Article

Effect of oil-pulling on dental caries causing bacteria

Authors:
  • Govt Arts College Melur
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The effect of oil-pulling on the reduction of total count of bacteria was determined. There was a remarkable reduction in the total count of bacteria. The process of oil-pulling reduced the susceptibility of a host to dental caries. The in-vitro antibacterial activity of sesame oil against dental caries causing bacteria was determined. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus were found to be moderately sensitive to the sesame oil.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Oil pulling should be ideally performed daily morning on empty stomach before brushing teeth and care should be taken that oil is not swallowed. 4,10,11 Swallowing of oil during oil pulling should be avoided as the oil contains bacteria and toxins. 12 Oil pulling is best practiced in sitting position with chin up. ...
... 4 Root of Sesame (Sesamum indicum) contains chlorosesamone which has antifungal activity. 10 Also polyunsaturated fatty acids present in sesame oil reduces free radical injury occurring in oral cavity. 3 Oil pulling generates antioxidants which damage the cell wall of microorganisms and kill them. ...
... They mentioned that toxins and bacteria from the body may be removed through the tongue and get trapped in oil and thrown out from the body. 10 Four researchers in their study involving 60 adolescents of age 16e18 years with plaque induced gingivitis, observed statistically significant reduction of plaque and gingival indices upon oil pulling using coconut oil. Subjects performed oil pulling in early morning at empty stomach in addition to their routine oral hygiene measures such as brushing and flossing. ...
Article
Full-text available
Oil pulling is a traditional folk remedy practiced in ancient India. It is believed to cure more than thirty systemic diseases when practiced regularly and as directed. Due to occurrence of side effects to modern medicines and oral hygiene products, people are increasingly attracted towards complementary and traditional practices. Oil pulling in addition to offering several oral health benefits has also beneficial effects on overall health. The present article attempts to review and discuss this ancient practice.
... Nigella oil was reported to contain many substances like thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, negillicine, negillidine, and nigellimine [56] that have effects against microorganisms. The results obtained on the low MIC and MBC of sesame on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus was in accordance with the result reported by Mohammed et al. [55], Anand et al. [57] also reported that sesame oil is found to have antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and total bacteria. This type of screening by using sesame and nigella oil with very effective antibacterial activity could be promising for future application in cosmetic formulations [57]. ...
... The results obtained on the low MIC and MBC of sesame on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus was in accordance with the result reported by Mohammed et al. [55], Anand et al. [57] also reported that sesame oil is found to have antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and total bacteria. This type of screening by using sesame and nigella oil with very effective antibacterial activity could be promising for future application in cosmetic formulations [57]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the years, the cosmetic industry has offered a large variety of products that brought out the problems of stability, cost, and scouring couple with the growing effect of bacteria resistance. This research was carried out to determine the chemical and antibacterial properties of lipids extracted from plants commonly used in cosmetics. To achieve this, the physicochemical and phytochemical compositions as well as the antibacterial activity of six oil seeds and fruits: moringa (Moringa oleifeira), black seed (Nigella sativa), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), sesame (Sesamum indicum), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and avocado (Persea Americana) was analysed. The oils were extracted and lipid quality (acid value, saponification value, iodine value, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and unsaponifiable matter) analysed as well as their phytochemical screening. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Results revealed that iodine values of avocado, sesame, moringa, cocoa, coconut, and nigella were 72.89; 74.18; 73.45; 69.54; 70.35, and 61.11(gI 2 /100g) respectively. Peroxide values and %FFA ranged between [0.03 to 7.06 meqO 2 /Kg] and [8.42 to 20.70%] respectively. The unsaponifiable matter was 0.18; 0.64; 0.21; 0.25; 0.02 and 0.54% for avocado, sesame, moringa, cocoa, coconut and nigella respectively. These values indicate that these oils can be stable during storage. All the seeds and fruits oils extracted contained polyphenols, saponin, alkaloids, and terpenoids reported as classes of metabolites having antioxidant activities. Coconut, sesame, nigella, and moringa oils exhibited high antibacterial activity against selected microorganisms. These results suggest that studied oils may have cosmeceutical and technological applications in cosmetics.
... [1] The oral cavity consists of wide variety of bacteria, but only a few specific species of bacteria cause dental caries: Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli are among the most important bacteria. [2] that facilitate adherence and accumulation of S. mutans and other oral bacteria. The biofilm formation is influenced by the amount of glucosyltransferase produced by S. mutans. ...
... the most common pathogen isolated from human dental plaque and their prevalence has been reported in several epidemiological studies. [2,4] Lactobacilli may be found in the mouth before the teeth erupt; and they are known to preferentially colonize the dorsum of the tongue and are also carried into saliva by the sloughing of the tongue's epithelium. Their numbers in saliva reflects the consumption of simple carbohydrates by the host. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To evaluate the antibacterial activity of black pepper, Indian bay leaf, cinnamon, and cumin against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in-vitro and to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Materials and Methods The spices (cinnamon, cumin, Indian bay leaf, and black pepper) were obtained from local market, were dried and powdered. Solvent extracts were prepared with methanol by maceration, followed by filtration and evaporation. The antimicrobial activity was assessed using cup plate diffusion method, followed by determination of MIC of the extracts. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc test was used for pairwise comparison. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results All the four extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity. Cinnamon demonstrated maximum activity against S. mutans (zone of inhibition of 18.1 mm ± 0.30) and L. acidophilus (zone of inhibition of 17.9 mm ± 0.44) with the least MIC against the organisms (<0.05 mg/ml). Conclusion All the spice extracts tested demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and L. acidophilus . On comparison of the antibacterial activities of all the four extracts, cinnamon extract emerged as the potent agent.
... Sesame oil is found to be effective in reducing bacterial growth and adhesion. [18] It contains high amounts of linoleic acid and oleic acid (unsaturated fatty acids). [19] Oil pulling therapy with sesame oil was proved to have an effect in the reduction of S. mutans count in plaque and saliva. ...
... The reduction of total count of bacteria ranged from 10% to 33.4%. [18] The average reduction of total count of bacteria was 20% after 40 days of oil-pulling. Therefore, the sesame oil is found to be effective in reducing bacterial growth and adhesion. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Oil pulling as described in ancient Ayurveda involves the use of edible vegetable oils as oral antibacterial agents. It is a practice of swishing oil in the mouth for oral and systemic health benefits. Pure coconut oil has antimicrobial properties and is commonly available in all Indian households. Aim: This study aims to assess the effect of oil pulling therapy with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans count and to compare its efficacy against sesame oil and saline. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled concurrent parallel- triple blinded clinical trial was conducted. Thirty participants in age range of 20–23 years were randomly allocated into Group A (coconut oil), Group B (sesame oil), and Group C (saline), with 10 in each group. The participants were instructed to swish and pull 10 ml of oil on empty stomach, early morning for 10–15 min. Unstimulated saliva collected before and after oil pulling procedure was analyzed for colony forming units (CFU) per ml saliva of S. mutans. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, ANOVA, and post hoc analysis using Tukey's honest significant difference. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A statistically significant reduction in S. mutans CFU count after oil pulling with pure coconut oil (P = 0.001) was found. There was no statistically significant difference between sesame oil and coconut oil (P = 0.97) and between sesame oil and saline (P = 0.061). When efficacy of coconut oil against saline was evaluated, a statistical significant difference (P = 0.039) was found. Conclusion: Oil pulling is an effective method for oral hygiene maintenance as it significantly reduces S. mutans count in the saliva.
