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The facial massage reduced anxiety and negative mood status, and increased sympathetic nervous activity



The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of 45 min of facial massage on the activity of autonomic nervous system, anxiety and mood in 32 healthy women. Autonomic nervous activity was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, we evaluated the high-frequency components (HF) and the low- to high-frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio), reflecting parasympathetic nervous activity and sympathetic nervous activity, respectively. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Profile of Mood Status (POMS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. The score of STAI and negative scale of POMS were significantly reduced following the massage, and only the LF/HF ratio was significantly enhanced after the massage. It was concluded that the facial massage might refresh the subjects by reducing their psychological distress and activating the sympathetic nervous system.
Biomedical Research 29 (6) 317-320, 2008
The facial massage reduced anxiety and negative mood status, and increased
sympathetic nervous activity
Tomoko Hatayama, Shingo Kitamura, Chihiro Tamura, Mayumi Nagano and Koichiro Ohnuki
User Science Institute, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
(Received 20 October 2008; and accepted 24 October 2008)
The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of 45 min of facial massage on the activity of au-
tonomic nervous system, anxiety and mood in 32 healthy women. Autonomic nervous activity was
assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, we
evaluated the high-frequency components (HF) and the low- to high-frequency ratio (LF/HF ra-
tio), reecting parasympathetic nervous activity and sympathetic nervous activity, respectively.
The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Prole of Mood Status (POMS) were adminis-
tered to evaluate psychological status. The score of STAI and negative scale of POMS were sig-
nicantly reduced following the massage, and only the LF/HF ratio was signicantly enhanced
after the massage. It was concluded that the facial massage might refresh the subjects by reducing
their psychological distress and activating the sympathetic nervous system.
Body massage treating large muscles located in up-
per limb, shoulders and back brings many psycho-
logical and physiological effects such as decreasing
anxiety and depression, increasing attentiveness, re-
lieving stress and pain, and reducing blood pressure
(1–3, 10, 13).
 In the case of facial massage, a popular cosmetic
technique preferred by women, much anecdotal evi-
dence has been reported that facial massage can
enhance relaxation just as well as body massage.
However, very few studies have provided scientic
evidence, such as physiological or psychological
data. To date, only two studies (7, 17) have reported
the change in psychological parameters and electro-
encephalogram (EEG) data following aesthetic facial
massage. They observed higher subjective scores in
both general deactivation and deactivation-sleep fac-
tors, signicant reduction of anxiety, and a marked
attenuation of the alpha-waves accompanied by a
small increase in theta-waves during massage, an ef-
fect which they attributed to sleep induction by fa-
cial massage. Therefore, facial massage might have
positive effects not only on beauty, but also on psy-
chological status or cerebral activity.
 In the case of EEG, often measured in preceding
studies, it is difcult to avoid equipment noises and
the misalignment of electrodes in treating facial
muscles. Analysis of autonomic nervous activity us-
ing heart rate variability derived from electrocardio-
gram (ECG) through a chest lead is available as an
alternative physiological measurement. However,
there have been no studies evaluating the possible
effect of facial massage using such a method. Fur-
thermore, even though Inoue et al. (6) and Hughes
and Stoney (5) reported that changes in mood state
were associated with autonomic nervous system ac-
tivity, no study has investigated the effects of facial
massage from both physiological and psychological
 The present study therefore tested the following 2
Address correspondence to: Tomoko Hatayama
User Science Institute, Kyushu University
4-9-1 Shiobaru, Minami-ku, Fukuoka Japan 815-8540
Tel & Fax: +81-92-553-9458
This research was undertaken as outsourced work from
the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and
Technology (science and technology advancement ad-
justment expense; referred to as Kyushu University
User Science Institute).
T. Hatayama et al.318
low frequency (LF, 0.04–0.15 Hz) and high frequen-
cy (HF, 0.15–0.4 Hz). The ratio of LF power to HF
power (LF/HF ratio) was also assessed. The HF
component represents parasympathetic nervous ac-
tivity (11, 12) while the LF/HF component is a rep-
resentation of sympathetic nervous activity (8, 18).
