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Preservation of Fiber-Rich Banana Blossom as a Dehydrated Vegetable


Abstract and Figures

Banana blossom is an excellent source of crude fiber in the human diet. Hot water blanching adopted at cottage level is found ineffective for preserving the banana blossom due to enzymatic browning which reduces market demand of the processed product. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a ready- to-cook dehydrated product from the banana blossoms, while maintaining the quality and minimizing enzymatic browning and use of controversial sulfating agents. Cutting the banana blossoms into slices of 3 mm directly into a 0.2 % citric acid solution and keeping the slices immersed for 30 minute duration followed by drying at 50 o C for 6 hr gave an acceptable product with respect to appearance, flavor and overall quality. The quality of the product remained almost unchanged when stored in Aluminum foil laminated with high density polyethylene (Al/HDPE) for more than a month. Oriented polypropylene laminated with cast polypropylene (OPP/CPP) was by far inferior for storage of the dehydrated banana blossom, of which moisture content increased by 2.9 % and L' value decreased from 41.23 to 37.42.
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ScienceAsia 31 (2005):
Preservation of Fiber-Rich Banana Blossom
as a Dehydrated Vegetable
Kanchana S. Wickramarachchi and Senaratne L. Ranamukhaarachchi*
Agricultural System and Engineering Program, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand.
* Corresponding author, E-mail:
Received 25 Jan 2005
Accepted 1 Jun 2005
Banana blossom is an excellent source of crude fiber in the human diet. Hot water blanching
adopted at cottage level is found ineffective for preserving the banana blossom due to enzymatic browning
which reduces market demand of the processed product. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a ready-
to-cook dehydrated product from the banana blossoms, while maintaining the quality and minimizing
enzymatic browning and use of controversial sulfating agents.
Cutting the banana blossoms into slices of 3 mm directly into a 0.2 % citric acid solution and keeping the
slices immersed for 30 minute duration followed by drying at 50oC for 6 hr gave an acceptable product with
respect to appearance, flavor and overall quality. The quality of the product remained almost unchanged
when stored in Aluminum foil laminated with high density polyethylene (Al/HDPE) for more than a month.
Oriented polypropylene laminated with cast polypropylene (OPP/CPP) was by far inferior for storage of the
dehydrated banana blossom, of which moisture content increased by 2.9 % and L’ value decreased from 41.23
to 37.42.
KEYWORDS: processed banana blossom, enzymatic browning, dehydration, rehydration ratio.
Blossom of the banana plant (Musa acuminata Colla)
is often consumed as a vegetable in many Asian countries
such as Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia and the
Philippines.1 In Sri Lanka more than 32 million the
banana bunches are produced annually.2 Banana
blossom is a popular dish in Sri Lankan cuisines. It is
consumed as a curry as well as a boiled or deep fried
salad with rice and wheat bread. Despite the absence
of data on dietary fiber content and composition of the
banana blossom, it is generally valued as a fiber-rich
Dietary fiber has demonstrated its benefits in health
and disease prevention in medical nutrition therapy.
Consumption of dietary fiber is known to lower blood
cholesterol levels, 3 normalize blood glucose and insulin
levels,4,5 promote normal laxation, avoid
constipation,6,8 prevent diverticulosis and
diverticulitis,9 lower the risk of colon cancer10
and breast
cancer,11 and prevent obesity etc. According to
American Dietetic Association, except in certain
therapeutic situations, dietary fiber should be obtained
through consumption of food.9 The recommended
intake of dietary fiber is 20-35 g/day for a healthy
adult,12 which is not frequently met due to low intake
of good sources of dietary fiber such as fruits, vegetables,
whole and high fiber grain products, and legumes.9
Although the banana blossom is highly valued for
its fiber content, consumption may be constricted due
to cumbersome preparation procedures. Developing
a preserved product from the banana blossom would
eliminate such difficulties and offer benefits to the
consumers such as prolonged shelf life, convenience
in preparation as well as promoting the intake of fiber
rich vegetables among people. This will also allow
exploring more marketing niches in the western
countries. Although dehydration is considered as a low
cost preservation process to produce ready-to-cook
food items,13 not many studies on preservation of the
banana blossom have been reported.
Color and rehydration ratio are very important
quality attributes of the dehydrated products.14
blossoms are highly susceptible to enzymic browning
which is attributable to polyphenol oxidase (PPO)
activity and substrate concentration. Processing steps
such as slicing, cutting and drying always promote the
browning,15,16 which leads to reduction in visual and
organoleptic quality of the dried the banana blossom.
