The Effects of Survey Question Wording on Rape Estimates
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Violence Against Women
(Impact Factor: 1.33).
03/2009; 15(2):133-47. DOI: 10.1177/1077801208329391
The measurement of rape is among the leading methodological issues in the violence against women field. Methodological discussion continues to focus on decreasing measurement errors and improving the accuracy of rape estimates. The current study used a quasi-experimental design to examine the effect of survey question wording on estimates of completed and attempted rape and verbal threats of rape. Specifically, the study statistically compares self-reported rape estimates from two nationally representative studies of college women's sexual victimization experiences, the National College Women Sexual Victimization study and the National Violence Against College Women study. Results show significant differences between the two sets of rape estimates, with National Violence Against College Women study rape estimates ranging from 4.4% to 10.4% lower than the National College Women Sexual Victimization study rape estimates. Implications for future methodological research are discussed.
Available from: Ruchira Naved
- "Elaborate staff training, careful sequencing of violence related questions for avoiding participant fatigue, use of behaviorally explicit multiple questions on sexual violence, fieldwork approaches in creating a supportive environment for disclosure of violence, and making psychological support available for field workers in their very difficult role in the current study might have contributed to greater reporting. As shown in the literature, some of these elements do yield higher reporting (Ellsberg, Heise, Pena, Agurto, & Winkvist, 2001; Fisher, 2009). "
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ABSTRACT: This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.
Available from: Cris M Sullivan
- "Numerous studies have found that women involved in the criminal justice system have high rates of both physical and sexual assault, and that rates can vary depending on how the questions are framed (Fisher, 2009; McDaniels- Wilson & Belknap, 2009; Wolff, Shi, & Bachman, 2008). Definitions of what constitutes physical and=or sexual abuse may vary by individual and often depend on life experiences and the stigma associated with identifying as a victim (Fowler, Blackburn, Marquart, & Mullings, 2010; Kahn, Jackson, Kully, Badger, & Halvorsen, 2003). "
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ABSTRACT: Definitions vary on what constitutes sexual and/or physical abuse, and scholars have debated on which methods might yield the most accurate response rates for capturing this sensitive information. Although some studies suggest respondents prefer methods that provide anonymity, previous studies have not utilized high-risk or stigmatized populations. In this article, the authors report on serendipitous findings when using two methods to assess the past year incidence of sexual and physical violence among women involved in the criminal justice system. Women who participated in an anonymous survey reported higher physical and sexual victimization than did the women who were interviewed, even though the questions were identical. Implications of the findings are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Summary form only given. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is often used for the growth of Silicon Carbide (SiC) films. The precursor gases, silane and methane, flow through a quartz tube at atmospheric pressure with a graphite susceptor located downstream of the inter. The conventional method for growing SiC films is to heat the susceptor by low frequency (kHz) RF which in turn heats the gas by thermal transfer up to several thousand K and forms reactive species near the growth substrate. The high temperature and pressure of the gas is thought to be one cause of film defects such as micropipes. An alternative approach, plasma-enhanced CVD, can be applied wherein, an upstream plasma forms reactive species in non-equilibrium conditions. The neutral gas temperature and pressure may then be substantially reduced, while defects are reduced as long as the destructive effects of ion bombardment are limited. The present research focuses on the design of a two stage RF reactor in which a high frequency RF (MHz) antenna is added upstream of the substrate to form the plasma. We have developed a 1-D flow code to investigate various design options for the reactor. The model includes electromagnetic coupling, electron heating and plasma chemistry involving silane and methane reactions. 37 species and 183 reactions are considered. The model addresses kinetic and transport properties which occur in the gas phase and can be used to predict the axial profiles of the electron and gas temperature, neutral and charged species and particle and energy fluxes. We report on the impact of the design parameters: input power, gas pressure, RF frequency, flow rate, and tube dimensions
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