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Abstract

ABSTRACT Goal-setting theory is summarized regarding the effectiveness of specific, difficult goals; the relationship of goals to affect; the mediators of goal effects; the relation of goals to self-efficacy; the moderators of goal effects; and the generality of goal effects across people, tasks, countries, time spans, experimental designs, goal sources (i.e., self-set, set jointly with others, or assigned), and dependent variables. Recent studies concerned with goal choice and the factors that influence it, the function of learning goals, the effect of goal framing, goals and affect (well-being), group goal setting, goals and traits, macro-level goal setting, and conscious versus subconscious goals are described. Suggestions are given for future research.

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... Pandangan dari penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya (Dipboye, 2018;E. A. Locke & Latham, 2012;EA Locke & Latham, 2006;Edwin Locke & Latham, 1990;Wulandari et al., 2018) tentang teori penetapan tujuan memiliki proposisi dasar yakni: tujuan yang spesifik, tujuan yang sulit dicapai, serta memiliki sasaran yang mengarah pada kinerja yang lebih tinggi akan memiliki tantangan daripada pekerjaan yang tidak memiliki sasaran, atau sasaran sedang dan cenderung mudah dicapai. Menurut rumusan asli teori penetapan tujuan (Hollenbeck & Klein, 1987;E. ...
... Pandangan Deschamps & Mattijs, (2017) bahwa teori penetapan tujuan didasarkan pada premis sederhana bahwa tujuan sadar mempengaruhi tindakan dan motivasi (E. A. Locke, 1968). Selama lima dekade terakhir, menurut Deschamps & Mattijs, (2017) yang mengidentifikasi kondisi utama di bawah tujuan sadar yang paling efisien dalam meningkatkan motivasi individu terhadap tugas tertentu (E. A. Locke, 1968;EA Locke & Latham, 2006). Dengan mendokumentasikan karakteristik tujuan yaitu tentang tujuan spesifik dan tujuan sulit. ...
... Namun, orang dengan sasaran kinerja rendah ketika menghadapi tugas yang sulit akan lebih mudah frustasi, sama seperti orang yang memiliki sasaran kerja/tugas lebih tinggi namun menghadapi tugas-tugas yang mudah. Selanjutnya, menurut (E. A. Locke et al., 1988;EA Locke & Latham, 2006) isu dari tujuan adalah hasil yang dicari. Sementara dimensi goal content adalah spesifik atau jelas/terukur (derajat ketepatan atau kejelasan kuantitatif dengan tujuan spesifik) dan sulit (derajat keahlian atau kinerja yang dicapai). ...
... Performance metrics quality includes properties such as evaluation and rewards, clarity, attainability, controllability, precision, prioritized objectives, and cooperation. Prior work provides broad support for the determinant effect of the employee's perception of performance metrics quality on the importance attributed to goal attainment (Webb, 2004;Locke and Latham, 2006;Merchant and Van der Stede, 2012; Aranda et al., 2014). Further evidence suggests that the quality of performance metrics motivates behavioral responses, reducing uncertainties about expected behaviors and outcomes and directing employees' attention. ...
... Extant prior work examines the motivational effects of performance metrics on organizational participants (e.g., Marginson and Ogden, 2005;Moers, 2005;Sponem and Lambert, 2016;Endrikat et al., 2020;Uddin et al., 2020). This prior literature provides broad support for the determinant effect of the employee's perception of performance metrics quality, expressed in terms of its design properties (Kenis, 1979;Gibbs et al., 2009;Merchant and Van der Stede, 2012;Groen et al., 2017), on employees' self-efficacy, and the importance they attribute to goal attainment (Locke and Latham, 2006). Performance metrics quality includes properties such as Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4030521 ...
... Third, performance metrics perceived to be of higher quality include an attainable goal. Empirical evidence indicates that difficult but attainable goals have positive effects on performance (Locke and Latham, 2006). While easily attainable goals fail to challenge organizational participants, unattainable targets lead to feelings of frustration and failure (Kenis, 1979;Aranda et al., 2014). ...
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We examine whether the quality of performance metrics affects informal peer monitoring and, in turn, goal commitment. By fostering performance‐oriented behaviours, performance metrics drive managers to involve themselves in learning and improvement efforts, building a fertile atmosphere for informal peer monitoring. We argue that the quality of performance metrics is positively associated with direct peer monitoring and negatively linked to indirect peer monitoring. Subsequently, we postulate that direct (indirect) peer monitoring is positively (negatively) associated with goal commitment. We use partial least squares (PLS) to analyse survey data from store managers in a large retail firm. Results provide overall support for our hypotheses.
... They are confident in their work-related capabilities (supported by personal and external resources) to perform challenging goals. Locke and Latham's [39] Goal Setting theory also suggests that goals' characteristics, such as clarity, play a role in motivating and maintaining efforts to achieve them. In line with this literature,Ćurić Dražić et al. [40] indicated in career ambition a predictor of perceived employability. ...
... The strength of such a relationship suggests that students' willingness to achieve their professional goals is a crucial factor in the perception of finding a job in line with their studies. Such a result aligns with previous studies reporting that ambition is an antecedent of proactivity, which, in turn, could predict perceived employability [39]. These findings are of particular relevance since, as far as we know, no study has demonstrated the predictive role of ambition on mental well-being among students during the coronavirus pandemic, suggesting the need to focus on it even more in such a time of crisis. ...
... These findings are of particular relevance since, as far as we know, no study has demonstrated the predictive role of ambition on mental well-being among students during the coronavirus pandemic, suggesting the need to focus on it even more in such a time of crisis. An explanation of this link might be found in Locke and Latham's [39] Goal Setting theory. Locke and Latham's basic assumption is that goals regulate human action, pushing individuals to direct efforts and persistence to accomplish their objectives. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 outbreak has had a disruptive impact on the academic context and labor market. Indeed, the pandemic shock in such fields has been related to several changes with implications for young people's careers and well-being. This two-wave longitudinal study, conducted in Italy, aimed to explore the predictiveness of some individual and organizational factors on students' perceived employability and well-being. A total of 301 Italian students, aged between 18 and 33 (M = 20.63, SD = 1.99), completed a self-report questionnaire measuring career ambition, university reputation , university commitment, technostress related to technology-enhanced learning, perceived employability, and mental well-being at both time points. A path analysis showed that career ambition , university reputation, and organizational commitment positively predicted employability, which, in addition to such variables, positively affected well-being. In contrast, technostress was identified as a risk factor both for students' perceptions of finding a job and for their well-being. These findings provide a theoretical contribution to a better understanding of the factors involved in undergraduates' perceived employability and well-being. Moreover, they suggest the need to improve academic-related variables to enhance individuals' resources in coping with the pandemic challenges.
... Prior work finds that setting specific (versus nonspecific) goals tend to lead to better performance outcomes (Locke et al., 1981;Locke & Latham, 2002) This might be explained by the explicit definitions that make the effort required for goal attainment more salient. When tasks or behaviors are complex, however, specific and difficult goals might not lead to better performance (Locke & Latham, 2006). In those cases, specific learning goals that are focused on acquiring sufficient knowledge or skills to achieve the performance goal seem to be a promising option (Locke & Latham, 2006). ...
... When tasks or behaviors are complex, however, specific and difficult goals might not lead to better performance (Locke & Latham, 2006). In those cases, specific learning goals that are focused on acquiring sufficient knowledge or skills to achieve the performance goal seem to be a promising option (Locke & Latham, 2006). There are some emerging trends that challenge the superiority of specific goals in the domain of health behaviors. ...
Preprint
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Commercial mobile applications implement several theory-driven features, such as feedback, self-monitoring and goal-setting, but they often fail to drive long-lasting changes in health behavior. The nature of users' goals and how current systems support them might be one reason for that. This study uses the lens of the exerciser self-schema, a physical activity-specific identity variable, to study how commercial self-monitoring systems support process-and outcome-focused goals. A survey of mobile app users monitoring physical activity resulted in 238 valid responses. 59% of the respondents were identified as exerciser schematics. Exercisers differed significantly from those without exercise self-schema (unschematics) in all measured constructs except for outcome-focused goals. Exercisers evaluated their systems as more persuasive and seemed to be more focused on process goals. Process goals contributed positively to outcome goals in all studied subgroups. Exercisers preferred process goals, but the feedback and self-monitoring features of systems do not support this goal focus. Process goals can be considered a means through which to reach outcome goals. Process goals also mediated the well-documented effects of goal specificity. Improving the ability to set and monitor specific process goals seems promising to improve these systems.
... should be specific, difficult, and represent a varied focus (Burton & Weiss, 2008;Kingston & Wilson, 2008). In addition, both long term and short-term goals should be incorporated with the ideal strategy using short term goals to achieve long term goals (Locke & Latham, 2006). As pointed out by Danish et al., (2003), goals in sport represent these features with most goals in sport being short term, measurable, and tangible. ...
... Goal setting represents a valuable tool for athletes. There are a number of stipulations associated with this notion, but, ultimately, goals aid with a variety of positive outcomes (e.g., increased effort, better performance) for those who effectively engage in the practice (Burton & Weiss, 2008;Gallucci, 2014;Locke & Latham, 2006). Looking beyond the sport environment, a study of students playing a computer game found a significant, positive association between learning goals (as opposed to no goals or performance goals) and the amount of fun reported by the participants (Nebel et al., 2017). ...