... After this incubation period, the number of colonies present in 1 ml of the saline is calculated. 4 Colony count is calculated by the formula Number of bacteria/ml = Number of colonies dilution × Amount plated ...
... However, no significant reduction was seen in the case of group A. Mean scores indicate that there is an increase in no. of colonies after 45 days in the case of group A. (2-tailed) 0.007 0.120 -**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) in bacterial count after oil pulling and reduced susceptibility of a host to dental caries. 4 Oil pulling is an ancient Indian folk remedy which is described in Ayurvedic texts like Charaka Samhita. It is known to have dental benefits and also 30 other systemic benefits. ...
... Based on historical findings, we reconstituted three traditional plant-based remedies in sesame oil, Kalanchoe pinnata or "Parnabeeja," Ocimum tenuiflorum or "Tulsi," Cynodon dactylon or "Durva." Sesame seed oil (Sesamum indicum) is known to possess antimicrobial properties (Nigam et al., 2015;Heidari-Soureshjani, 2016;Lavaee et al., 2019), and is widely used as an "oil pulling" agent to combat dental plaque formation (Anand et al., 2008;Thaweboon et al., 2011;Naseem et al., 2017;Shanbhag, 2017). In an in vitro model of oral infection with saliva-coated microtiter plates, sesame oil displayed antibacterial activity against S. mutans biofilms. ...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional plant-based remedies hold vast potential as novel antimicrobial agents, particularly for recalcitrant infection states such as biofilms. To explore their potential, it is important to bring these remedies out of historical treatises, and into present-day scientific evaluation. Using an example of Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda), we present a perspective toward evaluating historical remedies for anti-biofilm potential. Across compendia, we identified three plant-based remedies (of Kalanchoe pinnata, Cynodon dactylon, and Ocimum tenuiflorum) recommended for wounds. The remedies were reconstituted in accordance with historical practices, and tested for their effects on biofilm formation and eradication assays of wound pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Based on our approach and the results obtained, we provide insights into the considerations and challenges related to identifying potential remedies in historical texts, and testing them in the laboratory with standard biofilm assays. We believe this will be relevant for future studies exploring anti-biofilm approaches at the interface of historical medicine and present-day scientific practices.
... 2) The sesame plant (Sesamum indicum) contains several kinds of sesame lignans which has antifungal activity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids prSesent in sesame oil reduces free radical injury occurring in oral cavity (Anand et al., 2008) 1) Steam inhalation is very useful for respiratory system disorders. Mint oil is widely used essential oil and its main ingredients are menthol and iso-menthone. ...
Article
Full-text available
In December 2019, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (SARSCoV-2) infection occurred in Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China (East Asia) furthermore worldwide including India. On 30 January 2020, the first case of the COVID-19 pandemic was reported in India. India has reached more than 1.5 lakh confirmed cases including more than 4000 fatalities by dreadful COVID-19 infection. At present, there is no vaccine for prevention or medicine for treatment. Only preventive measures like frequently hand-wash by soap and water, or hand sanitizers along with social distancing are effective to avoid the exposure of this virus. Ayurveda is the oldest acknowledged organized medicine on the earth. Immunity has an important role in maintaining health and prevention of diseases. In Ayurveda, Rasayana drugs are known for their immunomodulation and rejuvenation properties. On March 31, 2020, Ministry of AYUSH has issued advisory for enhancing immunity through lifestyle modification, dietary management, prophylactic interventions and simple remedies based on the symptoms. After that successful implementation, Government of India has planned to conduct clinical trials on three herbal nootropic and immunomodulatory drugs viz. Ashwagandha, Guduchi and Mulethi and AYUSH-64 (Ayurvedic anti-malaria drug) for their preventive properties against Covid-19 infections. This review article covers summary of the COVID-19 i.e. transmission, clinical presentation, investigation and prevention along with preventive measures in according to Ayurveda that can be adopted for future clinical trial.
... Oil pulling is a traditional Indian folk remedy and it is an ayurvedic practice that involves swishing of oil in the mouth for oral and systemic health benefits [33]. Reduction of bacterial count by about 20% and moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus on 40 days of oil pulling using sesame oil has been reported previously [34]. An in-vitro study showed that sesame oil possesses antibacterial activity against S. mutans on oral biofilm model [16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study is thus aimed to assess and compare the efficacy of Herbostra oil pulling mouthwash with Chlorhexidine mouthwash in reducing plaque accumulation around orthodontic brackets. A total of 20 patients were considered in this study randomly assigned into Group I (experimental group - Herbostra oil pulling mouthwash) and Group II (reference group-0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash). The plaque index scores were recorded in each individual at baseline (pre) and after 3 weeks (post). Dental plaque samples were collected around the orthodontic brackets at the cervical region of maxillary upper molars and lower incisors by cotton swabbing method and evaluated for the presence of microflora. Paired sample t-test for Streptococcus mutans count showed that statistically significant difference only within the group II (p=0.000) (Chlorhexidine group) and there was no significant difference within the group I (p=0.103) (Herbostra group). Paired sample t-test for plaque index score shows statistically significant difference within the groups (0.000).Independent t test showed statistically significant difference in the levels of Streptococcus mutans count after 3 weeks between the two groups (p=0.000) with the mean values of (2.230±0.5056), (1.080±0.3458) in group I and group II respectively. From this study we concluded that, even though there was a reduction in plaque scores and S. mutans count with Herbostra oil pulling mouthwash but it was not as effective as Chlorhexidine mouth rinse.
... Sesamum indicum L. (Queen of oilseeds) is an annual plant belongs to the family Pedaliaceae and distributed throughout the tropics [27]. This plant has been explored for various pharmacological properties, such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, anti-hypertensive, antinociceptive, wound healing and anticancer properties [28][29][30][31]. Whole plant is used to treat various diseases in the Indian traditional systems of medicines [32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Green synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) is a novel and non-toxic method as compared to the hazardous conventional physical and chemical methods. Herein, we report production of ZnO-NPs for the first time using whole vegetative parts of Sesamum indicum L. The aqueous extracts of various parts of S. indicum were used to synthesize nanoparticles in this study. The synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated using UV-visible spectroscopy for confirmation and characterization. The maximum UV-visible spectral absorption peaks were observed from 293 to 296 nm wavelengths. Leaf and stem reaction mixtures exhibited the sharpest absorption peaks of all the variations at 293 nm and root at 296 nm. This study leads to the development of cost-effective ZnO-NPs synthesis with possible further exploration to serve mankind.