Developing a method to control the occurrence of
enzymatic browning is important for dehydration of
banana blossoms, especially due to increasing
consumer concern over sulfating agents, which were
banned by Food and Drug Administration.17
This study was therefore, conducted to develop a
ready-to-cook form that could be promoted to the
market as a preserved item of the blossom of the banana
of a widely grown cultivar, Embul, by dehydration.
doi: 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2005.31.265
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This study was conducted in the Food Science and
Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture,
University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka during January to
May, 2000. Evenly mature banana blossoms of the cv.
Embul (an extensively grown cultivar in Sri Lanka) were
procured from the fruit orchards of the Department of
Agriculture. The banana blossoms were snapped off
leaving a 15 cm long part in the distal end of the fruit
bunch after cessation of fruit formation on the banana
Preliminary StudiesPreliminary Studies
Preliminary StudiesPreliminary Studies
Preliminary Studies
Since no studies have previously been reported,
preliminary studies were carried out to establish basic
processing methods prior to commencing the main
study. Outcomes of these methods were selected for
later testing and processing. In a systemic manner,
thickness of the banana blossom slices, measures to
avoid browning of cut slices and processing
temperature-time requirement to develop a product
that is preferred by the consumers were determined in
the preliminary study.
Four sizes of thickness of slices (viz. 1, 2, 3 and 5
mm) were tested to determine the most appropriate
thickness that gives an attractive product after
processing. Among the four thicknesses of the banana
blossom, 5 mm slices were found too thick and not
good in texture and appearance after rehydration, while
1 and 2 mm slices appeared curled and twisted. Slices
of 3 mm thickness showed least changes in appearance,
and hence it was selected.
Since the banana blossom develops a dark brown
colour when sliced and later added to water, in this
study slicing was directly done into separate solutions,
namely hot water (at 96-98 oC for 3-4 minutes), solutions
containing table salt, potassium metabisulfite, ascorbic
acid, and citric acid over a broad range of
concentrations, separately.
The results of the preliminary study indicated that
hot water blanching at 96-98 oC for 3-4 minutes caused
a rapid browning giving a dark black color to the final
dehydrated product, and hence it was not selected for
further processing purpose. Pre-treatment with salt or
ascorbic acid was inferior to potassium metabisulfite
or citric acid as the former two substances resulted in
the darker dehydrated product. Of the latter two, citric
acid was selected as the pre-treatment18 due to
controversial issues on potassium metabisulfite.19
However, both potassium metabisulfite and citric acid
had relatively lower color change than the rest. Out of
the concentrations used in the range of 0.1 % - 0.3%,20
a 0.2 % citric acid solution was found effective in
minimizing browning, and hence used foregoing
Furthermore, the optimum temperature for the
activity of 0.2 % citric acid solution was determined
using four temperatures (viz. 25 o , 65o, 75o and 85 oC)
for about 3-4 minutes and assessing color changes and
rehydration ratio of the dehydrated product. It was
found that the activity of citric acid was better at
25 o C (Table 1). However, as longer immersion times
are generally adopted for pretreatment at room
temperature, a longer immersion time of 30 minutes
was compared against 3-4 minutes. Immersion time of
30 minutes was found to be effective in lowering
Three drying temperatures (viz. 45o, 50o and 55o C)
were tested to determine the most suitable temperature-
time combination to reduce water activity below 0.6
and moisture content below 5 % in slices. The water
activity value below 0.6 was reported as water activity
for most microorganisms.21 The time taken to
reduce water activity below 0.6 at 45, 50, and 5 oC was
8 hr, 6 hr and 5 hr 30 min, respectively. The best
temperature-time combination for dehydration was
50 oC for 6 hrs.