Thesis
This thesis examined experiential factors in in the sport setting and outcomes associated with the theory of positive youth development.
... The gap may also be reduced by asking the actor to form an implementation intention; specifying when, where, and how they will carry out their behavioural intention (Gollwitzer 1999;Sheeran & Orbell 1999). Similarly, goal-setting behaviour has been shown to increase performance (Locke & Latham 2006). Specifying farm-specific pro-biodiversity behaviours in farm planning, makes the behaviour more relevant to the farmer, increasing their involvement. ...
... Incorporating biodiversity considerations into farm plans also ensures probiodiversity behaviours are farm-relevant, and farmers are psychologically involved in the process of setting goals and forming implementation plans. This is critical for success as relevance (Ajzen & Fishbein 2005), involvement (Sivacek & Crano 1982), goal setting (Locke & Latham 2006), and implementation planning (Gollwitzer 1999) are all factors that have been found to enhance goal performance and reduce the attitude-intention-behaviour gap. Additionally, forming an implementation plan is believed to increase goal performance by increasing awareness of situational cues which when encountered stimulate the initiation of goal-directed behaviour (Gollwitzer 1999). ...
... Several theoretical frameworks suggest that invasiveness is likely to moderate the effects of EPM on performance such that more invasive monitoring has a more positive effect on performance. Goal-setting theory (Locke & Latham, 2006) and self-regulation theories, for example, suggest the importance of specific behavioral feedback for goal-achievement and work performance (Kanfer et al., 2017). More invasive EPM (e.g., monitoring with greater breadth, greater specificity) is likely to provide individuals and their organizations with more detailed and specific performance-related information, supporting performance improvements. ...
... Theory regarding the effect of transparency on individual level outcomes is welldeveloped and clear, suggesting that greater transparency in monitoring is likely to produce more positive work outcomes. Greater transparency about EPM should help clarify the goals and purpose of EPM, and thus guide individuals towards organizationally desired outcomes and more positive performance (Locke & Latham, 2006). Further, theories of workplace justice (e.g., Greenberg, 1987) argue that organizations that are honest and transparent about organizational practices will be perceived as fairer than organizations that are not. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Electronic performance monitoring (EPM), or the use of technological means to observe, record, and analyze information that directly or indirectly relates to employee job performance, is a now ubiquitous work practice. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of the effects of EPM on workers (K = 94 independent samples, N = 23,461), while taking into account the characteristics of the monitoring. Results provide no evidence that EPM improves worker performance. Moreover, findings indicate that the presence of EPM increases worker stress and strain, regardless of the characteristics of monitoring. Findings also demonstrate that organizations that monitor more transparently and less invasively can expect more positive attitudes from workers. Overall, results highlight that even as advances in technology make possible a variety of ways to monitor workers, organizations must continue to consider the psychological component of work.
... Most of the design characteristics, such as feedback and repetition combined with multimodality, were found to play a positive role in students' stances towards the AR self-assessment quizzes. This finding concerning the feedback [21][22][23][24] and repetition [25] is aligned with the literature since these characteristics are reported as common elements of gamified environments in educational settings with a similarly positive effect [26]. The findings of the current research also agree with the literature [8,9] concerning the preference of students for AR technologies, which is characterized by the students of the present study as interesting, entertaining, engaging, playful, and easy to use. ...
... 24 Since it's anonymous you don't have the anxiety of shame or that I'm going to be offended now. If it wasn't anonymoys maybe there would be anxiety of "oh don't make a mistake, it will be seen now, what will others comment; or am I the 1% the 2%". ...
Article
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Students’ perceptions on AR applications have gained researchers’ interest in the field of ICT-enhanced teaching and learning, especially in recent years. The current study investigates students’ perceptions concerning their learning and immersive experiences gained using AR quizzes with formative self-assessment purposes in a science education university course during one semester. The research followed the mixed-method approach, and the data were collected sequentially by questionnaires and focus group discussions. A descriptive statistical analysis and a thematic analysis were conducted, respectively. Fifty-one (51) students participated in the quantitative data collection procedure and ten (10) of them participated in the focus groups. The results indicate that students are in favor of AR quizzes which justify their stance based on the learning gains and the immersive experiences. AR was underlined to play a significant role by creating an engaging environment of immersion. The findings support the positive stances of students over the combination of AR and formative self-assessment and highlight the role of immersion supported by AR technologies. Additionally, based on the relatively long period of application, the findings create doubts concerning the influence of the novelty effect on students’ positive stances toward AR.
... Several theoretical frameworks suggest that invasiveness is likely to moderate the effects of EPM on performance such that more invasive monitoring has a more positive effect on performance. Goal-setting theory (Locke & Latham, 2006) and self-regulation theories, for example, suggest the importance of specific behavioral feedback for goalachievement and work performance (Kanfer et al., 2017). More invasive EPM (e.g., monitoring with greater breadth, greater specificity) is likely to provide individuals and their organizations with more detailed and specific performancerelated information, supporting performance improvements. ...
... Theory regarding the effect of transparency on individual level outcomes is well-developed and clear, suggesting that greater transparency in monitoring is likely to produce more positive work outcomes. Greater transparency about EPM should help clarify the goals and purpose of EPM, and thus guide individuals towards organizationally desired outcomes and more positive performance (Locke & Latham, 2006). Further, theories of workplace justice (e.g., Greenberg, 1987) argue that organizations that are honest and transparent about organizational practices will be perceived as fairer than organizations that are not. ...
Article
Full-text available
Electronic performance monitoring (EPM), or the use of technological means to observe, record, and analyze information that directly or indirectly relates to employee job performance, is a now ubiquitous work practice. We conducted a comprehensive meta‐analysis of the effects of EPM on workers (K = 94 independent samples, N = 23,461). Results provide no evidence that EPM improves worker performance. Moreover, findings indicate that the presence of EPM is associated with increased worker stress, regardless of the characteristics of monitoring. Findings also demonstrate that organizations that monitor more transparently and less invasively can expect more positive attitudes from workers. Overall, results highlight that even as advances in technology make possible a variety of ways to monitor workers, organizations must continue to consider the psychological component of work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... In theoretical terms, these transient and artificially enhanced superior performances of the supersuit season represent goals that are optimally configured to improve performance as they are: (a) performance goals, specifying absolute performance levels (i.e., target times in each event; Burton et al., 2001;Burton & Weiss, 2008;Kyllo & Landers, 1995); (b) offering feedback that is both short-term (i.e., training and competition performances during the year) and long-term (in the championship itself; Jeong et al., 2021;Kyllo & Landers, 1995); and (c) highly difficult (i.e., above nonsupersuited world-leading levels), which should benefit performance-oriented elite athletes (Burton & Weiss, 2008;Locke & Latham, 2006). The first contribution of this research, therefore, is to use these methodologically optimal conditions to establish: (a) that these goals improve performance and (b) the size of this effect. ...
... Second, these long-term performance goals should also be divided into progressive, short-term performance and process goals (Burton & Weiss, 2008;Kyllo & Landers, 1995), to guide ongoing training and performance at interim competitions before the major championships. Third, for elite athletes, these performance goals should be highly difficult (Burton & Weiss, 2008;Locke & Latham, 2006) to challenge existing expectations about what is possible. Specifically, when training for competitions around 5 years away (e.g., similar to an Olympic cycle), this research suggests that setting goals around 4% above their current elite performance levels can lead to performance improvements of 0.70% (in addition to natural improvement over years) in elite athletes already competing in global championship finals. ...
Article
In 2009, elite swimming introduced polyurethane “supersuits,” which artificially enhanced performances and facilitated 43 world records at the World Championships, before being prohibited from 2010. This transient, artificial improvement spike created a natural experiment to examine the effect of “impossible” targets on subsequent performances. Analyses revealed that swimming speeds at global championships in the postsupersuit period (2011–2017) were substantially faster than predicted from the presupersuit period (2000–2007). These results suggest that the transient, artificially enhanced performances of the supersuit era recalibrated targets upward—acting as goals—and improved subsequent performances beyond previous trajectories ( d = 0.64; 0.70%). Contributing to psychological goal-setting theory, the positive relationship between the size of the transient, artificial improvement (i.e., goal difficulty) and subsequent performance was curvilinear, increasing at a decreasing rate before improvements plateaued. Overall, the research demonstrates the potential for elite athletes to exceed perceived human limits after expectations have been recalibrated upward.
... 43 These questions should help improve patients' understanding of their medicines and lead to short-term improvement in medication adherence. 44 In this study, all pharmacy teams were able to address patients independent of the chosen target plans. In a further step, the teams reflected on how to address the issue of medication adherence. ...