... The bacterial adhesion and plaque co-aggregation is reduced due to the viscosity and bacterial adhesion. (15)(16) Faizal C et all studied the effectiveness of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis saw a significant reduction in the plaque formation and gingivitis from day 7 and continued to decrease during the period of study. (17) In 2011 Asokan et al. have shown that the oil-pulling therapy with sesame oil has been equally effective in reduction of Streptococcus mutans count, plaque index, modified gingival index scores and plaqueinduced gingivitis as compared to Chlorhexidine mouthwash. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dental Caries is multifactorial in nature and preventive strategies are a must and are being followed since decades. A tooth (which is primarily mineral in content) is in a constant state of Demineralisation and remineralisation with the surrounding saliva. Pediatric dentistry faces challenges in preventive strategies of oral and dental health in children and adolescents. The search for alternative products such as use of phytochemicals isolated from plants are considered to be good alternatives, hence an introduction of Ayurvedic Medicine in this context holds a lot of temptations and over rulings. Ayurveda an ancient science based on herbal therapies believes that dental problems can be treated by balancing the three doshas of a human body - The Vatta, Pita and Kapha, just like any other diseased condition. Thus this article aims to review the prospects and perspectives of use of Ayurveda in Dentistry as a whole and its affinity in Pediatric Dentistry. Keywords: Ayurveda, Ayurvedic Dentistry, Ayurvedic medicine, Herbs, herbal Medicine, Oral health
... Roasted sesame oil incorporates a higher concentration of sesamol, the thermally degraded product of sesamolin, which is taken into account as a strong antioxidant compared to its parent molecule. Due to this factor, free radical scavenging and antibacterial properties were also found in the isolated lignans and sesamol [31] According to literature, S. mutans and L. acidophilus were moderately sensitive to oil, that are identified to be essential caries pathogens [32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To determine whether oil-pulling with sesame or coconut oil yields a better result in reducing Streptococcus mutans count compared to conventional chlorhexidine mouthwashes. Methods: Multiple databases were used to search for articles up to and including August 2019. Studies which reported use of oil-pulling and chlorhexidine mouthwashes to reduce Streptococcus mutans bacterial count were analyzed procedurally. Studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were then undertaken for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results: Five studies were included in this analysis, which used oil-pulling (test group) and chlorhexidine mouthwash (control group). The follow-up period ranged from 14 to 30 days. The oil used in oil-pulling group were either sesame or coconut oil. Quantitative analysis showed a significant reduction in oral Streptococcus mutans count with oil-pulling as compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash at follow-up (Q value = 6.61, DF = 4, I2 = 39.50%). Conclusion: Use of oil-pulling showed better result in reducing cariogenic bacterial count as compared to the gold standard chlorhexidine mouthwashes. More clinical trials, evaluating additional oral hygiene parameters, would further validate the effects of oil-pulling on the oral cavity. Clinicians may advise their patients to use oil-pulling instead of chlorhexidine mouthwashes, as it is safe, cost-effective, and easily available.
... In the present study, SO was used since it is a regular constituent of South Indian cooking and is known to have numerous health benefits. A study by Anand et al. [15] had shown significant reduction in bacterial count after SO pulling and reduced susceptibility of host to dental caries. ...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Oil pulling procedure involves swishing of oil in the mouth for various oral health benefits. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sesame oil (SO), ozonated SO (OSO), and chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash on the oral health status of adolescents. Study settings and design: Parallel multi-arm double-blinded randomized trial was done in a Government higher secondary school. Materials and methods: A total of 75 adolescents aged 12-14 years with decay-missing-filled index ≤3 were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 25): Group I (SO), Group II (OSO), and Group III (CHX mouthwash). Baseline (T1) Debris Index (DI-S), Calculus Index (CI-S), Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S), Plaque Index (PI), and salivary Streptococcus mutans count were recorded. All the groups were subjected to intervention with the respective mouth rinses for 15 days. The index scores and the salivary S. mutans count were reassessed after 15 days (T2) and 1 month (T3), and the results were statistically analyzed. Statistical analysis: The statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows. The statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test were used to test the normality of the data. The Friedman test and Wilcoxon-signed rank test were carried out for intragroup comparison. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-test were employed to analyze inter-group comparison. Results: All the groups showed statistically significant reduction in DI-S, CI-S, OHI-S, PI, and S. mutans count after 15 days. Conclusion: Oil pulling therapy using SO and OSO showed a significant improvement in oral hygiene.
... The antibacterial mechanism of plant essential oils/extracts was generally suggested to be due to its major compounds especially polyphenolic compounds which is able to interact with cytoplasmic membrane of bacterial cells and subsequently cause the leakage of cellular components (26). Sesame seed lignans, such as sesamin, episesamin, sesamolin, sesaminol as well as sesamol, are known to inhibit the growth of bacterial (16,28,29). Lv et al., (30) also concluded that the mechanisms of combined antimicrobial interaction includes inhibition of the various biochemical pathway and critical enzymes and development of pores and cavities in bacterial cell membrane. ...
Article
Full-text available
Various natural oils/extracts and their constituents incorporated into biopolymer-based edible films as a promising technology with the knowledge that these compounds have been able to reduce microbial growth and chemical changes of packed foodstuffs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO; 0, 0.25 and 0.5%) and sesame oil (SO; 0, 0.5 and 0.75%) into chitosan-flaxseed mucilage (CH-FM) film against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vitro condition and raw minced trout fillets during refrigerated condition. The in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant properties of CH-FM films were evaluated using agar disk diffusion method and free radical scavenging activity assay, respectively. The most important constituents of ZEO were found to be carvacrol (65.22%), thymol (19.51%), ɣ-terpinene (4.63%) and p-cymene (4.86%). The lowest and highest antimicrobial effect against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium were found for CH-FM films enriched with SO 0.5% (0.98-1.24 mm) and ZEO 0.5% + SO 0.75% (5.01-6.25 mm), respectively. The antioxidant property of CH-FM based films were found to be ranged 5.45% ± 0.04-37% ± 0.45. In treated trout fillets, the counts of L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium were 1.54-4.18, 0.34-3.35, 0.29-1.45 and 0.19-1.27 log CFU/g significantly lower than control groups after two weeks of refrigerated storage, respectively. The designated films had good antibacterial effect against some food borne pathogenic bacteria including L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, S. typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 in raw rainbow trout fillets.
... [20] Various types of oils such as sesame, coconut, sunflower, corn, soya bean, palm, rice bran, and olive oil can be used for oil pulling. [21][22][23][24][25] Coconut oil has been proved to have wonderful effects on oral health. It contains predominantly medium-chain fatty acids of which 45%-50% include lauric acid which is otherwise present in such great amounts in breast milk. ...
... Apart from this, there was reduction in the severity of dental caries. It was presumed that bacteria and toxins from the body may be removed through tongue and are trapped in the oil and subsequently thrown out from the body (Anand et al. 2008). ...
Chapter
Oral health loss is one of the major problems existing all over the world. Oral cavity is home to numerous pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are responsible for the progression and development of various systemic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and myocardial infections. Worldwide, 60–90% of school children and nearly 100% of adults have dental cavities, often leading to pain and discomfort. Oral health loss has severe implications on global economy and human health before, during, and after the onset of any of the oral diseases. Economically developing countries are facing a financial crunch due to the continuous burden of investing resources for the upgradation of healthcare systems in maintaining oral hygiene. About 70% of oral cancers are preceded by onset of precancerous oral lesions. There is an urgent need to identify some natural and economic solutions to treat the oral diseases, which can be affordable by each individual. The present book covers the issues related to oral health, oral diseases, and the role of medicinal plants in overcoming the oral health issues. Negligence of oral hygiene is a major drawback in inviting numerous oral pathogens and in turn making oral cavity susceptible to many life-threatening diseases. We have also highlighted the research gaps in dealing with the oral health-related problems all over the world.