POMS-short form. POMS-short form, which had
been shortened and translated into Japanese (19),
was administered. The POMS-short form comprised
of 30 questions about the current mood state. These
30 questions were classified in 6 sub-scales: T-A
(tension and anxiety), D (depression and dejection),
A-H (anger and hostility), V (vigor), F (fatigue),
and C (confusion). The subjects selected the raw
score from one of five values (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4,
where 0 = no such mood state and 4 = extreme
mood state). These raw scores in each sub-scale
were then added to generate each sub-scale score.
STAI-JYZ. The STAI (15) is a 20-item scale that
measures acute level of anxiety. The subjects select-
ed the raw score from one of four values (1, 2, 3
and 4, where 1 = not at all and 4 = very much). A
summary score is obtained by adding the weight of
each item. The STAI scores indicate an increase in
response to situational stress and a decline under re-
laxing conditions. In this study, STAI-JYZ, which
regards Japanese cultural factors better, was used.
The STAI-JYZ exhibits acceptable internal consis-
tency and test-retest reliability (4).
Statistical analysis. Each data was expressed as
means ± standard error (SE). Student’s paired t test
was used to evaluate, and statistics were calculated
with SPSS version 14 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois,
USA). Results were considered signicance at P<
LF/HF ratio remarkably increased from 0.81 ± 0.11
to 1.22 ± 0.19 after the massage (Fig. 1, P= 0.035),
even though the HF power and heart rate remained
unchanged (data not shown).
 Fig. 2 shows the differences in average scores be-
tween pre-massage and post-massage for the six
subscales of the POMS test. Most scores, which in-
dicate negative feelings, tended to decrease after the
massage. Especially, T-A (tension and anxiety) sig-
nicantly declined from 3.66 ± 0.62 to 1.16 ± 0.33,
and also F (fatigue) dropped 2.19 ± 0.58 to 0.81 ±
0.24 (P< 0.001). The anger and vigorous scores
1) There will be an enhancement of physiological
relaxed status in the activity of autonomic ner-
vous system assessed using a power spectral anal-
ysis of heart rate variability following a facial
2) There will be a reduction in psychological dis-
tress as evaluated using the Profile of Mood
States (POMS) and the State Trait Anxiety Inven-
tory (STAI) following a facial massage.
Subjects. Data was collected from 32 healthy Japa-
nese women ranging in age from 20 to 40 years
(mean, 28.5 years). After each subject had been
briefed on the objective and method of the experi-
ment, written informed consent was obtained.
Protocol. Measurements were carried out before and
after a facial massage in a private room set at an
ambient temperature average 26.8 ± 1.2°C. The fa-
cial massage consisted of four steps: (1) cleansing
with cleansing cream by hand, (2) removal of kera-
tin with steaming, (3) ultrasonic wave facial treat-
ment with gel, and (4) application of lotion for
moisture retention. The total time for this treatment
was 45 min and it was carried out by trained, expe-
rienced cosmetologists.
 The subjects were first asked to complete the
POMS-short form and STAI-JYZ in sitting position,
keeping the electrodes on their chests. The ECG
was recorded for 10 min both before and after the
massage, with subjects lying on their backs. The
data obtained between third to sixth minute was
used for power spectral analysis. The details of
measurement are described below.
Electrocardiogram procedures. ECG was recorded
with MWM-01 monitor (GMS Inc, Tokyo, Japan)
and was analyzed by the MemCalc system (Mem-
Calc/Makin2; GMS Inc) on an on-line computer
(VAIO, VGN-T70B; Sony Co., Tokyo, Japan).
 ECG was recorded from electrodes placed in the
CM5 position. In order to evaluate cardiac autonom-
ic nervous activity, a power spectral analysis of the
temporal intervals between heart beats (R-R inter-
vals) was used. Power spectral analyses using the
MemCalc system were performed for each 5 second
period. We obtained the R-R intervals (ms) as the
time domain index of heart rate variability (HRV).
The power of HRV was quantied by determining
the areas of the spectrum in 2 component widths:
The effects of facial massage 319
cal and psychological aspects, by evaluating auto-
nomic nervous activity and mental status.
 Anxiety in the STAI and negative moods in
POMS were significantly decreased following the
massage. These results are consistent with previous
ndings (10, 13). In the present study, the score of
the STAI and the negative scales of POMS at base-
line were slightly lower as compared with the corre-
sponding normal values for healthy women cited in
the guidelines of Japanese version of the STAI and
POMS. Despite relatively low negative psychologi-
cal scores before the facial massage, the scores fol-
lowing facial massage significantly decreased, as
well as body massage. These results suggested that
the facial massage had strong effects on stress alle-
viation or psychological relaxation.