Dehydration of The banana BlossomDehydration of The banana Blossom
Dehydration of The banana BlossomDehydration of The banana Blossom
Dehydration of The banana Blossom
Freshly harvested the banana blossoms were washed
under running water after removing 3 to 4 outermost
fibrous bracts, and fresh weight of each banana blossom
was recorded in order to determine the final yield of the
processed product after dehydration. The blossoms
were then sliced to a thickness of 3 mm (according to
the findings of the preliminary study) directly into 0.2%
citric acid solution using a vegetable slicer (Nakazato-
54781). To fully immerse 250 to 260 g of the banana
blossom slices, 1 liter of 0.2% citric acid solution was
needed. All the core tissues in the slices were then
removed while in the solution, and the slices were left
in the solution for another 30 minutes. At the end of 30
minute duration, slices were spread over plastic trays
at a loading density of 2.2 kg/m2 and allowed to drain
out excess liquid. Based on the result of temperature-
time combination in the preliminary study, slices were
kept at 50 oC in a dehydrator (Phoenix TK-Mini 10) for
6 hours in cross flow of hot air at a flow rate of 0.305
m s-1. Processing steps for dehydration of the banana
blossom is given in Fig. 1. This process was replicated
three times with newly harvested the banana blossoms.
At the end of dehydration, the weight of dehydrated
product was recorded. The product was then stored in
desiccators until they were used for sensory assessment
and analysis for physical properties.
The extent of browning of the dehydrated product
was assessed in terms of L’ value (100 for perfect
transmission to zero for opaque) 22 using a color
difference meter (ZE-2000 Nippon Denshuku).
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Rehydration ratio of the dehydrated product, i.e. the
ratio of weight of processed food after rehydration to
the weight of dehydrated processed food without water
(g rehydrated product/ g dried product), was determined
as described by Ranganna.23 The moisture content of
both dehydrated and fresh the banana blossom was
determined by oven drying.24 Water activity of
dehydrated product, i.e. ratio between the vapor
pressure of the food itself, when in a completely
undisturbed balance with the surrounding air media,
and the vapor pressure of distilled water under identical
conditions, was determined at 27oC by measuring the
equilibrium relative humidity using a hygrometer (Testo
635) in an incubator (Yamato- IC600) according to the
method of Karel et al.21 The crude protein, crude fiber,
total ash and mineral contents of the dehydrated and
fresh the banana blossoms were determined according
to the standard methods of AOAC.24
The processed product was assessed for consumer
preference using sensory analysis. One set of processed
blossom pieces was used for immediate assessment of
the quality. A sensory panel was selected based on the
ability to recognize and rate basic taste, odor and texture
when consumed. 25 Thirty graduate students between
24-27 years old with a background in food science
were selected as judges. Two separate curry dishes
were prepared from fresh the banana blossom pieces
and the dehydrated banana blossom in sufficient
quantities. Both samples were evaluated in parallel by
the thirty judges when the samples at room temperature
were presented randomly to them. Each judge was
asked to rate the banana blossom curry in terms of
appearance, flavor, texture and overall quality based
on the degree of liking on each sample on a 5-point
Fig 1. Processing steps of dehydration of banana blossom.
(2.2 kg/m2)
hedonic scale (i.e. 1 = dislike extremely; 2= dislike; 3 =
neither like nor dislike; 4= like 5 = like extremely). The
responses were marked on separate sheets provided
to the judges. Each sample was evaluated twice when
presented randomly for the uniformity of the results.
Two sets of the processed product were stored for
assessment of physical properties after a storage period
of one month. These two sets were stored separately
in 12 cm x 9 cm pouches (6-8 g each) of oriented
polypropylene laminated with cast polypropylene
(OPP/CPP) and aluminum foil laminated with high
density polyethylene (Al/HDPE). The pouches were
stored under ambient conditions (i.e. at 30 ± 2 oC and
75% RH) for one month. At the end of one month of
storage, the samples were analyzed for moisture
content, water activity, rehydration ratio and color (L
value) as adopted previously. The samples were visually
observed for the presence of fungal colonies and color
changes, if any.
Statistical AnalysesStatistical Analyses
Statistical AnalysesStatistical Analyses
Statistical Analyses
The repeated measurements of L’ value and
rehydration ratio of the dehydrated products from
different pre-treatments were subject to analysis of
variance (p=0.05) and means were compared using
Fisher’s protected least significant difference (LSD)
test26 using SAS statistical software (Version 6.02).
Sensory scores were analyzed using Friedman test in
MINITAB statistical software (Minitab Inc., State
College, PA). The data from storage study and physico-
chemical analyses were subjected to analyses of variance
and mean comparisons using LSD.