Article
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Background Counseling patients on medication adherence could be ameliorated in pharmacy practice. There is a lack of simple and practical strategies to address medication adherence with patients in daily practice. The goal was to develop and test a framework that allows pharmacy teams to define and apply a strategy to address medication adherence in community pharmacies. Methods A framework based on the principles of social marketing was developed. It consisted of 3 items: the target patient (“Who”), the target plan (“How”), and the target goal (“How many”). To test the framework, each participating pharmacy team developed their strategy by defining the 3 items and applied them during one pilot day. A master student observed the encounters between patients and pharmacy team members and used a structured checklist to document the patient's characteristics, counseling content, and strategy use. Pharmacy teams answered a feedback questionnaire at the end of the pilot day. Results Ten pharmacy teams were included. During a brainstorming session that lasted on average 31 ± 8 min, unique strategies comprised 18 different target patients and 20 different target plans. The planned target goal was a mean of 31 patients (range: 1 to “all”). A total of 325 encounters were observed, of which 208 patients (64%) corresponded to the predefined target patients. Medication adherence was addressed with 73 patients (22.5%), and adherence counseling was performed with 50 patients (15%). The pharmacy teams accepted the framework and judged it feasible and adaptable to their needs. Conclusion The proposed framework represents a simple tool that enables pharmacy teams to develop a strategy for addressing medication adherence in community pharmacies. Its adoption by pharmacy teams occurred without additional training and its integration into daily practice without difficulties. A further study is now needed to investigate if pharmacy teams can successfully engage patients in discussion on medication adherence and ultimately propose targeted adherence interventions.
... Since SAL activities are cases of SRL, learners need to energize the initiation of a SAL activity somehow. As described within the goal-setting theory of motivation, individuals engage in goal-directed behavior to attain a future valued outcome (Locke and Latham, 2006). Higher task performance is usually positively related to the strength of a goal because it motivates a higher level of cognitive effort and self-regulation. ...
Article
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Using a Web search engine is one of today’s most frequent activities. Exploratory search activities which are carried out in order to gain knowledge are conceptualized and denoted as Search as Learning (SAL). In this paper, we introduce a novel framework model which incorporates the perspective of both psychology and computer science to describe the search as learning process by reviewing recent literature. The main entities of the model are the learner who is surrounded by a specific learning context , the interface that mediates between the learner and the information environment, the information retrieval (IR) backend which manages the processes between the interface and the set of Web resources, that is, the collective Web knowledge represented in resources of different modalities. At first, we provide an overview of the current state of the art with regard to the five main entities of our model, before we outline areas of future research to improve our understanding of search as learning processes.
... Goals can be defined as end-states that a person wants to achieve within a certain timeframe in specific contexts (Zimmerman & Schunk, 2008). Setting a goal is suggested to influence people's motivation and performance through four mechanisms: providing cognitive and behavioral directions, increasing people's energies and efforts to handle tasks, increasing persistence to complete tasks, and evoking affective reactions, such as increased satisfaction (Locke & Latham, 2006;Zimmerman, 2008). Hence, gamification tools might help people set goals (especially when rules are clearly identified) and increase their goal-related behaviors for achievement Hakulinen et al., 2013;Hamari, 2017;Morris et al., 2019;Tondello et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Gamification, or the intentional use of gaming elements in non-game contexts, has been touted as a promising tool to improve educational outcomes in online education, yet the evidence regarding why it might work and its effectiveness is inconclusive. One reason is that previous research has often included several gamification tools together, neglecting that each gamification tool can vary in effectiveness. In order to evaluate their relative impact, two frequently used gamification tools, badges (i.e., digital credentials given for achievements) and leaderboards (i.e., digital rankings based on performance), were compared for their effectiveness on the academic performance and motivation of students. Two experiments were conducted in two online undergraduate physics courses taught via a learning management system. In Experiment 1 (N = 102), badges and leaderboards were implemented in only one part of the course grading system (i.e., quizzes). In Experiment 2 (N = 88), all course grading system was gamified (i.e., quizzes and assignments). Four groups were created by random assignment of participants: badges-only, leaderboards-only, badges with leaderboards, and control (i.e., no badges, no leaderboards). Academic performance was measured by comparing quiz scores among groups in Experiment 1 and both quiz and assignment scores in Experiment 2. Participants filled out a self-report motivation survey about badges and leaderboards at the end of the study. Two experiments yielded similar results: badges and leaderboards did not affect participants’ academic performance; however, most students approached them positively as motivational tools and wanted to see them in future online classes.
... The difficulty has a positive, linear relationship with the highest levels of effort and performance, but this function is valid only if the person has the necessary ability and experience to improve performance and is committed to a goal. In addition, complex tasks might require setting different types of goals, for example learning goals that facilitate acquiring the skills needed for high performance (Locke & Latham, 2006). Goal-setting theory acknowledges learning goals, also known as mastery goals, but is otherwise focused on performance and performance goals. ...
Thesis
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Self-tracking devices are promising tools for delivering support for behavioural changes. They present a mix of behaviourally relevant, theory-driven features and functionalities. The effectiveness of digital tools lies in their ability to scale solutions to individuals with diverse characteristics. However, the same solution will probably not deliver results for all needs. Some challenges could be overcome by commercial off-the-shelf systems designed to solve health behaviour problems, such as a lack of physical activity. Although digital systems to support health behaviour changes have progressed remarkably, there is still room for new endeavours to understand why some turn into solutions and why many do not work as expected. Accordingly, this thesis explores the intersection of theories and techniques of behaviour change and the current design of commercial self-tracking systems. The work is based on subjective user evaluations and built on the persuasive systems design (PSD) model. Themes include reflection, the susceptibility to social influence strategies, the need for cognition, an exerciser’s self-schema and goal focus. This thesis comprises five studies. The quantitative data for the thesis were collected using structured survey questionnaires in 2015 and 2019. Surveys targeted those who had used their self- selected systems to monitor physical activity. Theory-based research models were analysed using structural equation modelling. The studies report differences in user evaluations in each studied theoretical theme and highlight heterogeneity in the real-life context of physical activity monitoring. Findings suggest that even the most basic mechanisms might not work for all users or systems. Users also choose systems to match their preferences and motivations, and tailoring approaches might not always be feasible. This work also contributes to perceptions of effectiveness, often neglected in discussions of evidence and theory. The thesis presents design insights from the intersection of evidence-based strategies and subjective user experiences and aims to advance the designs of future systems by embracing the subjective nature of behaviour change experiences.
... In general, there is evidence that self-efficacy positively influences task performance (Avey, Palanski, & Walumbwa, 2011;Bandura & Locke, 2003;Koonce, 2012;Kozlowski, Watola, Jensen, Kim, & Botero, 2009;Krauter, 2020;Locke & Latham, 2006). In particular, studies propose that leadership self-efficacy is positively related to performance indicators (Dwyer, 2019;Katz-Navon & Erez, 2005;Lev & Koslowsky, 2009;Paglis, 2010). ...
... Research in the motivation and goal pursuit literatures have long documented the importance of setting specific goals when trying to bring about difficult changes (for a review, see Locke & Latham, 2006). These principles can be applied to the current goal of making ...
Article
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Psychological science is at an inflection point: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated inequalities that stem from our historically closed and exclusive culture. Meanwhile, reform efforts to change the future of our science are too narrow in focus to fully succeed. In this article, we call on psychological scientists-focusing specifically on those who use quantitative methods in the United States as one context for such conversations-to begin reimagining our discipline as fundamentally open and inclusive. First, we discuss whom our discipline was designed to serve and how this history produced the inequitable reward and support systems we see today. Second, we highlight how current institutional responses to address worsening inequalities are inadequate, as well as how our disciplinary perspective may both help and hinder our ability to craft effective solutions. Third, we take a hard look in the mirror at the disconnect between what we ostensibly value as a field and what we actually practice. Fourth and finally, we lead readers through a roadmap for reimagining psychological science in whatever roles and spaces they occupy, from an informal discussion group in a department to a formal strategic planning retreat at a scientific society.
... Central to game design is goal setting, as was done in the present study by giving participants a goal number of laps to beat when completing the obstacle course activity. Whether set by oneself or another person, having a goal can motivate one to strive to achieve the goal and set a standard for being satisfied with a performance (29). It is possible that children who achieved the goal number of laps may have felt a sense of accomplishment, enhancing enjoyment of the activity. ...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological responses to intermittent activities of varying intensities and types among children with and without asthma. Methods: A total of 37 children and adolescents (51% male, aged 8-16 y, 54% nonwhite, and 54% without asthma) participated in this study. Participants completed 5 exercises in the same order: self-paced walking, resistance activities, dance video, gamified obstacle course, and step test. In-task mood was assessed using the Feeling Scale, in-task perceived exertion was assessed via the ratings of perceived exertion scale, and postactivity enjoyment was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. Results: There was a significant main effect of exercise type on mood (P < .001), ratings of perceived exertion (P < .001), and enjoyment (P < .002). There was not a significant main effect of asthma status on mood, ratings of perceived exertion, or enjoyment (Ps > .05). Children with asthma reported significantly lower in-task mood during the step exercise (P < .037) and reported significantly lower postactivity enjoyment after the walk and obstacle course exercises (Ps < .03). Conclusions: Regardless of differences by asthma status for in-task mood during the obstacle course and for postactivity enjoyment during the walk and step exercises, both children with and without asthma reported high in-task mood and postactivity enjoyment during all 5 exercises.