 Contrary to our prediction, sympathetic nervous
activity increased following the massage. It is spec-
ulated that the discrepancy was simply due to differ-
ences in the timing of measurement. According to
preceding studies, heart rate and LF/HF ratio de-
clined during the massage, but these affects almost
subsided shortly after massage (13, 16). It is not
surprising that parasympathetic nervous activity was
enhanced during the massage, because the subjects
stayed in a relaxed position or their eyes closed dur-
ing the massage.
 Selye (14) once announced that a stressor, which
was a stimulus inducing a stress reaction to biologi-
cal body, could not only be distress but also eu-
stress. Eustress contains positive stimuli such as
showed no signicant changes.
 Similarly, the score for anxiety in the STAI sig-
nicantly declined from 36.25 ± 1.33 to 28.25 ± 1.04
following the massage (P< 0.001).
To date, many studies have reported positive psy-
chological and physiological effects of body mas-
sage when performed as a method of psychosomatic
conditioning. However, very little research exists on
aesthetic facial massage, which is usually performed
expecting not psychosomatic treatment but rather
beautication of facial skin. We therefore examined
the effects of facial massage from both physiologi-
Fig. 1 Change of LF/HF ratio before and after facial mas-
sage. Error bars indicate ± SE, n = 32, *:P< 0.05
Fig. 2 Changes in mean POMS test score before and after facial massage. Each value represents the mean score for six
sub-scales of the POMS test, and is expressed as the mean ± SE (n = 32, *:P< 0.05). T-A (tension and anxiety), D (depres-
sion and dejection), A-H (anger and hostility), V (vigor), F (fatigue), and C (confusion).
T. Hatayama et al.320
taking a bath, deep or sweet sleep, mental satisfac-
tion, and so on (9). It was thus speculated that the
increased sympathetic nervous activity following the
facial massage in the present study might be a posi-
tive stress reaction to a stressor which is classied
as eustress. Taking these results into consideration,
such a mixed status of psychologically relaxed and
physically-activated might well be regarded as re-
freshment rather than relaxation.
 Heart rate after facial massage did not change
compared to pre-massage values in the present
study. It was guessed that the facial massage treat-
ing relatively-small facial muscles did not change
the circulation as much as heart rate was affected.
 In conclusion, the present study could demon-
strate that facial massage reduces psychological dis-
tress and activates the subjects physically. Taken
together, it might be reasonable that facial massage
originally performed as a cosmetic treatment has an
effect of refreshment rather than relaxation. Thus, it
is expected that using psychological and physiologi-
cal evaluation methods simultaneously enables us to
extract more appropriate information and better as-
sess the effects of various stimuli.
 The present study had several limitations, such as
the lack of measurement during the massage period
and a control group. Further study should be de-
signed as a randomized controlled trial, and the data
should be continuously collected through the experi-
This research was nancially supported by Tina-pri
Corporation. We thank the massage therapists and
the assistants who helped with this research.
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... Regarding previous studies about the physiological response to passive touch, the modulation of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) dynamics has been observed through the analysis of several physiological signals, such as Heart Rate Variability (HRV), electrodermal activity, and respiration dynamics [19], [20], [21], [22], [23]. Inconsistent results were reported concerning previous studies using HRV series to objectively assess touch massage. ...
... Inconsistent results were reported concerning previous studies using HRV series to objectively assess touch massage. For example, after the massage, an increased parasympathetic activity [24] and sympathetic activity [21] were observed. However, other studies suggested a decreased parasympathetic activity after a touch massage on hands and feet [19], [25]. ...
This study reports on how velocity and force levels of caress-like haptic stimuli can elicit different emotional responses, which can be identified through the analysis of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) dynamics. Affective stimuli were administered on the forearm of 32 healthy volunteers (16 women) through a haptic device with two levels of force, 2 N and 6 N, and two levels of velocity, 9.4 mm/s and 37 mm/s. ANS dynamics was estimated through Heart Rate Variability (HRV) linear and nonlinear analysis on recordings gathered before and after each stimulus. To this extent, we here propose and assess novel features from HRV symbolic analysis and Lagged Poincaré Plot. Classification was performed following a leave-one-subject-out procedure on nonlinear support vector machines. Pattern classification was split according to gender, significantly improving accuracies of recognition with respect to a "all-subjects" classification. Caressing force and velocity levels were recognized with up to 80% accuracy for men, and up to 84.38% for women. Our results demonstrate that changes in ANS control on cardiovascular dynamics, following emotional changes induced by caress-like haptic stimuli, can be effectively recognized by the proposed computational approach, considering that they occur in a gender-specific and nonlinear manner.
