Patents Versus Patenting: Implications of Intellectual Property Protection for Biological Research

Zhen Lei and Brian D. Wright are in the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 207 Giannini Hall, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
Nature Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 41.51). 02/2009; 27(1):36-40. DOI: 10.1038/nbt0109-36
Source: PubMed


A new survey shows scientists consider the proliferation of intellectual property protection to have a strongly negative effect on research.

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Available from: Brian Davern Wright
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    • "Intellectual property policy is premised on the idea that intellectual property rights ought to promote the conversion of scientific research into marketable products , but without limiting the exchange of ideas among scientists and the public ( Lei et al . 2009 ) . Achieving that balance is a contested process , since groups tend to disagree on how to balance private and public interests through intellectual property policy . Since the 1970s , policies in the United States have favored the privatization of scientific knowledge ( Block 2011 ) . As Cowen ( 2011 : 22 ) puts it , the fundamental p"
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    • "The design of a specific regime for platform technologies can also be foreseen, ensuring their diffusion either through extensive yet well-defined statutory-use conditions, or through licensing protocols, intervening directly at the level of innovation diffusion. Indeed, an internationally recognised wide-reaching academic research exemption for biological research tools might not, according to certain commentators, properly discourage universities' institutional administrators from pursuing strong exclusive rights and licensing strategies (Lei et al. 2009). Legal solutions have in this context been primarily based upon liability regimes, moderating the risks of excluding third parties from accessing the technologies. "
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    • "Compared with previous studies on US scientists, our data shows a slightly lower frequency of material transfer. For example, on average US agricultural scientists transferred research tools 3.4 times per year (Lei et al., 2009), however, the Japanese agricultural scientists in our sample made 3.1 transfers per year. On average US biomedical scientists received 7.0 requests per year (2007), whereas the Japanese biomedical scientists received 4.4 requests per year. "
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