... Learning goals are important for constructive SRL processes. The positive effects of concrete goals on performance are also shown in goal-setting theory (LI6) (Locke and Latham, 2006), therefore training outcomes through goals and feedback on demonstrated learning performance are built into the system (MR5). ...
Conference Paper
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Empathy is an essential component of human communication since it increases our understanding and perception of others. However, studies show that students' empathy skills have declined rapidly in the last decades. Against this background, practitioner reports predict that the importance of empathy will increase as a skill for successful agile teamwork in the future. Therefore, researchers have designed information systems to train empathy abilities of learners in different domains. Nevertheless, research on automated speech-based training is rather scarce. Hence, we aim to investigate how to design a speech-based empathy training system that helps students react emotionally adequately in communication. This research in progress paper presents five initial requirements that guide future research and development of a speech-based empathy training system intended to support students' self-regulated learning. With this, we hope to provide guidance for the design and embedding of speech-based empathy training systems at scale.
... Goal setting also encourages student learning motivation because learning goals are more visible and apparent [7]. For this reason, educators must be able to facilitate practical goal-setting interventions in the learning process, both individually and collectively [16], [20]. Based on the explanation of previous studies, it can be determined that goal setting and selfregulation are essential in creating good academic performance. ...
... For example, research about feedback found that a high learning goal alleviated the damage of negative comparative feedback on learning motivation (Dahling & Ruppel, 2016). Furthermore, the high learning goal strengthened the positive effect of high-difficulty goal on performance (Locke & Latham, 2006), thus could possibly neutralize the negative impact of negative feedback, which likely occurred simultaneously with high-difficulty goal. Nebel et al. (2017) further explored the relationship between goal orientation and learning experience in the leaderboard context and found that performance goal was positively related to perceived competition while learning goal was almost irrelevant to perceived competition. ...
Article
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Background As one of the gamification elements, leaderboard, especially absolute leaderboard, is widely used in educational gamification systems. However, empirical studies on the optimal use condition of the leaderboard and underlying influence mechanisms are deficient. Objectives This study explored which difficulty was more conducive to learning performance in leaderboard context, and when and how it played a role. Methods To address these questions, this study conducted a 2 (dominant goal orientation: learning/performance) × 2 (difficulty: high/low) between‐subjects design. Seventy‐eight dominant learning‐oriented and 78 dominant performance‐oriented participants were recruited and randomly assigned to the high or low difficulty group respectively. Results and Conclusions Participants in the low difficulty group experienced more positive emotions, less negative emotions, and higher learning motivation than those in the high difficulty group, but the effect of difficulty on performance was not significant. Moreover, goal orientation did not moderate the effects of difficulty, dominant learning‐oriented and performance‐oriented learners were equally affected by difficulty. Further mediating analysis showed that negative emotions and learning motivation rather than positive emotions mediated the relationship between difficulty and learning performance. Implications These results confirmed the positive effect of low difficulty in leaderboard context, as well as the mediating roles of emotions and motivation involved in the relationship between difficulty and learning performance. These findings enlighten us that it is necessary to equip leaderboards in educational gamification with achievable difficulty.
... A goal is defined as what the individual consciously seeks to accomplish (Lunenburg, 2011). Abundant evidence from diverse domains, such as the workplace (Locke, 1968), sports (Kingston and Wilson, 2008), consumer behavior (Breedvelt et al., 2020), and the health context (Strecher et al., 1995;Cullen et al., 2001) indicates that goal setting is a powerful technique for motivating individuals to engage in action and to reduce the discrepancy between the current status quo and a desired end state (Locke and Latham, 2006). Several literature reviews examined the influence of goal setting strategies on dietary and physical activity behavior changes (Shilts et al., 2004;Pearson, 2012) and found positive effects of goal setting on decreased fat intake, increased fiber consumption, and higher exercise adherence, among others. ...
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Overweight individuals often struggle to lose weight. While previous studies established goal setting as an effective strategy for weight loss, little is known about the effects of numeric goal precision. The present research investigated whether and how the precision of weight loss goals—the number of trailing zeros—impacts a goal’s effectiveness. In two preregistered, longitudinal experiments, we contrasted competing predictions as to whether precise (e.g., 2.923 kg) or round (e.g., 3.000 kg) goals are more effective compared to a waiting control condition. In Experiment 1 ( N = 121), participants in the two goal conditions lost more weight compared to the control condition—an effect that was mainly driven by precise (rather than round) goals. In Experiment 2 ( N = 150), we sought to replicate this effect but found no significant weight loss differences. An individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis across both experiments revealed that (a) the goal groups jointly lost more weight than the waiting control group and (b) the precise and round goal groups did not differ in weight loss success. An IPD-based multiple mediation analysis showed that healthier eating, but not physical exercise accounted for goal-setting-induced weight loss. We discuss possible explanations for the null findings in Experiment 2 and highlight directions for future research.
... Failure to achieve desired/assigned goals can negatively impact students' satisfaction [60], hence their perception of control over time. It is therefore essential to emphasize feedback on goal attainment as key moderators for goal-setting, which stimulate students' commitment and better performance and help them adjust and improve their approaches towards their goals [60,61]. Being independent learners during the pandemic could have limited students' chances of getting feedback from instructors and peers. ...
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The study explored the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on students' mental health in higher education while capturing their perceptions and attitudes towards time management. The aim was to examine relationships between stress, anxiety, and specific time management-related factors. Considering possible differences between genders and degree levels, we developed five structural equation models (SEMs) to delineate these relationships. Results of a large-scale study of 502 participants show that students suffered from stress and two types of COVID-19-related anxiety: disease and consequences. Students' preference for organization was the only factor that significantly promoted their perceived control over time, which contributes to reducing stress, hence anxiety. However, female students reported higher stress and anxiety levels than male students. Graduate students reported higher anxiety levels related to the consequences of the pandemic compared to undergrads. To promote students' preference for organization, we map the three categories of organization to corresponding persuasive strategies which could be used in the design of persuasive interventions. This creates an opportunity for developing technological interventions to improve students' perceived control over time, thus reduce stress and anxiety.
... Standards of quality or performance -such as excellencism and perfectionism-, are known to affect levels of commitment, efforts, academic achievement (Madigan, 2019), and affective states such as anxiety (Smith et al., 2018), depression (Smith et al., 2016), burnout (Hill & Curran, 2016), and procrastination (Sirois, Molnar, & Hirsch, 2017). High standards promote an effortful and engaged pursuit of objectives (Locke & Latham, 2006). However, it also increases the pressure to meetor avoid not meeting-those standards. ...
Article
Students may differ on their standards of performance, reasons for attending school, beliefs about their academic and creative abilities, and the importance they place on school and creativity. The current study employed Latent Profile Analyses to identify sub-populations of university students based on the following seven indicators: standards of perfectionsim and excellencism, academic autonomous motivation, controlled motivation and amotivation, as well as academic and creative self-concepts. From a sample of n = 184 university students, five profiles were identified. The profiles could be described as Perfectionists with controlled motivation, Excellentists with autonomous motivation, Intermediate strivers with autonomous motivation, Intermediate strivers with controlled motivation, and Low strivers. The profiles were regressed onto various academic and creative outcomes. The results of three profiles in particular offered informative comparisons. In particular, the Perfectionists and the Excellentists profiles had similar achievement goals orientations (i.e., high on performance and mastery) but different motivational profiles and different divergent thinking abilities. The Excellentists profiles was higher than all the other profiles on divergent thinking except the Low strivers. The Low strivers profile was low on all achievement goal orientations but high on divergent thinking abilities. We discuss the implications of finding creative profiles within the academic environment and situate our findings within the achievement goals literature.
... Les travaux menés dans le cadre de la théorie de la fixation du but (Goal Setting theory, Locke & Latham, 2006 ont permis d'identifier quatre médiateurs de la fixation du but. Le premier, la directionnalité, fait référence au choix de la direction de l'attention et de l'effort. ...