The rehydrationThe rehydration
The rehydrationThe rehydration
The rehydration RatioRatio
The effect of temperature on rehydration ratio of
dehydrated product was significant (p=0.01), but there
was no significant effect of chemical treatment nor
interaction between temperature and chemical
treatment on rehydration ratio (Table 1). There was a
reduction of rehydration ratio with increasing
temperature (Table 2). The highest rehydration ratio of
10.79 was at 25 oC (Table 2). As Potter and
Hotchkiss 27 reported, increasing temperatures cause
distortion of cells and capillaries in plant tissues which
may lead to textural changes, thus lowering water
absorption and adsorption characteristics affecting
rehydration ability and rehydration ratio.
The LThe L
The LThe L
The L
’ V’ V
’ V’ V
’ Valuealue
The L’ value shows the lightness or darkness, i.e.
zero for opaque to 100 for white color.22 There were
significant effects of temperature and chemical pre-
treatments (P = 0.01) as well as their interaction on the
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L’ value of the processed product (p = 0.01) (Table 1).
The results of the interaction between temperature
and pre-treatment showed that the L’ value was highest
at 25 oC, and decreased with an increase in temperature
(Fig. 2). There was a significantly greater L’ value when
citric acid (2%) was used as a pre-treatment compared
to water which suggests greater effectiveness of 0.2%
citric acid in minimizing browning compared to water.
This shows that when 2% citric acid was used, the
processed product remains lighter in color when
compared to water as a pre-treatment. This may be
either due to chelating of copper ions in active sites of
the PPO enzymes by citric acid as suggested by
Dziezak,20 or lowering pH which inhibits polyphenol
oxidase (PPO) enzyme,28 or both.
The decrease in the L’ value indicates an increase in
brown color development, which reduces the
marketability of the processed product. The brown
color development in plant tissues occurs due to
activities of enzymes. In particular, the formation of
brown pigments are developed when PPO enzyme
reacts with phenolic compounds.29 PPO generates o-
quinones, which subsequently undergo non-enzymatic
Table 2.Effect of pre-treatment with temperature and
chemicals on rehydration ratio of the dehydrated
banana blossoms at an immersion time of 3-4
eatments Rehydration ratioRehydration ratio
Rehydration ratioRehydration ratio
Rehydration ratio
emperature, e,
e, e,
e, oo
25 10.79 ± 1.0
65 8.78 ± 0.63
75 7.44 ± 0.31
85 6.64 ± 0.24
LSD (p=0.05) 0.52
Citric acid (0.2%) 8.34 ± 0.50
Water 8.49 ± 0.59
LSD (p=0.05) ns
CV% 7.42
Fig 2.Effect of the interaction between temperature and
pre-treatment chemical on the L’ value of the
dehydrated banana blossoms. [LSD (p=0.05) = 1.37]
Table 1. ANOVA Table for rehydration ratio and L’ value of
the processed banana blossom slices.
Source ofSource of
Source ofSource of
Source of Degrees ofDegrees of
Degrees ofDegrees of
Degrees of Mean SquaresMean Squares
Mean SquaresMean Squares
Mean Squares
variation variation
variation variation
variation freedom freedom
freedom freedom
freedom Rehydration RatioRehydration Ratio
Rehydration RatioRehydration Ratio
Rehydration Ratio LL
’ V’ V
’ V’ V
’ Valuealue
Temperature - T 3 39.53 *** 158.00 ***
Chemical – C 1 0.27 233.68 ***
T x C 3 0.05 5.36 *
Error 4 0 0.39 1.39
CV% 7.42 3.42
No. of replicates = 6.
oxidative polymerization leading to development of
brown color pigments.29 Therefore, in order to reduce
the brown color development, a very rapid inactivation
of PPO is required before PPO generates o-quinones.
Devece et al.30 reported that PPO in mushroom
remained active for more than 6 min and produced
brown pigments at a blanching temperature of 92oC.
However, hot water blanching or pretreatments with
high temperatures could become less effective in
minimizing oxidative browning if the reaction between
PPO and phenolic compounds is rapid, as observed in
the case of the banana blossom. However, there are
other non-enzymatic browning reactions in plant
tissues such as oxidation of ascorbic acid and Millard
reaction, that may also contribute to the browning of
the product while hot air drying is continued.31
The highest L’ value (41.23) and the highest
retardation ratio (11.0) were found with 0.2% citric
acid at 25oC (room temperature) with an emersion
duration of 3-4 minutes (Fig 2). When the immersion
duration was increased to 30 minutes at the same
temperature, the L’ value significantly increased to
44.23. This may suggest prolonged immersion period
for minimizing browning, which also agrees with
Manimegali and Ramah,18 who also reported a
considerable reduction in browning with increasing
immersion duration of 30 minutes for bitter guard in
0.2% citric acid solution. The possible reason may be
the increased penetration of citric acid into cells and
thereby inhibiting the PPO, which otherwise oxidizes
polyphenolic compounds in the banana blossom
resulting browning of end products.