... To achieve the myorelaxation effect with low CNS impact, metaxalone is recommended (average daily dose of 800 mg) [34]. In chronic pain, apart from analgesics which are used for pain relief [35], antidepressants should be considered as a supplementary treatment [36]. Antidepressants may be used for chronic pain as a primary analgesic. ...
... Furthermore, the use of certain hand motions during FSC is expected to have beneficial physiological effects. FSC of Japanese woman has also been reported to influence autonomic nerve system (ANS) activity [3][4][5][6][7]. Alternatively, facial massage by hand is thought to provide physical stimulation to both skin and muscle, leading to morphological and physical improvement [8,9]. ...
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Background: Facial skin care (FSC) is an important routine for Japanese women. Hand motions during FSC physically affect psychological state. However, it is very difficult to evaluate hand motions during personal and complex FSC. The objective of this study was to find out objective and quantitative parameters for hand motions during facial skin care (FSC). Women who enjoy and soothe during FSC (Enjoyment group (E group), n = 20) or not (non-enjoyment group (NE group), n = 19) were recruited by an advance questionnaire. The same lotion, emulsion, and cream were provided to all subjects, and they used sequentially in the same way as the women's daily FSC. The motion of the marker on the back side of the right middle finger during FSC was tracked by a motion capture system. The heart rate variability (HRV) was also measured before and after FSC for evaluating psychological effect. Results: The averaged acceleration (Avg. ACC), approximate entropy (ApEn), and power law scaling exponent (Rest γ) of the cumulative duration of slow motion from the sequential data of acceleration were evaluated. Compared to the NE group, the E group showed a lower Avg. ACC when using emulsion (p = 0.005) and cream (p = 0.007), a lower ApEn when using emulsion (p = 0.003), and a lower Rest γ (p = 0.024) when using all items, suggesting that compared to the NE group, the E group had more tender and regular motion, and sustainable slow motions, especially in the use of emulsion. In the E group, the low/high-frequency component of HRV decreased significantly after FSC, suggesting suppression of sympathetic activity (p = 0.045). NE group did not. For all subjects, ApEn and Rest γ showed significantly positive correlation with the increase in the low/high-frequency component of HRV after FSC (p < 0.01). ApEn showed significantly negative correlation with the increase in the high-frequency component of HRV after FSC (p < 0.05). Avg. ACC did not show significant correlation with them. These results suggested that the behavior of FSC influences the autonomic nerve system. Conclusions: ApEn and Rest γ are useful parameters for evaluating quality of hand motions during FSC.
... In sports, the HRV has been used as a tool for diagnostic performance and monitoring training 24) , which also has been recognized as a useful method for the measurement of fatigue [25][26][27][28] . Previous studies have shown that manual massage or a combination of other methods can enhance the HRV, such as, myofascial trigger-point massage therapy can significantly increase the parasympathetic activity 18) , facial massage can enhance the LF/HF 29) , self-massage combined with home exercise can increase the rate of LF and HF 30) , head-neck massage showed a significant interaction for HRV index 31) , massage therapy with a range of motions had a positive effect on HRV development 32) , traditional Thai massage increased HF and total power frequency 33) . In our study, only frequency domain indices had significant differences, and no significant differences existed in any of the time domain indices. ...
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[Purpose] The study aimed to preliminarily investigate the effects of mechanical-bed massage on exercise-induced back fatigue in athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve male college athletes, randomly allocated to experimental or control groups, were instructed to perform reverse sit-up for 8 sessions until they became fatigued. The experimental group received a 20-min mechanical-bed massage session, while the control group rested on a bed for the same period of time. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) on perceived back muscle fatigue, back muscle endurance, and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) parameters including stress index (SI), HRV index, SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, LF, HF, and LF/HF were analyzed. [Results] Immediately and 24 hours after the intervention, the VAS significantly differed between the groups. Experimental group’s HF was significantly higher immediately after the intervention than control group. Experimental group’s LF and LF/HF were significantly lower immediately after the intervention than the control group. [Conclusion] Mechanical bed massage may help athletes overcome the subjective feelings of exercise-induced fatigue, modulate the automatic nervous system activity, especially for balancing sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Therefore, mechanical bed massage may facilitate recovery from muscle and central fatigue after athlete training or competition.
