids by a unique, remarkable pattern of sexual dimorphism in which adult males have five conspicuous longitudinal rows of bristle-like hypertrophied odontodes on the head and along the lateral dermal plates of the body. Hirtella is further distinguished from most loricariids by the anterior position of the pelvic fin, which originates in a vertical anterior to the nuchal plate, and by the possession of an elongate keel formed by 15–17 azygous plates along the mid-dorsal line between the dorsal and the caudal fins. Hirtella is additionally distinguished from other members of the Neoplecostominae by having a medium sized palatine splint, never reaching the anterior border of the nasal fossa. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Hirtella is the sister taxon of Pareiorhina. The description of this new genus raises to six the number of currently recognized genera in the Neoplecostominae.
... One example involves the 67 now recognized species of Creagrutus; a number three and one-half times the 19 species recognized in the genus prior to 1994 (Harold & Vari 1994;Vari & Harold 2001;Ribeiro et al. 2004;Torres-Mejía & Vari 2005). Comprehensive revisions are also invaluable in furthering the identification of additional previously unrecognized species by subsequent researchers (Reis 2004); a phenomenon illustrated for Colombia by Creagrutus (Torres-Mejía & Vari 2005). ...
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Data derived from the literature supplemented by examination of specimens in collections show that 1435 species of native fishes live in the freshwaters of Colombia. These species represent 14 orders and 47 families. Orders with the largest numbers of species in the Colombian continental ichthyofauna are the Characiformes (637 species), Siluriformes (524 species), Perciformes (124 species), and Gymnotiformes (74 species), with the remaining 10 orders having from 1 to 35 species. At the family level, the Characidae has the greatest number of species (399 species), with this followed by the Loricariidae (166 species), Cichlidae (114 species), Pimelodidae (54 species), and Trichomycteridae (54 species); the remaining 42 families having 1 to 52 species. Present data indicate that 311 of the species occur solely at locations within Colombia. Continued descriptions of new species from the continental waters of Colombia demonstrate that the present total underestimates the species-level diversity of the ichthyofauna. The 1435 species living in Colombian freshwaters represent approximately 5% of all freshwater and marine fish species now recognized worldwide and approximately 29% of the freshwater fish species known to inhabit the drainages across the expanse from the southern border of Mexico through to Chile and Argentina. Various historical and ecological factors potentially contributing to the species-level richness of the Colombian freshwater fish fauna are discussed (e.g. geology, climate, physiography, water chemistry).
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This study presents an extensive review of published and unpublished occurrence records of fish species in the Loreto department. Located in the northeast of the country, Loreto is the most geographically extensive region in the Peruvian territory. Despite the increase in fish collections in Loreto in recent years, the ichthyofauna of this department needs to be more documented. Based on a database of scientific collections and bibliographic information, an updated checklist of the freshwater fishes from Loreto is presented. The results reveal a rich and diversified ichthyofauna, with 873 species distributed in 331 genera, 50 families and 15 orders. The main groups are Characiformes (42.6%), Siluriformes (34.8%), Gymnotiformes (8.6%) and Cichliformes (7.4%). Part of the ichthyofauna has restricted distribution for Loreto (4.7%). In addition, 9.0% of species from Loreto are used in fisheries. Meanwhile, 219 species (25%) were categorized according to the IUCN criteria where only six species (0.7%) are currently considered threatened species (CR, EN or VU). The results presented in this work indicate that this department needs more studies to know the biodiversity of fish, likewise, the information presented constitutes a contribution to the knowledge of fish diversity that would support environmental management actions and decision-making aimed at conserving one of the most diverse departments of Peru.
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Badis juergenschmidti sp. n. is described from south central Myanmar. The new species is easily distinguished from its congeners by the lack of conspicuous spots on posterodorsal corner of opercle and superficial part of cleithrum, caudal fin with contrasted white margin posterodorsally and posteroventrally in adult males. A new numbering standard for the vertical bar pattern is provided. Notes on habitat and reproductive behaviour of the herein described species are given.