Chemical PropertiesChemical Properties
Chemical PropertiesChemical Properties
Chemical Properties
There were non-significant decreases in crude
protein and total ash contents due to processing of the
banana blossoms compared to the fresh blossoms (Table
3). However, crude fiber, Ca and Fe contents
significantly decreased due to processing. Crude fiber
Temperature, oC
L' value
0.2% Citric acid
25 65 75 85
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Sensory attribute
stimated med
content significantly decreased from 21.31 g/100 g
dry weight in the fresh blossoms to 17.41 g/100 g dry
weight in the processed product (Table 3). The higher
crude fiber content of the banana blossom usually
leads to increases in the absorption and adsorption of
water.32 Considerably, a higher value in the rehydration
ratio was found in the dehydrated banana blossom
when compared to some dehydrated vegetables in
previous studies.18, 33 This may be attributed to higher
fiber content of the banana blossom than most of other
vegetables. Drying leads to curling and twisting, which
makes fiber more susceptible to degradation under the
assay condition.34 This supports the significantly lower
fiber content in the dehydrated banana blossom
compared to the fresh blossoms. Observed reduction
in Fe and Ca content might be due to leaching of minerals
during blanching according to Puupponen-Pimiä
et al.35
Sensory EvaluationSensory Evaluation
Sensory EvaluationSensory Evaluation
Sensory Evaluation
The estimated medians of preference for overall
quality and flavor of the curry prepared from the
dehydrated banana blossom were above 4 of the 5-
point Hedonic scale (Fig. 3). Comparison between the
mean scores of sensory quality attributes of two curries
made out of the fresh and dehydrated banana blossom
revealed that scores of the panelists did not vary
significantly (p<0.05) in flavor and overall acceptability.
However, significantly lower scores were found for
appearance and texture in the curry made of the
dehydrated banana blossom. The estimated median of
the scores for texture was below 3, which suggests the
need for further improvement in texture of the
dehydrated product. Comments from the panelist
showed preference for smaller particle thickness.
However, smaller particles resulted from thinner slices
of 1 and 2 mm made processed product very much
twisted and curled, which would distract the consumer
Fig 3. Estimated median of sensory attributes for curries made
from fresh and dehydrated banana blossom.
Table 3. Physico-chemical properties of fresh and processed
banana blossoms.
Parameter FreshFresh
Fresh DehydratedDehydrated
banana banana
banana banana
banana banana banana
banana banana
blossoms blossoms blossoms
blossoms blossoms
Water activity 0.92±0.01 a** 0.58±0.00 b
Moisture (g/100g) 88.75±1.17 a*** 5.18±0.12 b
Crude protein (g/100g of DM) 21.01±0.10 a 20.54±0.61 a
Crude fat (g/100g of DM) 6.02±0.31 a 5.79±0.41 a
Crude fiber (g/100g of DM) 20.31±1.38 a 17.41±1.42 b
Total ash (g/100g of DM) 8.74±0.11 a 8.53±0.20 a
Ca (mg/g of DM) 3.42±0.13 a 2.82±0.10 b
Fe (mg/g of DM) 0.13±0.12 a 0.01±0.11 b
* Dry matter (DM) basis
** Values within a row followed by different letters are significantly different according to t-test at p = 0.05.
*** Based on fresh weight basis.
Physical Properties of Processed Product afterPhysical Properties of Processed Product after
Physical Properties of Processed Product afterPhysical Properties of Processed Product after
Physical Properties of Processed Product after
After storage of one month, the dehydrated banana
blossoms packed in OPP/CPP and Al/HDPE were found
to gain moisture contents of 2.9% and 0.81%,
respectively based on the moisture content at the time
of storage (Table 4). This indicates the superiority of Al/
HDPE over OPP/CPP for storage of the processed
banana blossom slices. In addition, the data also show
that the processed product possesses high rehydration
ability, which is a proof of undamaged texture of the
processed product, and which helps maintain the water
absorption due to its hygroscopic nature. Sagar and
Mani36 have reported that there is a structural
deterioration in products when stored in OPP/CPP
leading to reduction in rehydration ratio, thus affecting
consumer preference after sometime.