Thesis
L’objectif de cette thèse est de contribuer à la compréhension de l’influence du fonctionnement exécutif et de la métacognition sur l’autorégulation des apprentissages chez le jeune enfant. Nous avons ciblé les deux premières étapes de l’autorégulation -fixation du but et engagement stratégique- car elles sont particulièrement difficiles pour de jeunes enfants. Leurs capacités cognitives de prise en compte des indices dans l’environnement sont en plein développement, ce qui ne leur permet pas encore de prendre pleinement conscience de tous les aspects d’une situation. Des travaux récents suggèrent qu’entraîner de jeunes enfants à utiliser des stratégies cognitives spécifiques est une piste prometteuse pour favoriser la fixation du but (Lucenet & Blaye, 2019). Les stratégies sont en effet au cœur de l’autorégulation et leur étude peut contribuer à mieux comprendre le développement de celle-ci (Clerc, 2013). Le modèle COPES (Winne, 1997) avait déjà mis en évidence l’importance des expériences et des stratégies pour favoriser un apprentissage autorégulé. Plus récemment, le modèle MASRL (Efklides, 2011) a mis l’accent sur les performances des élèves pendant l'exécution d’une tâche, en envisageant les processus par lesquels l’autorégulation s'améliore avec le développement. Enfin, selon Diamond (2016), l’efficacité du fonctionnement exécutif dépend des trois fonctions exécutives fondamentales. Elles constituent la part cognitive de l’autorégulation et connaissent des trajectoires développementales différentes. Nous nous sommes focalisés sur la flexibilité, définie comme la capacité d'adapter nos pensées et nos comportements en réponse aux changements de buts ou d’environnement (Blakey et al., 2016). Elle pourrait être impliquée dans la fixation d’un but, le but étant par nature changeant car régulièrement réévalué pendant l’exécution d’une tâche.Nous avons conduit trois études. La première évalue le rôle joué par la flexibilité et la métacognition sur la capacité de 106 enfants de 4 ans à s’adapter aux changements de l’environnement pendant la réalisation d’un puzzle. Nous avons testé si l’ajout d’une contrainte annoncée les poussait à modifier leur but, comparativement à l’ajout d’une contrainte non annoncée. Un outil ludique et original a été spécifiquement créé pour mesurer le choix de but. La deuxième étude en est un prolongement. Nous avons testé l’effet d’un entraînement à l’utilisation de deux stratégies d’auto-identification des indices d’une tâche (pointage, verbalisation) sur la fixation de buts et sur le recours aux deux stratégies en question chez 58 enfants de 4 ans. Nous avons testé si la flexibilité, le fonctionnement exécutif global et la métacognition peuvent impacter la fixation du but et le recours aux stratégies, notamment dans une tâche de transfert. A nouveau, un matériel familier à forte validité écologique a été créé (Jeux de tri de cartes indicées et Planches de pointage). La troisième étude, composée de deux expériences de nature transversale, s’est intéressée plus spécifiquement au transfert de stratégies. Nous avons testé l’implication de la flexibilité sur la capacité de 140 enfants de 5 à 7 ans à transférer une stratégie mnésique (autorépétition, groupement catégoriel à l’encodage et au rappel) ainsi que sur l’effet bénéfique de cette stratégie sur le rappel en tâche de transfert. Ces trois études ont permis d’éclairer plus finement les relations spécifiques entre trois concepts fondamentaux pour les apprentissages chez de jeunes enfants. Nous avons pu montrer l’implication de la flexibilité et de la métacognition dans la fixation des buts et dans le transfert de stratégie après entraînement. Nous avons aussi pu préciser les liens qui les unissent : la flexibilité et le fonctionnement exécutif prédisent la métacognition chez les enfants de 4 ans rencontrés. Nous considérons ainsi ces deux fonctions comme des précurseurs de l’autorégulation des apprentissages chez le jeune enfant.
... In golf, for example, a learning goal of a novice may reflect the pursuit of mastering one's swing versus a performance goal of achieving a certain score. Performance goals can prove problematic, as doing so leads to tunnel vision and/or efforts to attain immediate results that inhibit meaningful progress (Latham & Seijts, 2016;Locke & Latham 2006). Alternatively, learning goals orient individuals toward the discovery and pursuit of strategies or processes that will eventually yield desired results but through a process associated with various pluses and minuses over time (Chen & Latham, 2014;Porter & Latham, 2013;Seijts & Latham, 2005;Welsh et al., 2019). ...
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With the rise of accelerators, angel groups, and business plan competitions, pitching has become an important step for most entrepreneurs raising capital. In this exploratory study, we investigate the effects of pitch training, exploring a variety of outcomes over two time horizons. We conducted a field experiment that randomly assigned 271 would-be entrepreneurs at four elevator pitch competitions to receive one of four pitch training treatments or a null treatment. We observe that pitch training — when received the day of the competition — leads entrepreneurs to improve their pitches, although it causes short-term disruption to pitch delivery. Over the following 30 months, all varieties of pitch training cause entrepreneurs to work more on their pitches, to participate in more business plan competitions and accelerator programs, and to engage in entrepreneurial learning beyond the pitch itself. Entrepreneurs who receive pitch training also are less likely to have employees and are more likely to abandon their initial ventures and founder roles. We discuss the implications of these exploratory observations for the development of theory about pitch training. Plain English Summary With the rise of accelerators, angel groups, and competitions, pitching has become a crucial skill for entrepreneurs raising capital. What are the short- and long-run consequences of training entrepreneurs to pitch? We conducted a field experiment to explore this question. Participants in four pitch competitions randomly received a pitch training treatment or a null treatment. They then delivered their pitch to real-world investors. We observe that pitch training leads entrepreneurs to improve their pitches but also causes short-term disruption to pitch delivery as they incorporate information. Thirty months later, pitch training caused entrepreneurs to work more on their pitches, participate in more pitch competitions and accelerator programs, and engage in entrepreneurial learning. The main messages for practitioners are, first, that training helps but the effects are nuanced. Absorbing training may take time. Second, pitch training can act as a catalyst for further development outside the pitch itself.
... By incorporating successive training stages, offering multiple target species and working in different environments, volunteers had multiple opportunities for iterative goal setting and attainment. Applying goal-setting and goal implementation principles (Locke and Latham 2006) to training volunteer CDD teams may help foster satisfaction and longer term engagement. While some level of participant attrition is to be expected in any volunteer project (Stukas et al. 2015), we consider retention in this project to be particularly robust; 13 of 19 initial pet dog-owner teams completed the full 3.5 year training project and six teams remain actively engaged in our work almost 4 years after their initial recruitment. ...
... Besides, the distribution of goal-setting studies globally suggests that virtually all have been done in settings limited to developed countries. 3,17 To my knowledge, no previous empirical research has investigated the process of how health goals are formulated or the framework of a real-time goal-setting practice in a developing country context. Thus, while goal-setting is universally practised as a standard approach to direct local, national and organisational healthcare services towards desired health outcomes, 18,19 there is still a paucity of empirical knowledge of how healthcare goals that are foundational to health intervention plans are formulated at any level of healthcare delivery. ...
Article
Goal‐setting in any practice context is vague unless the process is based on a framework that produces good goals. Popular goal‐setting frameworks construct Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time‐bound (SMART) goal statements. Yet, research of how healthcare goals that are foundational to health plans are formulated is scanty. This case study explored the goal‐setting practice of an organisation in Nigeria to discover the theoretical frameworks for setting the goals of their leprosy projects. The study triangulated individual semi‐structured interviews of 10 leprosy managers with a review of their project plans and a participant observation of the organisation's annual planning event. A five‐stage thematic analysis was used to serially identify, code, and integrate goal‐setting themes from the data collected. This produced three final emergent themes: stakeholders, strategy, and goal statements, with 11 associated conceptual frameworks. All were further theoretically integrated into one general framework that illustrates the organisational goal‐setting practice at the time of study. This revealed a practice with a four‐staged linear centre‐driven process that led to a top‐down, problem‐based goal formulation, and produced assigned project plans based on hierarchical non‐SMART goal statements. Collaborative goal‐setting process is proposed for Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timed, and Agreeable statements of project objectives and aims written with Change, Beneficiaries, Indicator, Target, Timeframe and Change, Beneficiaries, Location, and Timeframe models respectively. Health projects need appropriate organisational frameworks to formulate the good goals they require to prepare realistic intervention plans that can deliver desired outcomes. Many project managers do not know how to set Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time‐bound (SMART) goals and therefore need effective frameworks that clearly outline the process and construct the SMART goals. The general theoretical framework constructed from an organisational practice in Nigeria describes a centralised four‐staged goal‐setting process that uses a top‐down problem‐based goal formulation but produces non‐SMART objectives and aims for project planning. A practice goal‐setting theory formulated states that, ‘Goal statements will be SMARTA and plans more realistic, if the goal‐setting process is collaboratively performed at all stages of the practice by all relevant project stakeholders.’ Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timed, and Agreeable goals could be formulated using the CBITT framework from for objectives and CBLT framework for aims. Health projects need appropriate organisational frameworks to formulate the good goals they require to prepare realistic intervention plans that can deliver desired outcomes. Many project managers do not know how to set Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time‐bound (SMART) goals and therefore need effective frameworks that clearly outline the process and construct the SMART goals. The general theoretical framework constructed from an organisational practice in Nigeria describes a centralised four‐staged goal‐setting process that uses a top‐down problem‐based goal formulation but produces non‐SMART objectives and aims for project planning. A practice goal‐setting theory formulated states that, ‘Goal statements will be SMARTA and plans more realistic, if the goal‐setting process is collaboratively performed at all stages of the practice by all relevant project stakeholders.’ Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timed, and Agreeable goals could be formulated using the CBITT framework from for objectives and CBLT framework for aims.
... Tasks are the activities undertaken to reach a goal, that is the behaviors themselves (planning and organizing are also behaviors in this sense). Goals strongly influence behavior, attention, and motivation, leading to better performance on tasks (Locke, 1996;Locke & Latham, 2006). When a high-level goal is paired with unspecific tasks, goals are less likely to be achieved. ...
