Tumor-necrosis factor-α induces retinoic acid-inducible gene-I in rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes
Department of Vascular Biology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan.Immunology letters (Impact Factor: 2.51). 02/2009; 122(1):89-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.imlet.2008.12.005
Tumor-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent proinflammtory cytokine and a key molecule in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is a DExH box protein, which is known to play a role in the inflammatory and immune reactions. We previously reported about potential involvement of RIG-I in synovial inflammation in RA. In the present study, we demonstrated the expression of RIG-I in fibroblast-like synoviocytes stimulated with TNF-alpha. RNA interference against interferon (IFN)-beta abolished the TNF-alpha-induced RIG-I expression. In addition, knockdown of RIG-I partially inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced expression of CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 5, a chemokine with chemotactic activity toward lymphocytes and monocytes. These findings suggest that the TNF-alpha/IFN-beta/RIG-I/CCL5 pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of synovial inflammation in RA.
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- "The prolonged life span of activated synoviocytes accelerates synovial hyperplasia, pannus, and the destruction of cartilage and bone5. In response to inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), activated synovial fibroblasts produce chemokines which promote inflammation, neovascularization, and cartilage degradation678. Of these cytokines, TNFα plays a major role in the activation and survival of synoviocytes in RA pathogenesis910. In that context, TNF inhibitors have been widely used in clinic as directly suppressing TNFα release. "
ABSTRACT: Background & objectives: To study effects of drugs against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes or fibroblast like synoviocytes (FLS) are used. To overcome the drawbacks of using FLS, this study was conducted to show the validity of SW982 synovial cell line in RA study. Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Annexin V propidium iodide (PI) staining, mitochondrial membrane potential assay, Triton X-114 Phase partitioning, and immunolot for apoptosis signaling in SW982 human synovial cell line were performed. Results: Fluvastatin induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in TNFα -stimulated SW982 human synovial cells. A geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGPP) inhibitor, but not a farnesylpyrophosphate (FPP) inhibitor, induced apoptosis, and fluvastatin-induced apoptosis was associated with the translocation of isoprenylated RhoA and Rac1 proteins from the cell membrane to the cytosol. Fluvastatin-induced downstream apoptotic signals were associated with inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Accordingly, 89 kDa apoptotic cleavage fragment of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was detected. Interpretation & conclusions: Collectively, our data indicate that fluvastatin induces apoptotic cell death in TNFα-stimulated SW982 human synovial cells through the inactivation of the geranylgerenylated membrane fraction of RhoA and Rac1 proteins and the subsequent inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This finding shows the validity of SW982 cell line for RA study.
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ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) are found in the serum of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. However, the mechanism by which anti-dsDNA antibodies (Abs) contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated four anti-dsDNA mouse monoclonal autoantibodies that share positively charged amino acids (including arginines) in their complementarity determining regions for their ability to penetrate RAW264.7 macrophage cells, activate NF-kappaB and stimulate TNF-alpha production. All four antibodies penetrated into macrophage cells and increased the level of extracellular TNF-alpha; two also activated NF-kappaB. The fact that two of four cell-penetrating anti-dsDNA mAbs induced both NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha production in macrophages suggests that at least some autoantibodies against dsDNA may play a role in the pathogenesis of SLE by penetrating into macrophage cells and nuclei, and subsequently inducing the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha, by binding to the NF-kappaB gene and stimulating its transcriptional activity.
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ABSTRACT: Antiviral innate immunity is triggered by sensing viral nucleic acids. RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I) is an intracellular molecule that responds to viral nucleic acids and activates downstream signaling, resulting in the induction of members of the type I interferon (IFN) family, which are regarded among the most important effectors of the innate immune system. Although RIG-I is expressed ubiquitously in the cytoplasm, its levels are subject to transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. RIG-I belongs to the IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) family, but certain cells regulate its expression through IFN-independent mechanisms. Several lines of evidence indicate that deregulated RIG-I signaling is associated with autoimmune disorders. Further studies suggest that RIG-I has functions in addition to those directly related to its role in RNA sensing and host defense. We have much to learn and discover regarding this interesting cytoplasmic sensor so that we can capitalize on its properties for the treatment of viral infections, immune disorders, cancer, and perhaps other conditions.
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