The L’ value decreased from 41.23 to 37.42 for the
dehydrated banana blossoms stored in pouches made
of OPP/CPP, while in Al/HDPE, the L’ value decreased
slightly from 41.23 to 39.56 at the end of the one month
storage (Table 4). In the Al/HDPE packaging material,
there is a higher resistance to light, moisture and gas
exchange, thus either avoidance or lowering the
oxidative deterioration or both could be the reasons
Table 4. Effect of packaging materials on physical properties
of dehydrated banana blossoms after one month of
storage under ambient condition.
Parameter Prior toPrior to
Prior toPrior to
Prior to After storage for 30 days After storage for 30 days
After storage for 30 days After storage for 30 days
After storage for 30 days**
storage OO/CPP OO/CPP
package package package
package package
Moisture 5.2±0.70 8.1±1.81 a** 6.0±0.92b
(g/100g DW)
Rehydration ratio 10.0±0.97 8.6 ± 1.02 b 10.0 ± 0.91b
L’ value 41.23±1.30 37.42±1.42a39.56±1.10b
Water activity 0.58±0.01 0.67±0.01a0.59±0.01b
* OO/CPP-oriented polypropylene laminated with cast polypropylene (0.02 mm);
Al/HDPE-Aluminum foil laminated with high-density polyethylene (0.04 mm).
** Values within a row followed by different letters are significantly different according to t test
at p=0.05.
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for maintaining the moisture free condition of the
processed product. These characteristics in Al/HDPE
would have prevented any deterioration and browning
thus retaining the color of the processed product. In
these characteristics, OPP/CPP packaging material
appeared to be inferior.
Water activity has increased from 0.58 without
storage to 0.61 in dehydrated product stored in OPP/
CPP (15.5% increase), while in Al/HDPE, the increase
in negligible, i.e. from 0.58 to 0.59 (a 1.7% increase,
Table 4).
Results of this study showed that the banana blossom
could be processed to reduce browning, which is a
major defect observed. Increased temperatures aiming
at inhibiting polyphenol oxidase enzyme and its
reactions were ineffective as it increased browning and
reduced rehydration ratio. As a pretreatment, emersion
of the banana blossom slices in 0.2 % citric acid solution
for 30 minutes followed by drying at 50 oC for 6 hrs gave
the dehydrated end product with reduced browning,
which was ready-to-cook and acceptable with respect
to appearance, flavor and overall quality. Aluminum
foil laminated with high density polyethylene was highly
superior to oriented polypropylene laminated with cast
polypropylene (OPP/CPP) as a promising packaging
material for the dehydrated banana blossom. The
product could also be stored for an extended period
beyond one month, since the current storage was
conducted for one month and the product remained
unchanged during the one month period .
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... There was change in color of frozen pulp with increase in storage period at ambient condition. Change in color of apple pulp during storage is primarily attributed to enzymatic browning, in which polyphenols are converted into brown compounds by the action of polyphenol oxidase (Wickramarachchi & Ranamukhaarachchi, 2005) [28] . Similar results were observed in Prospero (1993) [19] has observed that frozen custard apple pulp without any additives displayed discoloration in 2 hour after exposure to ambient temperature. ...
... There was change in color of frozen pulp with increase in storage period at ambient condition. Change in color of apple pulp during storage is primarily attributed to enzymatic browning, in which polyphenols are converted into brown compounds by the action of polyphenol oxidase (Wickramarachchi & Ranamukhaarachchi, 2005) [28] . Similar results were observed in Prospero (1993) [19] has observed that frozen custard apple pulp without any additives displayed discoloration in 2 hour after exposure to ambient temperature. ...
... The banana inflorescence is one of the edible byproducts from banana cultivation. The whitish inner part (stalk) of the banana inflorescence as well as the flowers below the bracts are commonly used as food ingredients among Asians ( Wickramarachchi & Ranamukhaarachchi, 2005 ;Panyayong & Srikaeo, 2022 ). ...