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Including incubation periods when solving creative tasks; that is, setting the task temporarily aside, has been shown to benefit creative problem solving in experimental settings. However, practical implications and benefits of incubation are unclear, especially in a school setting. An important factor involves the difference between how creative problems are defined in an experimental situation, on the one hand, and an applied context, such as schools, on the other. Creative problems in incubation experiments are typically clearly defined tasks, but such well-defined problems are rarely found in practical situations where ambiguous problems with multiple solutions are more likely. For incubation to be relevant in an applied setting, such as schools, it is vital to understand the role of how tasks are defined. The aim of the current study was to assess whether having a highly constrained task is necessary for incubation periods to benefit creative problem solving. An experiment with two fully crossed independent variables, incubation period (included and not included) and task constraints (high and medium) was used to investigate the effects on both creative originality and creative productivity. Task constraints were implemented by first allowing participants to select their task and then later allowing half of the participants to revise their choice. An incubation period was implemented by interpolating a choice reaction task into the creative task for half of the participants. The results demonstrate that clear unchangeable tasks are necessary for incubation to benefit creative problem solving. Choice must, therefore, be constrained before the task is temporarily set aside, for incubation to benefit creativity. For practical applications in a school setting, this means that students should be encouraged to select a task or settle on an idea early in the process of completing a creative assignment to benefit from incubation periods.
... For example, there is a strong positive relationship between specific and clearly defined goals and performance, particularly when goals are easy to measure (Locke, 1968). This relationship has been proven by more than 400 studies (Locke & Latham, 2006) in various settings 2 , such as task uncertainty (Belkaoui, 1990), reward type (Chen et al., 2022;Webb et al., 2013), and goal flexibility (Arnold & Artz, 2015). However, it remains unclear how goal difficulty affects effort when team dynamics vary. ...
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Goal-setting is a common practice to motivate effort. However, little is known about the effectiveness of group goal difficulty on shirking depends on team dynamics, such as group identity. We study the question under a mixed incentives setting where a combination of a tournament incentive and a group-based pay is offered as such an incentive setting is widely used in practice. Using a real-effort experiment, we predict and find that group goal difficulty has a negative effect on shirking when group identity is strong but has a positive effect when group identity is weak. That is, in strongly identified groups, increasing group goal difficulty motivates shirking. Yet, in weakly identified groups, increasing group goal difficulty reduces shirking. The reason is that when group identity is weak, group members focus on individual interests and compete for a larger tournament incentive. When group identity is strong, group members focus on the group's common good. Failing to reach group goals weakens the strong group identity and, therefore, demotivates effort. The study suggests that given the wide use of mixed incentives in practice, organizations need to form teams carefully as team dynamics may adversely affect the influence of the control mechanism on effort.
... Originated from industrial-organizational psychology and the work of Locke and Latham (2006;1981), GST argues that goals that have specific and precise details typically lead to more concrete outcomes and improved performance, as compared to vague, unclear goals or abstract statements (e.g., "do the best I can!"). Many experimental studies informed by GST have established that those who have set explicit goals show a higher capacity to self-regulate their behaviors toward a specific goal, which helps to steer away from other distractions or irrelevant goals. ...
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The negative consequences of smartphone use have been the subject of much attention for the past few years. To help reduce these consequences, smartphone applications and features were developed to enable self-monitoring behaviors. However, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of smartphone-enabled self-monitoring behaviors and the potential positive outcomes of such behaviors have received limited scholarly attention. This study ameliorates this gap by proposing a framework that highlights key antecedents and outcomes of screen-time self-monitoring success based on a smartphone-based self-monitoring intervention. Informed by a short-term longitudinal study, our results show how smartphone-based self-monitoring could enhance awareness of smartphone use and, consequently, lead to positive outcomes for users. The findings reveal that user perceptions of smartphone self-monitoring affordances, outcome expectations, and smartphone self-monitoring efficacy are positively linked with self-monitoring smartphone use. In turn, self-monitoring enhances user productivity and leads to an overall sense of contentment with achievement. Nevertheless, these relationships are negatively moderated by 2 self-monitoring fatigue. This study offers novel theoretical and practical insights to promote a more regulated use of smartphones.
... The importance of studying the behaviour change content in stand-alone apps is that assistance from other people (e.g., mental health professionals) is often absent or minimised, making the inclusion of selfmanagement features through the use of BCTs central to the effectiveness of the apps. Crucial to self-management are goal-setting, selfmonitoring and self-evaluation skills (Fellner & Sulzer-Azaroff, 1984;Lambert et al., 1999;Locke & Latham, 2006). ...
... In addition, gamification has also been associated with the goal-setting theory. This theory explains that there are four factors which can affect the students' performance: their commitment towards the goal, the feedback they receive, the complexity of the activity, and the situational limits (Landers, 2014;Locke & Latham, 2002;Locke & Latham, 2006). Basically, gamification requires a challenge, some progress feedback, the knowledge of the levels of achievement, and some type of competition (Huang & Hew, 2018). ...
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Background: FantaTraining ® is an app that simulates a football league. Each participant represents a team, and the game is played with the opposing team by answering a questionnaire. In the intervals between games, participants can practice by consulting the educational material (films, short texts, or slides) in the app. Various prizes are offered to the winners of the championship. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the use of the FantaTraining ® app could improve the learning of anesthesia trainees registered in an online obstetric anesthesia course. Methods: The study involved 282 trainees in anesthesia, from five Italian universities, registered in the Online Obstetric Anesthesia Course (OOAC) who were given the app. They were randomly allocated into two groups according to whether the app had been enabled to allow the participant to play the league (study group, n=137), or not (control group, n=145). All the trainees underwent entry and final tests, consisting of the same 40 multiple choice questions, respectively before and after completing the OOAC course. Results: There were no differences in the scores obtained in the pre-course test between the groups. The mean score obtained in the final test was significantly greater than that obtained in the entry one in both groups (P<0.05) but the final test score obtained by the participants of the study group was significantly greater than that obtained by the control group. (P<0.001), regardless of the university of origin and year of specialization. Trainees stated that the app had helped their study, improving understanding and motivation, without increasing the intensity of study. Conclusions: Using the FantaTraining ® app greatly improved trainees’ final exam performance after the online obstetric anesthesia course. The FantaTraining ® app seems a promising tool to improve learning outcomes by strengthening learning behaviors and attitudes towards learning.
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As project management scholars, we should not automatically assume that theories borrowed from other fields will produce desirable results when applied to the project management domain. To illustrate this, I focus on the problem of project escalation and discuss how three theories that have been widely touted as producing good outcomes in other fields may produce undesirable consequences when applied to the project escalation context. I argue that when good theories backfire, this creates an opportunity for project management scholars to expose the boundary conditions of such theories.
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The leadership literature advances that vision communication is essential for leadership because it enhances follower motivation by providing a deeper meaning for one's job. However, empirical research on the relationship between visions and outcomes are mixed suggesting that moderators may be at play—and indeed moderators have been investigated in terms of follower characteristics and environmental circumstances. Yet, one crucial aspect of vision communication is overlooked: the notion that vision communication is embedded in the broader range of leadership behaviors and thus that vision communication effectiveness is dependent on how it relates to other leadership activities. In this research, we focus on leader task goal setting as a moderator of vision communication since task goal setting is strongly related to vision communication and is frequently used by leaders. Our hypotheses are based on Behavioral Integrity (BI) theory, which suggests that leaders are perceived as more effective when their words are mirrored in their deeds. In this vein, we propose that vision communication leads to better outcomes when the values communicated in a vision are aligned with values later communicated in task goals because alignment causes higher levels of BI of the leader. Results of a scenario study and a field study support these predictions and we discuss implications for research and practice, such as leadership development programs.
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Organizations operate in dynamic environments, which not only requires organizations to adjust, but also for employees to adapt quickly to align with new or adjusted organizational goals. Servant leadership has been shown to help employees develop and grow and behave in a moral and fair manner which are important elements for successful change. We aim to provide a further understanding of the associations between servant leadership and organizational outcomes during changing times. Drawing on the theories of social exchange and goal-setting, and the norm of reciprocity, we propose the mediating role of organizational goal clarity in the associations between servant leadership and five organizational outcomes. The hypotheses are tested in four studies: a two-wave time-lagged survey study conducted in a service company going through a merger, and three experimental studies. The results show that servant leadership relates positively to goal clarity and negatively to uncertainty of employees during organizational change. Furthermore, organizational goal clarity positively mediates the associations between servant leadership and employees’ organizational change commitment and service performance (e.g., organizational citizenship behavior, customer service and customer orientation). This investigation provides a theoretical and empirical validation of a mechanism through which servant leaders enhance organizational performance during changing times.
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Executive social irresponsibility has received increasing research attention in recent years, following the consensus for a broader stakeholder approach to managerial decision making. Despite the importance of the subject, there remains insufficient research on contextual factors that mold executives’ orientation toward social responsibility. Through three studies, we demonstrate that difficult business goals can reduce executives’ tendency to consider social responsibility in their decision making. Further, we find that focalism—a cognitive bias based on affective forecasting theory—can mediate positive relationships between business goal difficulty and socially irresponsible executive behavior. Our findings also suggest that, expanding executives’ thought processes beyond the narrow focus of a business goal achievement can be a good strategy in reducing socially irresponsible executive behavior, even in the presence of difficult goals.