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60 ‫ﺑﺴـﺘﺮي‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺴـﺘﺮﻛﺘﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤـﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻤﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻤﺎرﺳﺘﺎن‬ ‫در‬ ‫وﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻋﺼﺮ‬) ‫ﻋﺞ‬ (‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺮان‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﻌﺘﻲ‬ ‫و‬ 1391 ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫روش‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺨـﺎب‬ ‫آﺳـﺎن‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮي‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺎدﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ 2 ‫ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺪاﺧﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮوه‬. ‫در‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﭘـﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳـﺎژ‬ ‫ﻣﺪاﺧﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮوه‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻤﺎران‬ 3 ‫ﺟﻠﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﻲ‬ ‫در‬ 3 ‫ﻣﺘﻮ‬ ‫روز‬ ‫اﻟﻲ‬) ‫ﺟﻠﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ 20 ‫دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬ (‫ﻛﺮدﻧﺪ‬ ‫درﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬. ‫ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﮋوﻫﺸـﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮل‬ ‫ﮔﺮوه‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻤﺎران‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﺪت‬ 20 ‫ﺣﻀﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻤﺎران‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺎر‬ ‫در‬ ‫دﻗﻴﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬. ‫در‬ ‫اﺿﻄﺮاب‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﺶ‬ 7 ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ‬ 2 ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﺒـﻞ‬ ‫ﮔـﺮوه،‬ 30 ‫دﻗﻴﻘـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪاﺧﻠﻪ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫روز‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫در‬ ‫اﺷﭙﻴﻞ‬ ‫آﺷﻜﺎر‬ ‫اﺿﻄﺮاب‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺳﺸﻨﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔـﺮ‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‬. ‫داده‬ ‫اﻧﺪازه‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫وارﻳﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫آزﻣﻮن‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺮاري‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮي‬ ‫ﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬. ‫ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ : ‫ﻧـﺪاد‬ ‫ﻧﺸـﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎداري‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎوت‬ ‫ﮔﺮوه‬ ‫دو‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﺪاﺧﻠﻪ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫روز‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫آﺷﻜﺎر‬ ‫اﺿﻄﺮاب‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﮔﺮوه‬ ‫دو‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﺪاﺧﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎر‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫اﺿﻄﺮاب‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺮه‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻧﮕﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮات‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎدار‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼف‬ ‫ز‬. ‫داد‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎدار‬ ‫آﻣﺎري‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼف‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﮔﺮوه‬ ‫دو‬ ‫اﺿﻄﺮاب‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺮه‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻧﮕﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ‬) 001 / 0 p< (. ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮي‬ : ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﺎژ‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﮔﻴﺮي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻤﺎران‬ ‫اﺿﻄﺮاب‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ‬ ‫دﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺴﺘﺮﻛﺘﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ .
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Manual massage, commonly used by healthy individuals for well-being, is an ancient practice requiring the intervention of a trained and experienced physiotherapist. On the other hand, automated massage is carried out by machines or modalities without or with minimal control of a human operator. In the present review, we provide a literature analysis to gather the effects of automated massage on muscle properties, peripheral circulation and psychophysiological variables as reported through psychometric and neurophysiological evaluations of each modality ranging from massage beds and whole-body vibrations to robotic massage. A computerized search was performed in Google Scholar, PubMed, and ResearchGate using selected key search terms, and the relevant data were extracted. The findings of this review indicate that for vibration massage, whole-body vibration exposure with relatively lower frequency and magnitude can be safely and effectively used to induce improvements in peripheral circulation. As for massage chair and mechanical bed massage, while most studies report on positive changes, the lack of strong clinical evidence renders these findings largely inconclusive. As for robotic massage, we discuss whether technological advances and collaborative robots might reconcile active and passive modes of action control during a massage and offer new massage perspectives through a stochastic sensorimotor user experience. This transition faculty, from one mode of control to the other, might definitely represent an innovative conceptual approach in terms of human–machine interactions.