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The loricariid catfish genera Pogonopoma, Pogonopomoides, Pseudorinelepis, and Rhinelepis form a monophyletic clade within the subfamily Hypostominae. Phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters reveals the following relationships: (Pseudorinelepis + (Rhinelepis + (Pogonopoma + Pogonopomoides))). These nodes are strongly supported with several synapomorphies, and each genus is redescribed and diagnosed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a split between the Amazonian genus (Pseudorinelepis) and the remainder of the genera which occur in southeastern Brazil. /// Los géneros de bagres loricariid Pogonopoma, Pogonopomoides, Pseudorinelepis, y Rhinelepis constituyen un grupo monofilético dentro de la subfamilia Hypostominae. Un análisis filogenético de características morfológicas reveló las siguientes relaciones: (Pseudorinelepis + (Rhinelepis + (Pogonopoma + Pogonopomoides))). Estos nodos son apoyados por varias sinapomórfias y cada género is redescribido y diagnosticado. Una división entre el género de Amazonia (Pseudorinelepis) y el resto de los géneros que ocurren en el sudeste de Brasil fue revelada por un análisis filogenético.
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The loricariid genus Pogonopoma Regan, 1904, is revised and expanded to include Pogonopomoides parahybae and a new species, Pogonopoma obscurum, from the upper rio Uruguai, southern Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by having eight to 11 branched dorsal fin rays, versus seven in the remaining species. The phylogenetic placement and geographic distribution of the new species are evaluated and discussed. An identification key for the genera of the Rhinelepis group of the subfamily Hypostominae and for the species of Pogonopoma is provided.
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The Neotropical cichlid genus Gymnogeophagus Ribeiro, 1918 is revised. The following species are considered valid and are redescribed: G. rhabdotus (Hensel, 1870), G. gymnogenys (Hensel, 1870), G. labiatus (Hensel, 1870), G. balzanii (Perugia, 1891) and G. australis (Eigenmann, 1907). In addition, two new species are described: G. lacustris, sp. n., from the coastal region of southern Brazil and G. meridionalis, sp. n., from the lower Rio Paraná and Rio Uruguay systems. Lectotypes are designated for Geophagus bucephalus Hensel, 1870 (= G. labiatus) and Geophagus scymnophilus Hensel, 1870 (= G. labiatus) and the phylogenetic relationships among the species are analyzed. An osteological description based mainly on G. meridionalis is presented. A map of species distribution and a key to the species are provided.
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There are five species of Acacesia which range collectively from southern North America to Argentina. Two are previously known members of the genus. A. cornigera Petrunkevitch and A. hamata (Hentz). Three of these are new species: A. villalobosi and A. yacuiensis, fom southern Brazil, and A. benigna from Bolivia and Peru.