... The peels possess several pharmacological potentials like wound-healing, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antipsoriasis, and used in treatment of anemia, burns, cough, excess menstruation, snake bite, and ulcer (Prakash et al., 2017;Thomas and Krishnakumar, 2017;Rodzali et al., 2018;Vu et al., 2019). Banana inflorescence is a rich source of dietary fiber, which helps lowering the level of blood cholesterol, normalizes blood glucose concentration as well as insulin level, promote normal laxation, avoid constipation, prevents diverticulities, lowers the risk of colon/breast cancer, and combats obesity (Wickramarachchi and Ranamukhaarachchi, 2005). Banana inflorescence is also useful in curing diseases like stomach ulcer, inflammation of eyes and eye afflictions, diabetes, and nervous disabilities (Sharmila and Puraikalan, 2013). ...
Natural plant-based products are a rich source of secondary metabolites with nutritional and medicinal values. Banana (Musa paradisiaca) is a herbaceous plant known for several nutritional as well as medicinal values. Its fruits, peel, pseudostem, and inflorescence are traditionally used for edible and medicinal purposes. Although the inflorescence of banana has several nutraceutical benefits, assessment of its bioactive potential has attracted less attention. Uncooked and cooked banana inflorescence of a common local variety “Kadali” landrace collected from southwest India was assessed for nine phytochemical components, two bioactive components, and four antioxidant properties. Cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, and terpenoids were present in uncooked and cooked samples in five extracts (aqueous, acetone, chloroform, methanol, and petroleum ether). Phenols and tannins were present in all extracts except for acetone extract in uncooked and cooked samples. Coumarins and saponins displayed differential results, while devoid of alkaloids and phlobatanins. The vitamin C was higher in uncooked compared to cooked samples, whereas the total phenolics were higher in aqueous and methanol extracts of cooked samples. The total antioxidant potential was higher in methanol extract compared to the aqueous extract; it was higher in both extracts of cooked samples than uncooked samples, while it was the opposite for ferrous ion–chelation ability. The methanol extract of cooked samples showed higher reducing power compared to other samples, whereas the DPPH radical scavenging was the highest in methanol extract of cooked samples followed by the aqueous extract. This study suggested that banana inflorescence serves as a potential ethnic source of dietary supplement with appreciable quantities of phytochemicals, bioactive components, and antioxidant potential. There is ample scope to develop several nutraceutical products banana inflorescence as functional foods with nutritional and medicinal significance.
... As is evident from Table 3 the values for lightness (L*), decreases slightly for 45 days of storage at refrigerated and ambient conditions. "L*" values of sauce show slight change during the storage period as the sauce becomes darker, which corresponds to the decrease in "L" value (Wickramarachchi & Ranamukhaarachchi, 2005). ...
... As is evident from Table 3 the values for lightness (L*), decreases slightly for 45 days of storage at refrigerated and ambient conditions. "L*" values of sauce show slight change during the storage period as the sauce becomes darker, which corresponds to the decrease in "L" value (Wickramarachchi & Ranamukhaarachchi, 2005). ...
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Abstract The present investigation was undertaken to develop sauce from different cultivars of apples. Apple sauce of 5 cultivars was developed and effect of the storage conditions on the pH, acidity, TSS, total sugar, color, sensory, and rheological behavior of different apple sauce cultivars was studied. Analytical determinations were made after 0, 15, 30, and 45 days at both refrigerated and ambient conditions. The observed range of TSS was 30 to 30.14˚brix for refrigerated and 27.4 to 30.7˚brix for sauces stored at ambient storage conditions.. The pH decreased during the overall storage period from 4.07 to 3.96 in refrigerated samples, while as pH decreased from 4.06 to 3.92 in ambient stored samples. Rheological properties of sauces were evaluated using a parallel plate rheometer that showed the storage modulus, Gʹ higher than the loss modulus, G″ for all the sauce samples indicating the dominance of the elastic behavior. The viscosity decreased with an increase in the shear rate for both, refrigerated and ambient stored sauce samples at the end of the storage period. Organoleptic characteristics (taste, color, aroma, and appearance) were examined by a semi‐trained panelist using 5 point hedonic scale. The sauce samples from Mollies Delicious and Chamure apple cultivars showed the highest acceptance.
... However, it is usually consumed as a vegetable in many Asian countries such as Thailand, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines [17]. [18]. Banana blossoms have tremendous nutritional value, containing protein with balanced essential amino acids and high dietary fibre [19]. ...