... The dental caries categorized as tooth decay are as a result of acid genic bacteria such as Streptococcus mutant, Lactobacillus and Actinomyces. The loss of the mineralized tissues both in children and adults can cause the pain, damaging the teeth structure, and eventually the loss of the entire tooth [56]. Justicia is a genus of flowering plants in the family of Acanthaceae, which is found in pan tropical and tropical regions and recognized as scan dent perennial herbs or sub shrubs [57]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Development of biologically inspired green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has attracted considerable worldwide attention in matter of medical science and disease treatment. Herein, the green synthesis of silver nanomaterials using organic green sources has been evaluated and discussed. These kinds of materials are widely used for treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, cancer and etc due to their elegant properties compared with other chemical ways and drugs. Moreover, the outcome of green-based approaches were compared with chemical procedures and obtained data were examined via various analyses including UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscope (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). In this study, variety of green methods were investigated to present a summary of recent achievements toward highlighting biocompatible nanoparticles, all of which can reduce the toxicity of nanoparticles, make them eco-friendly, reduce their side effects and decrease the production cost. The nature of these biological organisms also affect the structure, shape, size and morphology of synthesized nanoparticles. ARTICLE HISTORY
... 3 Sesame oil T Durai Anand, et al. [13] Effect of oil-pulling on the reduction of total count of bacteria. The in-vitro antibacterial activity of sesame oil against dental caries causing bacteria was determined. ...
... [22] Anand et al studied the in vitro antibacterial efficacy of sesame oil on a control strain and clinical strain of Streptococcus mutans and reported a inhibition zone of 10 mm and 9 mm respectively, contrary to our results. [23] From the results of the present study, it may be concluded that aqueous fennel extracts have antibacterial action comparable to chlorhexidine in vitro. Sesame aqueous extract does not seem to inhibit bacterial growth as much as commercially available sesame oil. ...
... The sesame sanani oil and dwaini oil have more activity against A. niger and A. flavus. These results do not agree with Anand et al., 39 who found antibacterial activity of sesame oil against bacteria. S. mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus were found to be moderate to sensitive to the sesame oil. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of some sesame oils obtained from different cities of Yemen. Sensitivity testing against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi were studied with four types of sesame oils in the laboratory pouring aqueous extract of the sesame seeds into the wells of the culture media. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspregillus flavus were the microorganisms used and they were identified, confirmed and obtained from the Microbiology laboratory of the Sana'a University, Yemen. The results indicated that Semsum sanani and Semsum dwaini showed more antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus, while Semsum shahri, Semsum hadedi, did not show any activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. This study suggests that the compounds found in the semsum oil can form the basis for the development of novel broad spectrum antimicrobial formulations. These results support the notion that semsum oil may have many pharmaceutical roles.
... [24] Sesame is a naturally available antibacterial agent for common pathogens of skin and common skin fungal infections like athlete's foot. [25] Sesamin also used as an antihypertensive agent, evidenced in experimental animal models. [26] Sesame oil has an antioxidant property that helps to prevent oxidative damage and enhances the healing process of damaged tissues. ...
... 25 Following a 40-day regimen of oil pulling, an average reduction of 20% was observed in the total microbial count in the oral cavity. 26 Similarly, another study testing the susceptibility to dental caries before and after oil pulling showed that in 50% of the subjects the susceptibility was reduced from "marked" to "slight." Whereas, in the other 50% of the subjects the susceptibility reduced from "marked" to "moderate." ...
Article
Full-text available
Dental diseases have detrimental effects on the functionality and quality of life of individuals. In addition, a strong relationship has been established between various oral and systemic diseases. In fact, the prevention and treatment of dental caries and periodontal disease have been shown to reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease significantly. This goes beyond the role of oral health as a means to identify early manifestations of systemic diseases in the oral cavity. It highlights the necessity of maintaining an optimal oral hygiene to significantly modify the risk factors for serious systemic diseases. The use of oil pulling can be frequently found in ancient medical text and is supported by recent studies for its efficacy and long-term use for maintaining and improving oral health. This article provides an overview on the concept of oil pulling or oil swishing, its mechanism of action and a summary of the evidence available, which highlights the role of oil pulling in specific oral diseases. The goal of this review is to highlight the ancient procedure that has the potential to be used as an adjunct to conventional chemical means of dental plaque control, such as mouth rinses. Incorporating oil swishing as a component of daily oral hygiene can significantly improve oral and general health, specifically in lower socioeconomic groups and rural communities that may have interrupted access to health-care services and dental products such as dentifrices and mouth washes due to various factors; availability and affordability being the most important.
... The mechanism of action as proposed after a review of many lipid studies was that because of the small size of these lipids they are readily dissolved in the lipid phase and penetrated the cell membranes. They both physically disrupted the bacterial membrane (Durai et al., 2008;Fife, 2008) and also inhibited the enzymes involved in energy production and nutrient transfer. This lead to reversible and irreversible changes that caused microbial cell death. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease which effects bone and the supporting structures of teeth. The treatment for periodontal diseases has moved towards an antimicrobial model of disease management. With the threat of wide spread antibiotic resistance rendering many antibiotics useless against many diseases, there is an increased necessity to develop a novel antimicrobial based treatment for effective disease prevention. In this regard an invitro study was conducted comparing virgin coconut oil with standard chlorhexidine mouth wash (0.2%) on five periodontal pathogens. Methods: An invitro study on the five putative pathogens of periodontal disease was conducted using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), maximum bacterial count (MBC) and time kill curve methods. The culture media used was Brain heart infusion broth. Results: The results showed that all the organisms were resistant to virgin coconut oil, while there was varying degree of sensitivity to chlorhexidine. Conclusion: The results of the current study showed that virgin coconut oil has no therapeutic effect in the treatment of active periodontal disease, while chlorhexidine was found to have bacteriocidal effect on against Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tenerella forsythia and bacteriostatic effect on against Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetum commitans.
... 25 Following a 40-day regimen of oil pulling, an average reduction of 20% was observed in the total microbial count in the oral cavity. 26 Similarly, another study testing the susceptibility to dental caries before and after oil pulling showed that in 50% of the subjects the susceptibility was reduced from "marked" to "slight." Whereas, in the other 50% of the subjects the susceptibility reduced from "marked" to "moderate." ...
Article
Full-text available
Dental diseases have detrimental effects on the functionality and quality of life of individuals. In addition, a strong relationship has been established between various oral and systemic diseases. In fact, the prevention and treatment of dental caries and periodontal disease have been shown to reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease significantly. This goes beyond the role of oral health as a means to identify early manifestations of systemic diseases in the oral cavity. It highlights the necessity of maintaining an optimal oral hygiene to significantly modify the risk factors for serious systemic diseases. The use of oil pulling can be frequently found in ancient medical text and is supported by recent studies for its efficacy and long-term use for maintaining and improving oral health. This article provides an overview on the concept of oil pulling or oil swishing, its mechanism of action and a summary of the evidence available, which highlights the role of oil pulling in specific oral diseases. The goal of this review is to highlight the ancient procedure that has the potential to be used as an adjunct to conventional chemical means of dental plaque control, such as mouth rinses. Incorporating oil swishing as a component of daily oral hygiene can significantly improve oral and general health, specifically in lower socioeconomic groups and rural communities that may have interrupted access to health-care services and dental products such as dentifrices and mouth washes due to various factors; availability and affordability being the most important.
... Oil-coated teeth and gingiva inhibits bacterial coaggregation and plaque formation in vivo [13][14][15]. Comparatively, there have been a few in vitro studies regarding to the antimicrobial activity of oil pulling against pathogenic oral microorganisms, especially dental caries causing bacteria [16,17]. The study here is probably one of few reports regarding in vitro inhibitory effect of oil pulling against OM-producing oral microbiota. ...