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Background and Objectives: Massage is one of the ancient therapeutic methods, which has been considered and used by all nations. In the past, massage has been used to maintain health and treat diseases, that has continued until the present time. This review study was performed with the purpose of achieving applications and mechanisms of current and traditional massages. Methods: Google Scholar and PubMed Databases, were searched to find out the mechanisms and applications of popular massages and software of Teb Jame (version 1), was used to investigate and search references of Iranian traditional medicine. Results: In this study, 75 articles were obtained from the databases and the contents of 19 books of authentic Iranian medicine books were used and notated. The current massages of tactile massage, classical massage, connective tissue massage, and manual lymphatic drainage therapy, were studied and traditional massages of Tuina, Abhyang, and Dalk, were evaluated and compared with them. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the mechanism of current massage exists in the traditional massage, but traditional massages have their own special mechanisms based on their medical philosophy. Different types of massages have their own special applications. Dalk can be a comprehensive approach for non-drug prevention and treatment due to its capability to adjust all ages and all temperaments.
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In 57 normal subjects (age 20-60 years), we analyzed the spontaneous beat-to-beat oscillation in R-R interval during control recumbent position, 90° upright tilt, controlled respiration (n = 16) and acute (n = 10) and chronic (n = 12) β-adrenergic receptor blockade. Automatic computer analysis provided the autoregressive power spectral density, as well as the number and relative power of the individual components. The power spectral density of R-R interval variability contained two major components in power, a high frequency at ~ 0.25 Hz and a low frequency at ~ 0.1 Hz, with a normalized low frequency: high frequency ratio of 3.6 ± 0.7. With tilt, the low-frequency component became largely predominant (90 ± 1%) with a low frequency: high frequency ratio of 21 ± 4. Acute β-adrenergic receptor blockade (0.2 mg/kg IV propranolol) increased variance at rest and markedly blunted the increase in low frequency and low frequency: high frequency ratio induced by tilt. Chronic β-adrenergic receptor blockade (0.6 mg/kg p.o. propranolol, t.i.d.), in addition, reduced low frequency and increased high frequency at rest, while limiting the low frequency: high frequency ratio increase produced by tilt. Controlled respiration produced at rest a marked increase in the high-frequency component, with a reduction of the low-frequency component and of the low frequency: high frequency ratio (0.7 ± 0.1); during tilt, the increase in the low frequency: high frequency ratio (8.3 ± 1.6) was significantly smaller. In seven additional subjects in whom direct high-fidelity arterial pressure was recorded, simultaneous R-R interval and arterial pressure variabilities were examined at rest and during tilt. Also, the power spectral density of arterial pressure variability contained two major components, with a relative low frequency: high frequency ratio at rest of 2.8 ± 0.7, which became 17 ± 5 with tilt. These power spectral density components were numerically similar to those observed in R-R variability. Thus, invasive and noninvasive studies provided similar results. More direct information on the role of cardiac sympathetic nerves on R-R and arterial pressure variabilities was derived from a group of experiments in conscious dogs before and after bilateral stellectomy. Under control conditions, high frequency was predominant and low frequency was very small or absent, owing to a predominant vagal tone. During a 9% decrease in arterial pressure obtained with IV nitroglycerin, there was a marked increase in low frequency, as a result of reflex sympathetic activation. Bilateral stellectomy prevented this low-frequency increase in R-R but not in arterial pressure autospectra, indicating that sympathetic nerves to the heart are instrumental in the genesis of low-frequency oscillations in R-R interval.
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Twenty-six adults were given a chair massage and 24 control group adults were asked to relax in the massage chair for 15 minutes, two times per week for five weeks. On the first and last days of the study they were monitored for EEG, before, during and after the sessions. In addition, before and after the sessions they performed math computations, they completed POMS Depression and State Anxiety Scales and they provided a saliva sample for Cortisol. At the beginning of the sessions they completed Life Events, Job Stress and Chronic POMS Depression Scales. Group by repeated measures and post hoc analyses revealed the following: 1) frontal delta power increased for both groups, suggesting relaxation; 2) the massage group showed decreased frontal alpha and beta power (suggesting enhanced alertness); while the control group showed increased alpha and beta power; 3) the massage group showed increased speed and accuracy on math computations while the control group did not change; 4) anxiety levels were lower following the massage but not the control sessions, although mood state was less depressed following both the massage and control sessions; 5) salivary Cortisol levels were lower following the massage but not the control sessions but only on the first day; and 6) at the end of the 5 week period depression scores were lower for both groups but job stress scores were lower only for the massage group.