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The paper examines the relationship between gamification – the use of game elements in non-gaming contexts – and innovation teams’ outcomes. It builds on psychological and teamwork theories, arguing that gamification overcomes collaboration issues and generates multiple positive outcomes, particularly in coordination, alignment, engagement, and teams’ motivation. The research follows a qualitative theory-driven using a case study of an innovation project. The conceptual model built through the findings offers valuable insights about applying gamification in innovation teams, namely: i) surprising teams with such a new and playful approach reduces stress among team members; ii) rules and time constraints play a crucial role in teams’ coordination by avoiding dispersion and enhancing focused efforts. The paper provides a set of testable theoretical propositions derived from the conceptualization of gamification in the context of innovation teams and supports innovation managers interested in measuring gamification outcomes in teams.
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Environmental crises often stem back to how humans make decisions and behave. Thus, the extent to which we can successfully address these challenges will depend on the extent to which we can design and deliver effective behavioral change interventions. This project examines how complex behavioral change interventions can be applied to modify human behavior of villagers living in coastal communities. Our work aimed to increase adoption of sustainable behaviors, protect marine biodiversity, improve community wellbeing, increase individual psychosocial skills and executive functions, and increase communal resiliency and adaptability. We conducted pilot and feasibility efficacy trials in two low‐resource coastal communities in Indonesia and Philippines. We used a single site case study and a quasi‐experimental design with control‐treatment matching to evaluate the intervention. Results include increased sustainable behaviors (e.g., recycling), increased prosocial behaviors (e.g., positive communication), and increased perceptions of empowerment for groups exposed to the intervention.
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Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) researchers have been increasingly interested in investigating self-trackers’ experience with self-tracking tools (STT) to get meaningful insights from their data. However, the literature lacks a coherent, integrated and dedicated source on designing tools that support self-trackers’ sensemaking practices. To address this, we carried out a systematic literature review by synthesizing the findings of 91 articles published before 2021 in HCI literature. We iden- tified four data sensemaking modes that self-trackers go through (i.e., self-calibration, data aug- mentation, data handling, and realization). We also identified four design implications for designing self-tracking tools that support self-trackers’ data sensemaking practices (i.e., customized tracking experience, guided sensemaking, collaborative sensemaking, and learning sensemaking through self-experimentation). We provide a research agenda with nine directions for advancing HCI studies on data sensemaking practices. With these contributions, we created an analytical information source that could guide designers and researchers in understanding, studying, and designing for self-trackers’ data sensemaking practices.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the theoretical foundations of health education. Although health education theories and models are many, the chapter focuses on the most popular four: the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior, the transtheoretical model of change, and the social cognitive theory. These models are explained through a scenario that highlights determinants of health behavior and how they can be used by health educators to plan behavioral change. The chapter continues with basic instructional design principles that guide the development of health education interventions, stressing the interplay between health education and instructional design. Lastly, the chapter ends with a brief synopsis of two widely used health education planning models, PRECEED-PROCEDE and intervention mapping, to provide a systems perspective to health education interventions.
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ABSTRACT In order to understand the reasons behind consumer switching from one product to the other, it is always important to, first of all, have an understanding of consumer behavior which greatly impact marketing strategies and business performance in general. This study was undertaken to evaluate consumer attitudes towards made-in Ghana goods (rice) and also investigate factors influencing consumer switch from local to imported goods. The study is also to understand the influences that determine consumers' purchase intentions. Both qualitative and quantitative method was employed in attempting to gain an understanding of the research problems. A sample of 200 randomly selected consumers were surveyed using structured questionnaires. The findings of this study suggest that the country of origin of the rice is more important than the product attributes and other price factors. The consumers of rice in Ho urban perceive rice produced in their own country to have lower quality than that of the foreign-produced rice. Also, consumer taste and superior packaging are the two most important reasons for the consumer's preferences for foreign rice in Ho urban. It was recommended that local rice producers should also concentrate more on maintaining the aroma and taste of the locally manufactured rice since these attributes tend to draw consumers towards the foreign rice. The government should also intensify the campaign "Buy Made in Ghana Goods" this process must not be the duty of the government alone but the manufacturers and the Ghana Association of Industries as well. It will take a long time to change consumer buying behavior which needs the effective use of promotional channels. Therefore manufacturing firms are urged to augment the quality levels of their products, again, this study made consideration to only one product group. iv
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A complete understanding of decision-making in military domains requires gathering insights from several fields of study. To make the task tractable, here we consider a specific example of short-term tactical decisions under uncertainty made by the military at sea. Through this lens, we sketch out relevant literature from three psychological tasks each underpinned by decision-making processes: categorisation, communication and choice. From the literature, we note two general cognitive tendencies that emerge across all three stages: the effect of cognitive load and individual differences. Drawing on these tendencies, we recommend strategies, tools and future research that could improve performance in military domains – but, by extension, would also generalise to other high-stakes contexts. In so doing, we show the extent to which domain general properties of high order cognition are sufficient in explaining behaviours in domain specific contexts.
Article
Purpose The paper introduces a multi-level model to reduce prejudice through supporting diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) at the institutional, organizational, and individual levels. The purpose of the model is to provide theoretically undergirded pathways to explain how societal events calling for systemic changes in DEI practices can engage and inculcate such systemic changes in organizations and institutions. Design/methodology/approach The model draws upon macro-level (i.e. institutional theory and institutional logics) theories from sociology and strategic management, meso-level theories from leadership and strategy, and micro-level organizational behavior and human resource management theories. Findings Resting on open systems theory (Katz and Kahn, 1966) as a backdrop, the authors address how institutional changes result in organizational level changes driving multi-level outcomes of increased DEI, reduced prejudice in work-related settings, and performance gains. The authors suggest the recursive nature of the model can trigger institutional level shifts in logics or result in isomorphic pressures that further change organizational fields and organizations. Originality/value The contribution rests in a multi-level examination to help understand how environmental pressures can motivate organizations to enact broader changes related to social justice, specifically increasing efforts in DEI inside the operational aspects of the organization. By enacting these changes, the authors suggest the resultant positive changes in organizations will enhance culture and performance, creating isomorphic pressure for industry wide changes that may begin to move the needle on addressing systemic problems that feed prejudicial behavior in the workplace.
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Value Fulfillment Theory (VFT) is a philosophical theory of well-being. Cybernetic Big Five Theory (CB5T) is a psychological theory of personality. Both start with a conception of the person as a goal-seeking (or value-pursuing) organism, and both take goals and the psychological integration of goals to be key to well-being. By joining VFT and CB5T, we produce a cybernetic value fulfillment theory in which we argue that well-being is best conceived as the fulfillment of psychologically integrated values. Well-being is the effective pursuit of a set of nonconflicting values that are emotionally, motivationally, and cognitively suitable to the person. The primary difference in our theory from other psychological theories of well-being is that it does not provide a list of intrinsic goods, instead emphasizing that each person may have their own list of intrinsic goods. We discuss the implications of our theory for measuring, researching, and improving well-being.
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Behavioral community psychology focuses on studying issues that matter to communities, unpacking contextual factors that impact people’s behaviors, and identifying strategies to address such issues. Goal setting is one such strategy often used by behavioral psychologists. Grounded in the values of behavioral community psychology and a behavior analysis paradigm, this study illustrated two case studies of Latinx parents of children with disabilities where goal-setting strategies were implemented to promote behavior change. The first case study focused on the promotion of healthy lifestyle behaviors and routines among Latinx families of children with disabilities in the United States. The second case study examined goal setting related to youth development by parents of adolescents with disabilities in Colombia. In both cases, participants received training on goal setting and had opportunities to discuss progress toward achieving their goals, share action steps taken, and discuss the contextual challenges or barriers that they experienced. The results indicate that behavioral goal-setting procedures can be effective in helping parents attain their goals and brainstorm strategies for addressing behavioral and contextual challenges. Implications for future research advancing behavioral community psychology are discussed.
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Previous research has suggested mixed results concerning gifted populations and achievement goal orientation. This study investigated achievement goal orientation in honors and general education undergraduate students, exploring the factor structure of a commonly used assessment and looking at ability level differences using two types of statistical analyses. Responses from 8,530 students across 15 different universities indicated that the Achievement Goal Questionnaire – Revised (AGQ-R) is an adequate measure of the construct for honors and general education students. While independent samples t-tests showed that honors students are higher for several orientations, these differences disappeared in follow-up regression analyses that controlled for demographic characteristics. These results support the importance of appropriate assessment tools and inclusion of control variables when looking for differences between gifted and non-gifted populations.
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Uniting separate research streams on situational and dispositional goals, we investigated goal setting and goal orientation together in a complex business simulation. A specific learning goal led to higher performance than did either a specific performance goal or a vague goal. Goal orientation predicted performance when the goal was vague. The performance goal attenuated correlations between goal orientation and performance. The correlation between a learning goal orientation and performance was significant when a learning goal was set. Self-efficacy and information search mediated the effect of a learning goal on performance. Goal setting studies have their roots in organizational psychology, in contrast to research on goal orientation, which has roots in educational psychology. The focus of goal orientation studies is primarily on ability, whereas that of goal setting is on motivation. Consequently, the tasks used in goal setting research are typically straightforward for research participants, as the emphasis is primarily on effort and persistence. The tasks used in studies of goal orientation are usually complex, as the focus is on the acquisition of knowledge and skill. Performance is a function of both ability and motivation. Yet one research camp rarely takes into account findings by the other. The result is increasing confusion in the literature between a performance goal and a performance goal orientation; between the roles of situational as opposed to dis-positional goals as determinants of behavior; the circumstances in which a learning goal versus a learning goal orientation is likely to increase performance ; and whether goal orientation is a mod-erator of the goal-performance relationship. The purpose of the experiment reported here was to draw connections between these two related yet separate streams of work in organizational behavior , namely, goal setting and goal orientation.