... First, it is recognized as tooth decay affected by acidogenic bacteria like Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus and Actinomyces. The clinical symptoms are the damage of the mineralized tissues, which is a cause pain and in some cases the loss of the tooth [18]. The periodontal diseases are also associated with microorganisms species, which they are connected with the infection, inflammation and pathological changes in the tissues that support the teeth [19,20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The silicone based room temperature vulcanized (RTV) polymers are commonly used materials for medicine, especially for dentures and maxillofacial prostheses. Unfortunately, the colonization of those materials by pathogenic microorganisms is well-known problem related with their applications. The aim of presented study was to examine antibacterial properties of RTV silicone for dentistry modified with silver nanoparticles. Design/methodology/approach: The silver nanoparticles were introduced into two-component system silicone based materials. The presence of silver nanoparticles was investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans was determined. The result were statistically analysed with a Statistica 12.5 software and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test (α = 0.05). Findings: The silver nanoparticles introduction into RTV - silicone allowed to enhance the antimicrobial resistance against standard strain of Streptococcus mutans. Research limitations/implications: In this research only Streptococcus mutans bacterium strain was used. In future activity of presented materials against other pathogenic bacteria living in oral cavity should be determined. Additionally long term investigation should be prepared. Practical implications: The colonization of dental materials with pathogenic bacteria and fungus is one of the most important and still unresolved problems related to exposition on oral environment. The low microbiological resistance of RTV-silicones and antimicrobial potential of silver were reported in numerous studies. The gram-positive Streptococcus mutans is commonly found in the human oral cavity and it is an important factor to tooth decay. Originality/value: The resistance against Streptococcus mutans of modified material was enhanced. The investigated materials could be a potential factor a potential conducive to reducing the risk of oral cavity infections.
... Sesame oil showed a significant antibacterial activity by inhibiting the growth of S. mutans and L. acidophilus. [13] ...
Article
Full-text available
Oil pulling has its origin in Ayurvedic medicine, is a natural remedy to improve oral health. Its antibacterial properties help to eradicate the bacteria and other debris from adhering to the oral cavity. It reduces the accumulation of plaque, prevents halitosis, cavities, gingivitis. It is used to heal the bleeding gums and mouth ulcers. Oil pulling with sesame oil improves overall health. Other than oral health, oil pulling also helps in reducing asthma, allergies, chronic fatigue, diabetes, migraine headaches and chronic skin problems. It works.
... The dental caries are identified as tooth decay caused by acidogenic species of bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus and Actinomyces. The clinical signs are the loss of the mineralized tissues, which consequently lead to pain, damage to the structure of teeth, and eventually the loss of the entire tooth, both in children and adults [15,16]. The periodontal diseases are primarily associated with Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Candida species, which are involved in the inflammation and infection and destroy the tissues that support the teeth, including gums, periodontal ligaments, and the alveolar bones [17,18]. ...
Book
Full-text available
Tamamlayıcı tıp
Chapter
Nanoparticle investigation is an interesting field of science. The powerfully sized- cognate characteristics of nanoparticles provide numerous possibilities for unexpected innovations. The performance of nanoparticles endure tremendous opportunity for pioneering high-tech application programs, but also stances excessive concerns to the researchers. At present, engineered nanoparticles uphold the outstanding potential in diversified fields of society such as the field of medicine, science, and industry without revealing its toxic implications. However, the growing production and utilization of engineered nanoparticles also arouse concern about inattentive exposure and the feasibility of detrimental effects on human wellness and biological complex. Thus, it is the most pressing need for examining the toxicity along with the application of such advantageous nanomaterial. Nanoparticles are atomic or molecular clusters with the size varying between 1 to 100 nm. Toxicity mechanisms of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles can transpire by various approaches like non-homeostasis impacts, oxidative stress, genotoxicity, implications, etc. Components that influence the metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are size, dissolution, and ways of exposure. This chapter will highlight an overview of metals and metal oxide nanoparticles and their toxic effects on living beings and biological systems.
Chapter
Medicinal herbs are a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention and cure of diseases and ailments. They were used in folklore medicine in the treatment of toothache and strengthening of gums, anthelmintic, kidney diseases, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic, and anticancer. There are many plants that have potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities and, many more plants are screened for the phyto-constituents having pain relief and anti- inflammatory properties to replace non-steroidal and opioid drugs, which have severe side effects. Different phyto-constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids, xanthone, coumarin, sterols, withaferin-A, andrographolide, etc., are proved effective as an analgesic and anti- inflammatory agents. Previous studies have contributed much to the understanding of the compound(s) responsible for the known anti-inflammatory and analgesic action. Drugs which are used presently for the management of pain and inflammatory conditions are either steroidal like corticosteroids or non-steroidal like aspirin. All of these drugs possess more or less side and toxic effects like renal failure, allergic reactions, hearing loss or they may increase the risk of hemorrhage by affecting platelet function. On the contrary, many medicines of plant origin had been used for ages without any adverse effects. It is therefore essential that efforts should be made to introduce new medicinal plants to develop more effective and cheaper drugs. Plants represent a large natural source of useful compounds that might serve as a source for the development of novel drugs. This chapter summarizes various medicinal plants and herbs with anti- inflammatory and analgesic properties that have been used by our ancestors to cure many of their ailments.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Dental disease remains a public health concern of this era. In 2020, World Health Organization reported that 3.5 billion of oral disease occurs every year. About 2.3 billion case is attributed to dental caries while gum disease affects 10% of the global population. Methods: This was a case control study carried out from November 2020 to February 2021. About 120 participants were recruited, of them, 60 were oral diseased, while the remaining 60 were selected as a control group. Oral swab samples were collected with the swab stick, and put into plastic sterile container to avoid external microbial contamination. Samples were transported to INES clinical microbiology laboratory for microbial identification. chi square was performed to test for association, while odd ratios and relative risk were performed to test for pathogenic microbial fraction. Results: The common oral diseases were tooth decay (56.6%) and gum disease (43.4%). the most affected age range was 5‑19years (53.33%), while females (63.3%) were the most affected sex. The most isolated microorganism was Lactobacillus spp (15.8%) for patients, while Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%) was the most isolate in the control group. The statistical significant association with oral microbial alteration and oral disease was observed on Streptococcus mutans (x2=8.9, P= 0.002852), Lactobacillus spp (x2=9.84, P=0.001708), Candida spp (x2=5.2, P=0.02258), Staphylococcus aureus (x2 = 15.6, P= 0.000078), and Providencia spp (x2 = 6, P=0.014306). The overall oral microbial alteration (x2=53, P< 0.00001) was statistically significant. The ratio of pathogenic microorganisms (OR=4, 95%CI:2.3786‑7.062 and RR=1.477, 95%CI:1.2478‑1.7153) was significantly associated with oral disease. Conclusion: Oral microbial alteration contributes to oral disease. Early detection of oral microbial alteration, and oral diseases are recommended.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Dental disease remains a public health concern of this era. In 2020, World Health Organization reported that 3.5 billion of oral disease occurs every year. About 2.3 billion case is attributed to dental caries while gum disease affects 10% of the global population. Methods: This was a case control study carried out from November 2020 to February 2021. About 120 participants were recruited, of them, 60 were oral diseased, while the remaining 60 were selected as a control group. Oral swab samples were collected with the swab stick, and put into plastic sterile container to avoid external microbial contamination. Samples were transported to INES clinical microbiology laboratory for microbial identification. chi square was performed to test for association, while odd ratios and relative risk were performed to test for pathogenic microbial fraction. Results: The common oral diseases were tooth decay (56.6%) and gum disease (43.4%). the most affected age range was 5-19years (53.33%), while females (63.3%) were the most affected sex. The most isolated microorganism was Lactobacillus spp (15.8%) for patients, while Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%) was the most isolate in the control group. The statistical significant association with oral microbial alteration and oral disease was observed on Streptococcus mutans (x2 =8.9, P= 0.002852), Lactobacillus spp (x2=9.84, P=0.001708), Candida spp (x2=5.2, P=0.02258), Staphylococcus aureus (x2 = 15.6, P= 0.000078), and Providencia spp (x2 = 6, P=0.014306). The overall oral microbial alteration (x2=53, P< 0.00001) was statistically significant. The ratio of pathogenic microorganisms (OR=4, 95%CI:2.3786-7.062 and RR=1.477, 95%CI:1.2478-1.7153) was significantly associated with oral disease. Conclusion: Oral microbial alteration contributes to oral disease. Early detection of oral microbial alteration, and oral diseases are recommended.