Article
The genus Otocinclus Cope (1872) of the siluriform family Loricariidae is diagnosed as monophyletic on the basis of shared derived characters of the cranial and hyobranchial skeleton, dorsal gill arch musculature, and gut. Otocinclus are relatively small herbivorous catfishes restricted to small streams and quiet slow-flowing margins of larger rivers, most frequently living in close association with aquatic macrophytes and terrestrial marginal grasses extending into the water column. Otocinclus species share a novel modification of the distal esophageal wall which is developed into an accessory blind diverticulum that may function in aerial respiration and for providing additional modulatory positive buoyancy for remaining in the upper water column at stream margins. Otocinclus has no junior synonyms, however several nominal species originally described in Otocinclus are here formally re-assigned to other genera in the subfamily Hypoptopomatinae. Otocinclus cephalacanthus Ribeiro 1911, O. depressicauda Ribeiro 1918, O. francirochai Ihering 1928, O. laevior Cope 1894, O. leptochilus Cope 1894, O. maculipinnis Regan 1904, O. nigricauda Boulenger 1891, and O. paulinus Regan 1908 are all placed in the genus Microlepidogaster Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889; O. obtusos Ribeiro 1911 was placed in Pseudotothyris Britski & Garavello 1984; the genus Nannoptopoma Schaefer 1996 was erected for O. spectabilis Eigenmann 1914 in the tribe Hypoptopomatini; O. gibbosus Ribeiro 1908 is removed from Otocinclus, yet remains of undetermined generic status. Thirteen species are recognized in Otocinclus: O. affinis Steindachner 1877 of the lower Paraná/Paraguay and Uruguay basins and coastal streams of southeastern Brazil; O. bororo n. sp. of the upper Río Paraguay; O. caxarari n. sp. of the middle Río Guaporé/Mamoré system; O. flexilis Cope 1894 of the lower Paraná/Paraguay and Uruguay basins and coastal streams of southeastern Brazil; O. hasemani Steindachner 1915 of northern Brazil; O. hoppei Ribeiro 1939 of the upper Amazon, Tocantins and Paraguay basins and coastal streams of northeastern Brazil; O. huaorani n. sp. of the upper Amazon and Orinoco basins; O. macrospilus Eigenmann & Allen 1942 of the upper Amazon basin of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru; O. mariae Fowler 1940 of the lower Amazon, upper Madeira and Paraguay basins; O. mura n. sp. of the middle Amazon River; O. vestitus Cope 1872 of the upper Amazon and lower Paraná basins; O. vittatus Regan 1904 of the Amazon, Orinoco, Paraná/Paraguay, and Tocantins basins; and O. xakriaba n. sp. of the rio São Fransisco basin. Two species are placed in synonymy: Otocinclus arnoldi Regan 1909 and O. fimbriatus Cope 1894 are junior synonyms of O. flexilis. Keys to the species of Otocinclus and genera of the Hypoptopomatinae are provided. A descriptive treatment of the osteology and cranial myology is provided for O. vittatus. Detailed analysis of meristic and morphometric variation based on geometric morphometric procedures is provided for the phenetically similar species pairs O. mariae and O. vittatus, O. bororo and O. huaorani in an a posteriori evaluation of separate species status. The phylogenetic relationships among Otocinclus species, and the phylogenetic position of Otocinclus among genera of the Hypoptopomatinae, are determined based on analysis of 27 morphological features using cladistic parsimony. Monophyly of Otocinclus was confirmed; within Otocinclus, a clade comprised of O. affinis and O. flexilis is the sister-group to the remainder of the genus. Within that latter clade, O. hasemani and O. xakriaba are the first and second-level sister-groups to the remainder of the genus, within which relationships among species are not fully resolved with available data. The phylogenetic biogeography of Otocinclus is informative regarding the historical relationships among major river drainage basins, particularly of those river systems of the Brazilian Shield. A biogeographic hypothesis is proposed based on the area cladogram derived from the species-level phylogenetic relationships, which suggests successive vicariance and speciation in the non-Amazonian regions of endemism of southeastern and eastern South America, followed by speciation and dispersal within the Amazon, Orinoco and upper Paraguay basins. The pattern of vicariance revealed by the Otocinclus species-level phylogeny is congruent with the geologic history of the major river drainage basins of the Brazilian Shield. This result suggests that, for Otocinclus and perhaps other loricariid catfishes, much of their generic and species-level diversification occurred prior to the formation of the Amazon basin.
Two new fish species of the genus Curimata (Pisces: Curimatidae) from Venezuela
  • R P Vari
Vari, R. P. 1984. Two new fish species of the genus Curimata (Pisces: Curimatidae) from Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezolana, 11: 27-43.
  • H.-G I Evers
  • Seidel
Evers, H.-G. & I. Seidel. 2002. Wels Atlas. Vol. 1. Mergus, Melle, 860p.
Die Aquarien-und Terrarienzeitschrift, Sonderhelf 2
  • Harnischwelse
Harnischwelse. Die Aquarien-und Terrarienzeitschrift, Sonderhelf 2. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.