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Previous research on entrepreneurship as well as goal, social-cognitive, and leadership theories has guided hypotheses regarding the relationship between entrepreneurial traits and skill (passion, tenacity, and new resource skill) and situationally specific motivation (communicated vision, self-efficacy, and goals) to subsequent venture growth. Data from 229 entrepreneur-chief executive officers and 106 associates in a single industry were obtained in a 6-year longitudinal study. Structural equation modeling revealed a web of relationships that impact venture growth. Goals, self-efficacy, and communicated vision had direct effects on venture growth, and these factors mediated the effects of passion, tenacity, and new resource skill on subsequent growth. Furthermore, communicated vision and self-efficacy were related to goals, and tenacity was related to new resource skill.
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The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. The external validity and practical significance of goal-setting theory are explained, and new directions in goal-setting research are discussed. The relationships of goal setting to other theories are described as are the theory’s limitations.
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Examined the effect of self-set personal and assigned group goal setting on an individual's behavior in 3- and 7-person groups confronted with a social dilemma. 274 Ss earned between $1.82 and $4.94 by investing money in either a personal account or a group account. Self-set personal goals that were compatible with an assigned group goal led to higher group performance than self-set incompatibly high ("greedy") personal goals. Collective-efficacy in making money, outcome expectancies that cooperation with others leads to the attainment of the group's goal, and group goal commitment correlated positively with group performance. Ss in 7-person groups (N = 28) were less cooperative than those in 3-person groups (N = 26). Ss in 7-person groups had lower collective-efficacy, lower outcome expectancies, and lower commitment to the group goal than did Ss in 3-person groups. Furthermore, individual performance in 7-person groups was significantly lower than individual performance in 3-person groups. A social dilemma appears to be a boundary condition for the normally positive effect of group goal setting on group performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Whether you're a manager, company psychologist, quality control specialist, or involved with motivating people to work harder in any capacity—Locke and Latham's guide will hand you the keen insight and practical advice you need to reach even your toughest cases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In a 3-year longitudinal study with a sample of N=82 young professionals (44% male; age range: 28–39 years), self-reported progress in the pursuit of personal goals was associated with affective well-being, work satisfaction, and subjective developmental success in the work domain. Goal progress, however, did not predict an increase in affective well-being and work satisfaction. Four constructs – goal difficulty, current work involvement, positive fantasies, and goal progress in the private domain – were selected to analyse their potentially moderating effect on the link between goal progress and well-being increases. Goal difficulty evinced the clearest moderating effects. Goal difficulty predicted change in all outcome criteria, that is, only adults who perceived their goals as difficult to reach also reported a change in positive and negative affect, job satisfaction, and subjective developmental success over a period of 3 years.
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The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. The external validity and practical significance of goal-setting theory are explained, and new directions in goal-setting research are discussed. The relationships of goal setting to other theories are described as are the theory's limitations.
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The purpose of this study is to examine the mechanisms by which personality traits influence performance and satisfaction. Specifically, the authors examined how 3 personality characteristics derived from self-determination theory (autonomy, control, and amotivated orientations) influence performance and enjoyment through achievement goal patterns, goal level, and mental focus. Data were collected from 284 students at 5 points in time. In particular, mental focus emerged as an important aspect of the self-regulation process. The results suggest that global personality traits can help researchers to understand and predict the motivational strategies that people use while working toward goals in achievement settings.
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In an attempt to extend past goal setting research, the present study examined the influence of goal-performance discrepancies (GPDs), causal attributions, and temporal factors on the process of dynamic self-regulation. Goal revision processes were examined longitudinally in a sample of 100 varsity-level college track and field athletes over the course of an 8-week competitive season. The results indicate that an individual's GPD significantly predicted the amount of goal revision engaged in by the athletes, such that participants were more likely to lower their competition (proximal) and season (distal) goals when they failed to reach these goals and their respective GPDs were large. However, as hypothesized, this relationship was moderated by stability attributions and the temporal location of the individual with respect to the time period allotted for goal attainment. Implications for future research in the area of goal setting and dynamic self-regulation are discussed.
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When working as a member of a team, individuals must make decisions concerning the allocation of resources (e.g., effort) toward individual goals and team goals. As a result, individual and team goals, and feedback related to progress toward these goals, should be potent levers for affecting resource allocation decisions. This research develops a multilevel, multiple-goal model of individual and team regulatory processes that affect the allocation of resources across individual and team goals resulting in individual and team performance. On the basis of this model, predictions concerning the impact of individual and team performance feedback are examined empirically to evaluate the model and to understand the influence of feedback on regulatory processes and resource allocation. Two hundred thirty-seven participants were randomly formed into 79 teams of 3 that performed a simulated radar task that required teamwork. Results support the model and the predicted role of feedback in affecting the allocation of resources when individuals strive to accomplish both individual and team goals.
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The reported research examines the moderating effects of role overload on the antecedents and consequences of self-efficacy and personal goal level in a longitudinal study conducted in an industrial selling context. The results indicate that role overload moderates the antecedent effect of perceived organizational resources on self-efficacy beliefs. They also show that role overload moderates the direct effects of both self-efficacy and goal level on performance, such that these relationships are positive when role overload is low but not significant when role overload is high. Further, the results reveal a pattern of moderated mediation, in which goal level mediates the indirect effect of self-efficacy on performance when role overload is low but not when it is high. Implications for theory and managerial practice are discussed.
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The authors conducted 2 studies of subconscious goal motivation. First, the authors ran a pilot study to establish the effects of priming of subconscious goals on a performance task frequently used in goal setting research. Second, the authors conducted the main study in which the authors examined the effects of both priming of subconscious goals and assigned conscious goals on the same performance task. The authors found significant main effects of both manipulations and a significant interaction between subconscious and conscious goals. The effects of conscious difficult and do-best goals were enhanced by subconscious goals, although conscious easy goals were not affected. All effects from the main study still held after 1 day.
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The effects of learning versus outcome distal goals in conjunction with proximal goals were investigated in a laboratory setting using a class-scheduling task. The participants (n = 96) needed to acquire knowledge in order to perform the task correctly. A ‘do your best’ outcome goal led to higher performance than the assignment of a specific, difficult outcome goal. However, the assignment of a specific, difficult learning goal led to higher performance than urging people to ‘do their best.’ Goal commitment was higher in the learning goal than in the outcome goal condition. The correlation between task-relevant strategies discovered and performance was positive and significant. The number of task-relevant strategies implemented by participants assigned a distal learning goal in conjunction with proximal goals was higher than in any other goal condition. Setting a distal outcome or learning goal that included proximal outcome goals, however, did not lead to higher performance than the setting of a distal outcome or learning goal alone. Self-efficacy correlated significantly with performance, and this effect was mediated through strategy development. Furthermore, the discovery of task-relevant strategies affected self-efficacy through an increase in performance. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This study tested the situational effects of goals and stress on the performance of complex tasks and on adaptation to change in the task. Difficult goals often exceed the individual's resources and thus create stress. However, stress may be appraised as either challenge or threat. Challenge is experienced when there is an opportunity for self-growth with available coping strategies, whereas threat is experienced when the situation is perceived as leading to failure with no available strategies to cope with it. We hypothesized that participants who appraised the situation as a challenge would perform better and adapt better to changes under difficult goal conditions, as compared with general goals or strategy goals. By contrast, threat appraisals would be better addressed by strategy goals rather than difficult goals. One hundred and fifty five students performed a task, which required their making predictions concerning the value of 120 companies' stocks based on three manipulated cues. We used a three by three by two factorial design in which goals, stress, and change (as a repeated factor) were varied to test the hypotheses. Results supported the main hypotheses and demonstrated that the same level of goal difficulty may lead to high or low performance and adaptation to change depending on the appraisal of the situation as challenging or threatening. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are further discussed.
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Halfway through a 3-hour experiment in which 64 3-person teams needed to make a series of decisions, a communications channel began to deteriorate, and teams needed to adapt their system of roles in order to perform effectively. Consistent with previous research, team composition with respect to members' cognitive ability was positively associated with adaptation. Adaptation was also influenced by interactions of team goal difficulty and team composition with respect to team members' goal orientation. Teams with difficult goals and staffed with high-performance orientation members were especially unlikely to adapt. Teams with difficult goals and staffed with high-learning orientation members were especially likely to adapt. Supplemental analyses provided insight into the observed effects in that the difficulty of team goals and members' goal orientation predicted interpersonal, transition, and action processes, all of which predicted team adaptation.
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Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions.
The effect of learning, distal, and proximal goals on MBA self-efficacy and satisfaction
  • G P Latham
  • T C Brown
Latham, G.P., & Brown, T.C. (in press). The effect of learning, distal, and proximal goals on MBA self-efficacy and satisfaction. Applied Psychology: An International Review.