Article
Sesamum indicum L. is from Family:Pedaliaceae. It plays an important role in ancient culture and modern system of medicine. It is commonly known as sesame. It is cultivated throughout India, mainly for its seeds and oil. The plant traditionally used in the treatment of hemorrhoids, dys-entery, constipation, cough, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea and ulcers. It also has antifungal, anticancer, antitumor, antiatherosclerotic activity. The total alcoholic extracts of all residual aerial parts of this plant show antioxidant, anticancer, antiaging and anticoagulant activities.
Chapter
The chapter gives a picture of the current data on the available anticariogenic natural products and their mechanism of action. Different phytochemicals such as phenols, flavanoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, lectins, etc. and their anticariogenic efficacy have been discussed in detail. All the data emphasise the fact that the use of natural products is emerging as an effective strategy in the prevention and treatment of dental caries. Consequently, these natural products could be incorporated in toothpastes and other oral hygiene products to promote oral health.
Chapter
The kidney play essential biological roles necessary to maintain good health. The strategic physiological position of the kidney in metabolic processes expose it to the adverse effect of diseases emanating from other organs or systems. Abnormal metabolic processes as well as genetic defects can also induce injuries within the organ leading to kidney diseases that can progress to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Prompt diagnoses and management are vital to reverse or slow the rate of progression and renal replacement therapy required for advanced stages to sustain life. This chapter is a review the biological roles of the kidneys in man, the diseases of the kidney, diagnostic parameters of kidney disease and nephroprotective mechanisms of phytochemicals in medicinal plants and natural drugs used by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. Furthermore, factors militating against the application of herbal medicine in managing kidney diseases and some future perspectives are highlighted.
Article
Objectives: Virgin coconut oil (VCO) pulling has antimicrobial activity and has been promoted as beneficial to oral health; however, limited information exists on its clinical effectiveness. This study aimed to compare the microbiological effects of VCO with palm oil (PO) pulling when used as an adjunctive oral hygiene care. Materials and methods: Thirty-six volunteers with gingival inflammation were randomly assigned to start with (1) VCO (test) and (2) PO (control) interventions in a crossover design. Oil pulling was performed for 28 days adjunctively to oral hygiene routine. After a 21-day wash-out period, the participants switched the oil type and restarted the protocol. Plaque samples were collected for microbial culture at baseline, after the first oil pulling period, after washout, and after the second oil pulling period. The total, aerobic, and anaerobic bacteria and Mutans streptococci (MS) counts were recorded. The mean differences between VCO and PO were compared by paired t-test. Results: The number of total, aerobic, or anaerobic bacteria after 28 days of oil pulling was not significantly different from baseline in both PO and VCO groups. However, PO pulling demonstrated a significant reduction from baseline of MS count (P = 0.010), while VCO pulling showed no significant reduction. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean changes of any microbiological parameters between the two treatments. Conclusions: VCO pulling did not show statistically significant superior benefit against plaque bacteria over PO pulling. Using PO pulling as an adjunctive oral hygiene care may reduce the number of MS, but this requires further investigations.
Chapter
Traditional medicine utilizing different herbal formulations has been an age old tradition being practiced in Indian context. This very regime quintessentially caters to the concept of Ayurveda Yoga Unani Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH). Ailments pertaining to Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) have been mitigated by modern medicinal practices. Given this fact, emergence of antimicrobial resistance owing to unprecedented use of antibiotics has crippled the scenario of modern medicine. Being as one of the emerging challenges, a need of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) has arisen in recent times. For this to accomplish, ethano-botanical studies based at phyto-chemical interventions are envisaged. These studies are to identify and validate potential bio-active compounds which can be utilized either singly or in a formulation as potential bio-therapeutic agents possessing promising pharmacological activity for circumventing ENT disorders. An emerging concept of re-purposing of drugs and respective molecular docking patterns is a focal theme of recent research investigations. This concept has led to emergence of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) aimed to ward off ENT ailments (bacterial and fungal) without posing an occurrence of adverse affects. The chapter would highlight significance of ethano-botanical studies with special reference of medicinal plants of Sub-himalayan region, screening of bio-active compounds in obliterating common ENT ailments, patho-physiology of associated pathogens, and concept of re-purposing of drugs thus proving an impetus towards green and herbal medicine.
Article
Children are more susceptible to various infections because of underdeveloped immune system as compared to adults. Strengthening the immune system is a natural way to help the body fight against the disease-causing pathogens and immunomodulators can play a major role in this context. Various Ayurveda classics and studies published in journals related to Ayurveda drugs for improving immunity are reviewed and analysed. In Ayurveda, the objective of immune enhancement is achieved through the use of the Amalakyadi Rasayana (an Immunomodulators), as it increases longevity of life, memory, intellect, luxture, complexion, voice, strength of the body functions, strength of all senses and provides the resistance to disease, improves glow and power. Analysis of classical references and various experimental studies show that Amalakyadi Rasayana posse immuno-modulatory, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic activity. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacological properties, therapeutic actions and possible mode of action of the selected formulation, Amalakyadi rasayana from Yogaratnakara (Rasayanadhikara/17) to enhance the immunity in children. Rasayana is an important part of Ayurvedic therapeutics used to improve the quality of life by strengthening the tissue quality and by reducing the age-related tissue degeneration. This study reveals that Amalakyadi Rasayana have potential to improve or strengthen the immune system in children and thereby can lower down the morbidity rate in children.
Chapter
The chapter gives a picture of the current data on the available anticariogenic natural products and their mechanism of action. Different phytochemicals such as phenols, flavanoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, lectins, etc. and their anticariogenic efficacy have been discussed in detail. All the data emphasise the fact that the use of natural products is emerging as an effective strategy in the prevention and treatment of dental caries. Consequently, these natural products could be incorporated in toothpastes and other oral hygiene products to promote oral health.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, a new polyols that was derived from locale produced sesame oil was prepared. This preparation was carried out in two steps. The first step was to prepare the epoxidized oil from the reaction of the oil with the formic acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The second step was the reaction of the epoxidized oil with a number of fatty acids like (acetic, stearic, palmitic, butyric, oleic and linoleic acid) to form the polyols. The oil and the prepared compounds were characterized using FT-IR, NMR and C13NMR Spectroscopy. The iodine number, the acid value, the epoxide number, the peroxide number of the oil, and the prepared compounds were determined. Also the biological activity of the oil and the prepared compounds were studied by using two types of bacteria and a type of fungi, which were found that some of the compounds had a positive effect, to fungi and bacteria, E. coli but they was no effect on S.aureus , which can be attributed to the use of low concentrations
Chapter
Oil pulling has been used widely as a conventional Indian folk remedy for many years for strengthening teeth, gingiva, to prevent dental caries, halitosis, bleeding gums, dryness of mouth, and cracked lips. In the Ayurveda literature Charaka Samhita (Sutrasthana 5, 78–80), it is referred to as Gandoosha, Kavala, and Kavala Graha. It is claimed to treat about 30 systemic disorders ranging from diabetes to migraine and asthma. A Ukrainian medical practitioner, Dr. F. Karach, acquainted the remarkable notion of oil pulling in the 1990s. Recent studies on oil pulling therapy using sunflower and sesame oil were found to reduce dental caries and plaque‐induced gingivitis. The most amazing part of oil pulling therapy is that it can be performed using any cold pressed oil easily at home such as coconut, sunflower, or sesame oil; hence, it becomes a very cost‐effective modality. Since last decade, there are many studies available on the use of oil pulling for the maintenance of overall oral health. There is mounting evidence of oil pulling being as good as many other chemical‐containing ointments, toothpastes, or mouthwashes in control of oral problems with no untoward side effects. This chapter overviews the evidence‐based use of oil pulling therapy in the maintenance of oral health.