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Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuations provides a quantitative noninvasive means of assessing the functioning of the short-term cardiovascular control systems. We show that sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity make frequency-specific contributions to the heart rate power spectrum, and that renin-angiotensin system activity strongly modulates the amplitude of the spectral peak located at 0.04 hertz. Our data therefore provide evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays a significant role in short-term cardiovascular control in the time scale of seconds to minutes.
A 30-minute back massage was given daily for a 5-day period to 52 hospitalized depressed and adjustment disorder children and adolescents. Compared with a control group who viewed relaxing videotapes, the massaged subjects were less depressed and anxious and had lower saliva cortisol levels after the massage. In addition, nurses rated the subjects as being less anxious and more cooperative on the last day of the study, and nighttime sleep increased over this period. Finally, urinary cortisol and norepinephrine levels decreased, but only for the depressed subjects.
Beat-to-beat changes observed in cardiac vagal and sympathetic nerve activity and their effects on cardiac cycle length were studied during slow wave blood pressure and heart rate fluctuations (third order rhythm) and during respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Recordings were made from both nerves simultaneously in chloralose anesthetized and artificially ventilated dogs. During slow wave fluctuations in heart rate, a linear relationship was found to exist between the number of spikes per pulse interval recorded from vagal and sympathetic nerves and the length of pulse intervals. During respiratory sinus arrhythmia the time course of rhythmic changes in nerve activity and in cardiac cycle length was analyzed. Comparison of time courses indicated that vagal discharges affected the timing of not the following beat, but the one after; while the sympathetic effect was further delayed, affecting the third beat after the discharge. Baroreceptor stimulation, which resulted in lengthening the cardiac cycle, shifted this relationship by one cycle, i.e. vagal discharges affecting the occurrence of the following beat, while sympathetic discharges affecting the beat after. These results provide evidence for the conclusion that in dogs both vagal and sympathetic nerve activity contribute to the control of cardiac cycle length, however, with different time relations and effectiveness.
Previous studies suggested that heart rate (HR) time series may be more appropriately analyzed by nonlinear techniques because of the nonlinear nature of these data. In this study, we quantified the complexity of the HR time series, using fractal dimension, a previously described measure developed to study axonal growth, which quantifies the space-filling propensity and convolutedness of a waveform, and compared these results with another recently used measure, approximate entropy. Fractal dimension and approximate entropy of HR time series (unfiltered) correlate highly with each other and also with the high-frequency power (0.2-0.5 Hz) and, hence, appear to reflect vagal modulation of HR variability. These measures were also statistically more consistent and effective than measures of spectral analysis. Fractal dimension of the midfrequency time series of HR (filtered with a pass band of 0.05-0.15 Hz) also appears to be a statistically effective measure of relative sympathetic activity, especially in the standing posture.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depressed mood and parasympathetic control of the heart in healthy men and women at rest and during two stressors. Fifty-three healthy college students completed a laboratory stress protocol that included a baseline resting period, a challenging speech task, and a forehead cold pressor task. Depressed mood was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Parasympathetic cardiac control was measured as the high-frequency (0.12-0.40 Hz) component (HF) of heart rate variability using power spectrum analysis. Blood pressure, respiration rate, and respiration amplitude were measured simultaneously. Participants were categorized as having a high or low depressed mood on the basis of median splits of their BDI scores. Those in the high depressed mood group had significantly greater reductions in HF during the speech task and significantly smaller increases in HF during the forehead cold pressor task than those in the low depressed mood group. Women had significantly greater reductions in HF during the speech task and smaller increases in HF during the forehead cold pressor task than men. However, gender and depressed mood did not interact to predict changes in HF. Depressed mood is related to the magnitude of decrease in parasympathetic cardiac control during stressors in healthy men and women. These findings extend those of previous studies, in which a similar phenomenon was observed among patients with cardiac disease. Because the participants in this study were healthy, the relationship between depressed mood and parasympathetic cardiac control does not seem to be secondary to cardiovascular disease.