Chapter
The use of traditional medicine used to be one of the primary sources of treatment for various diseases around the world in the past. Although the usage was restricted to rural areas and low economy areas, the urban population has also begun to express their interest in the consumption of products manufactured from natural sources. The success of the traditional medicine depends on the expertise of the traditional healer. In the recent past, the use of herbal medicine and natural product-based drugs has stepped up with reports being published with their multiple benefits. Use of complementary medicine for overcoming the oral diseases is found to be successful based on its mode of application and usage on the patient. Among the traditional oral remedies, the most imperative remedy is “oil pulling technique” followed by use of some traditional medicinal plants. Oil pulling technique removes the toxins and bacteria by trapping them in the oil. Moreover, different parts of medicinal plants are used for treating the oral diseases at the primary levels. Olea europaea leaf decoction is used to combat mouth and gum diseases through gargling.
Article
Full-text available
Article
Ketoconazole (KCZ) is the most commonly used systemic antifungal drug. However, long-term treatment of KCZ induces hepatic injury. Oxidative stress is involved in KCZ-induced hepatic injury. Oxidative stress plays an important role in apoptosis-associated hepatic damage. Sesame oil is rich in potent antioxidants and antifungal constituents. It attenuates hepatic injury by inhibiting oxidative stress. Thus, sesame oil may protect against KCZ-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and hepatic damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of sesame oil as a nutritional supplement on KCZ-induced hepatic injury in mice. KCZ (300 mg/kg/day) was administered by gastric intubation, 30 min later sesame oil (0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, or 0.5 ml/kg/day; p.o.) was administered to mice for 14 days. Blood and liver tissue were collected. Hepatic injury was evaluated by serum biochemistry and histology. Oxidative stress was evaluated by myeloperoxidase activity, p47-phox, reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione level. Apoptosis was evaluated by p53, caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax and Cyto-C expression. Osteopontin was measured to assess liver healing. Sesame oil attenuated hepatic injury; it also decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis in KCZ-treated mice. Sesame oil may be used as a nutritional supplement with existing antifungal therapies to neutralize the adverse hepatotoxic nature of antifungal drugs by attenuating hepatic apoptosis through redox system to protect and heal liver injury in KCZ-treated mice.
Article
Recent interest and advances in the field of dentistry has promoted the use of various herbal and natural products for multiple uses in the field of dentistry. Essential oils are such products exhibiting multiple benefits and has gained considerable importance in clinical research. Essential oils are potential sources of novel antimicrobial compounds especially against bacterial pathogens This review focuses on role of coconut oil, eucalyptus oil, clove oil, tea tree oil and sesame oil in dentistry.
Article
Full-text available
Background: As the technological level of healthcare increases, it is important not to lose sight of the basics of patient care. No matter how sophisticated dental techniques have become, preventive dentistry still remains the foundation for oral health. Therefore, antimicrobial mouthrinses are developed to provide an effective means of preventing colonization by micro-organisms. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of oil pulling, herbal mouthrinses and fluoride mouthwash on the caries activity and S. mutans counts in the saliva of children, using Oratest and Dentocult SM kit. Design: Fifty-two healthy children between the age group of 6 to 12 years were selected for the study and divided into four groups based on the mouthrinse used as group 1: fluoride, group 2: herbal, group 3: oil pulling and group 4: control. The estimation of caries activity and S. mutans was done prior to and after the subjects were instructed to use the mouthrinse twice daily for a period of 2 weeks. Statistical analysis: The comparisons were made by applying paired ‘t’ test with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. Difference between more than two mean values was done by using ANOVA and Post hoc Bonferroni test was used for multiple comparisons. Results and conclusion: The efficacy of fluoride and herbal mouthrinses was found to be comparable while oil pulling did not provide any additional benefit to be used as an effective antimicrobial agent in reducing the bacterial colonization of an individual. How to cite this article: Jauhari D, Srivastava N, Rana V, Chandna P. Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Mouthrinse, Herbal Mouthrinse and Oil Pulling on the Caries Activity and Streptococcus mutans Count using Oratest and Dentocult SM Strip Mutans Kit. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):114-118.
Article
Full-text available
A prophylaxis followed by three topical applications of an iodine-potassium iodide solution significantly reduced the levels of Streptococcus mutans in fissure and approximal plaques and in saliva. Reductions persisted 20--24 weeks after treatment in salivary and approximal samples. A prophylaxis alone exerted a small and temporary reduction of S. mutans in occlusal fissure plaque, but did not reduce the levels of this organism in approximal plaque or in saliva. A significant relationship existed between the levels of S. mutans in saliva and the proportions of this organism in plaque. The dorsum of the tongue does not appear to constitute a significant reservoir for S. mutans following disinfecting procedures.
Article
Full-text available
The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Its mode of action against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli AG100, the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325, and the yeast Candida albicans has been investigated using a range of methods. We report that exposing these organisms to minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations of tea tree oil inhibited respiration and increased the permeability of bacterial cytoplasmic and yeast plasma membranes as indicated by uptake of propidium iodide. In the case of E. coli and Staph. aureus, tea tree oil also caused potassium ion leakage. Differences in the susceptibility of the test organisms to tea tree oil were also observed and these are interpreted in terms of variations in the rate of monoterpene penetration through cell wall and cell membrane structures. The ability of tea tree oil to disrupt the permeability barrier of cell membrane structures and the accompanying loss of chemiosmotic control is the most likely source of its lethal action at minimum inhibitory levels.
Article
Full-text available
The tocopherols, the major vitamers of vitamin E, are believed to play a role in the prevention of human aging-related diseases such as cancer and heart disease, yet little is known concerning determinants of their plasma concentrations. Evidence from animal studies suggests that the dietary source of gamma-tocopherol can significantly affect plasma levels of this tocopherol as well as its functional vitamin E activity. To determine whether plasma levels of tocopherols in humans are similarly altered, a study was undertaken in which subjects (n = 9) were fed muffins containing equivalent amounts of gamma-tocopherol from sesame seeds, walnuts, or soy oil. We observed that consumption of as little as 5 mg of gamma-tocopherol per day over a three-day period from sesame seeds, but not from walnuts or soy oil, significantly elevated serum gamma-tocopherol levels (19.1% increase, p = 0.03) and depressed plasma beta-tocopherol (34% decrease, p = 0.01). No significant changes in baseline or postintervention plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or carotenoids were seen for any of the intervention groups. All subjects consuming sesame seed-containing muffins had detectable levels of the sesame lignan sesamolin in their plasma. Consumption of moderate amounts of sesame seeds appears to significantly increase plasma gamma-tocopherol and alter plasma tocopherol ratios in humans and is consistent with the effects of dietary sesame seeds observed in rats leading to elevated plasma gamma-tocopherol and enhanced vitamin E bioactivity.
Article
Full-text available
Chemical plaque control is a useful aid in mechanical oral hygiene, and various chemical agents have been evaluated as antiplaque agents. It has been shown that mastic chewing gum has antibacterial effects on Helicobacter pylori. In this study, the antiplaque effect of mastic chewing gum was investigated. Twenty dental students who were both systemically and periodontally healthy participated in this study. The effects of mastic gum were assessed from 2 double-blinded, randomized studies. In the first trial, after mechanical toothbrushing, the inhibitory effect of mastic gum on bacteria in saliva following its use was compared to a placebo gum. Saliva samples were collected at the end of 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours; diluted; inoculated onto 10% horse blood chocolate agar plates; and cultured anaerobically at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. The total number of bacterial colonies on each plate was calculated (n = 20). In the second trial, the effects of mastic gum on de novo plaque formation on tooth surfaces and gingival inflammation were evaluated over a 7-day period without mechanical oral hygiene following random use of either mastic or placebo chewing gum. The degree of plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation were compared between the 2 groups (n = 10). The total number of bacterial colonies was significantly reduced during the 4 hours of chewing mastic gum compared to the placebo gum (P < 0.05, Student t test). The mastic group showed a significantly reduced plaque index (2.69 +/- 0.29 versus 3.15 +/- 0.24; P = 0.001, Student t test) and gingival index (0.44 +/- 0.15 versus 0.66 +/- 0.23, P = 0.021, Student t test) compared to the placebo group. These results suggest that mastic chewing gum is a useful antiplaque agent in reducing the bacterial growth in saliva and plaque formation on teeth.
Article
Sesame lignans, whose biosynthetic pathway is the subject of this study, have well-established antioxidant and health protecting properties. Using a combination of radio- and stable-isotopically labelled precursor administration experiments, it was demonstrated that E-coniferyl alcohol undergoes stereoselective coupling to afford (+)-pinoresinol in Sesamum indicum seeds. Only this enantiomer, and not its (−)-antipode, is metabolized further in maturing seeds to afford (+)-piperitol, (+)-sesamin, and (+)-sesamolin. Introduction of the methylene dioxy bridges occurs sequentially with piperitol first being formed, this being subsequently modified to afford sesamin.
Article
The effect of penicillin on the number of oral Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and lactobacilli in hamsters and in man was investigated. This is of interest as S. mutans and lactobacilli are involved in the carious process while S. sanguis is not. Hamsters infected with both S. mutans and S. sanguis or only S. sanguis received penicillin in their drinking water for 14 d. The treatment reduced the proportion of S. mutans and S. sanguis in dental plaque to undetectable levels. After the penicillin treatment the population of S. mutans and S. sanguis gradually increased. In man, the effect of oral penicillin therapy was examined in 21 adults with more than 2 X 10(5) S. mutans per ml saliva. The penicillin treatment had almost no effect on the numbers of S. sanguis and lactobacilli, but a pronounced decrease in the number of S. mutans was observed. The duration of this effect, however, was short. Consequently, such treatment alone is of limited value for the control of the oral infection of these microorganisms.
Article
FULL TEXT available free from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00780.x/pdf The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. However, few investigations have compared large numbers of oils and extracts using methods that are directly comparable. In the present study, 52 plant oils and extracts were investigated for activity against Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia col, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus, using an agar dilution method. Lemongrass, oregano and bay inhibited all organisms at concentrations of < or = 2.0% (v/v). Six oils did not inhibit any organisms at the highest concentration, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil for apricot kernel, evening primrose, macadamia, pumpkin, sage and sweet almond. Variable activity was recorded for the remaining oils. Twenty of the plant oils and extracts were investigated, using a broth microdilution method, for activity against C. albicans, Staph. aureus and E. coli. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.03% (v/v) thyme oil against C. albicans and E. coli and 0.008% (v/v) vetiver oil against Staph. aureus. These results support the notion that plant essential oils and extracts may have a role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.
Article
The volatile oils of black pepper [Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae)], geranium [Pelargonium graveolens L'Herit (Geraniaceae)], nutmeg [Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae), oregano [Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (Link) Letsw. (Lamiaceae)] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae)] were assessed for antibacterial activity against 25 different genera of bacteria. These included animal and plant pathogens, food poisoning and spoilage bacteria. The volatile oils exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all the organisms under test while their major components demonstrated various degrees of growth inhibition.
Article
A new chlorinated red naphthoquinone pigment having antifungal activity, named chlorosesamone, was isolated from the roots of Sesamum indicum. Its structure was characterized as 2-chloro-5,8-dihydroxy-3-(3methyl-2-butenyl)- 1,4-na phthoquinone on the basis of spectral evidence.
Article
Activities of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis among rats fed sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) differing in lignan content (sesamin and sesamolin) were compared. Sesame seeds rich in lignans from two lines, 0730 and 0732, lines established in this laborary, and those from a conventional cultivar (Masekin) were employed. Seeds from the 0730 and 0732 lines contained sesamin and sesamolin at amounts twice those from Masekin. Sesame seeds were added at levels of 200 g/kg to the experimental diets. Sesame increased both the hepatic mitochondrial and the peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation rate. Increases were greater with sesame rich in lignans than with Maskin. Noticeably, peroxisomal activity levels were >3 times higher in rats fed diets containing sesame seeds from the 0730 and 0732 lines than in those fed a control diet without sesame. The diet containing Masekin seed caused only a 50% increase in the value, however. Diets containing seeds from the 0730 and 0732 lines, compared to the control and Masekin diets, also significantly increased the activity of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes including acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyltranferase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. In contrast, diets containing sesame lowered the activity of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis including fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, ATP-citrate lyase, and pyruvate kinase. No significant differences in enzyme activities were, however, seen among diets containing sesame from Masekin cultivar and lines 0730 and 0732. Serum triacylglycerol concentrations were lower in rats fed diets containing sesame from lines 0730 and 0732 than in those fed the control or Masekin diet. It is apparent that sesame rich in lignans more profoundly affects hepatic fatty acid oxidation and serum triacylglycerol levels. Therefore, consumption of sesame rich in lignans results in physiological activity to alter lipid metabolism in a potentially beneficial manner.
Effect of sesame seeds rich in sesamin and sesamolin on fatty acid oxidation in rat liver Simple Colorimetric Method for Diagnosis of Caries Activity Pilot study on antiplaque effects of mastic chewing gum in the oral cavity
  • Takahashi
  • M Fukazawa
  • H Motohia
  • K Ochiai
  • H Nishikawa
  • Miyata
Effect of sesame seeds rich in sesamin and sesamolin on fatty acid oxidation in rat liver. J. Agr. Food Chem. 49: 2647-2651. Snyder ML (1941). Simple Colorimetric Method for Diagnosis of Caries Activity. J.A.D.A. 28:44. Takahashi K, Fukazawa M, Motohia H, Ochiai K, Nishikawa H, Miyata T. A (2003). Pilot study on antiplaque effects of mastic chewing gum in the oral cavity. J. Periodontol. 74: 501-505.