Banana (Musa acuminata) blossom contains high nutritional value and bioactive compounds. In this study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing banana blossom powder (BBP) at 10 and 20 g kg⁻¹, hot-banana blossom (BBH) extract at 10 and 20g kg⁻¹, and the basal diet for 56 days. The growth performance, physiological response and immune parameters were evaluated. The results showed that a significantly higher percentage weight gain (PWG) and percentage length gain (PLG) in prawns fed with BBH diet. The feed efficiency (FE) significantly increased in prawns fed BBP. The prawn fed both BBH and BBP diet showed higher survival rate than control group. The prawn fed with BBH showed a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC) and different haemocyte count (DHC), whereas phenoloxidase (PO) activity and respiratory bursts (RBs) significant increase in prawns fed both BBP and BBH diet. Furthermore, M. rosenbergii fed with both BBP and BBH diets showed significantly higher phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency against Lactococcus garvieae infection. At the end of the 56 days of feeding trial, the susceptibility of prawns to L. garvieae infection and hypothermal (18 °C) stress were evaluated. The results showed that prawns fed BBH diets had a significantly higher survival rate against L. garvieae than those of fed with the basal diet. Anti-hypothermal stress was observed in prawns fed both BBP and BBH diets showing no significant difference in haemolymph glucose in prawns subjected to 18 °C and 28 °C, whereas the norepinephrine level in haemolymph of prawns fed with BBH diets subjected to 18 °C was significantly lower than in prawns subjected to 28 °C. In summary, we recommend addition of hot-banana blossom extract to the diet of M. rosenbergii at 20 g kg⁻¹ to promote growth performance, improve physiological function, enhance immunity, increase anti-hypothermal stress, and to increase resistance against L. gavieae.
This study aimed to develop new vegetable purees derived from banana inflorescences as well as recipes suitable for individuals suffering from dysphagia. The effects of hydrocolloids (modified tapioca starch; MTS, gum acacia; GA, xanthan gum; XG, carboxymethyl cellulose; CMC, and gelatin; GEL) on the quality of purees were investigated. Banana inflorescences turned out to be a good choice for the preparation of purees that complied with “Level 4 Pureed Food for Adults” as examined by the International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative (IDDSI) methods. The addition of XG and CMC to the purees improved their qualities. However, the effects of hydrocolloids depended on the types and concentrations used. Some hydrocolloids, such as GA and GEL, have been discovered to be unsuitable. The kale leaf, pumpkin, and Riceberry-flavored soups, made from banana inflorescence purees as a main ingredient, were successfully prepared. All recipes adhered to the IDDSI guidelines for “Level 3 Liquidized Food for Adults”. The finding in this study could promote the use of banana inflorescence as a potential ingredient for purees suitable to be used as dysphagia diets.
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Purpose: The province of Quirino, Philippines, is a good source of the different varieties of banana. The purpose of this research is to determine the organoleptic assessment and acceptability of Banana blossom Cupcake fortified with Honey. Methodology: The study utilized a descriptive survey method. Data were gathered through structured questionnaires and were assessed using a Likert scale. The questionnaires were distributed to 50 trained and untrained respondents who were faculty and students at Quirino State University. Sensory evaluation was employed on the Honey Banana Blossom Cupcake in terms of the following parameters: taste, texture, appearance, color, aroma, and presentation. Main Findings: Generally, Honey Banana Blossom Cupcake is highly acceptable among the taster respondents particularly on its appearance, color, texture, and aroma where it was rated as moderately high while its flavor was rated as highly acceptable. Implications of study: This study specifically addresses the use of banana blossoms to exploit its potential and to support local farmers and growers to maximize their profit Novelty of study: This research aimed to produced policy to support local products in the province of Quirino.
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There has recently been a significant increase in research on the potential health benefits associated with probiotics and prebiotics. Some effects attributed to selected probiotics or prebiotics have been proved by clinical trials, while others have been acquired on the basis of in vitro tests which need to be replicated in vivo in order to be validated. Clinical reports in the literature for the application of probiotics have been done for the treatment of infectious diseases including viral, bacterial or antibiotic associated diarrhea, lowering of serum cholesterol, decreased risk of colon cancer, improved lactose digestion, and altered intestinal microbiota. However, information on probiotic species, a specific strain-therapeutic application, and adequate dosages, is not yet sufficient to allow rational consumption. Moreover, prebiotic oligosaccharides are poorly understood in regard to their fermentation profiles and dosages required for health effects. Significant therapeutic potential of probiotics has been demonstrated in several in vitro studies and that involving animal models and humans. Despite intense focus on probiotics research the mechanisms responsible for health benefits are not yet completely understood. Several important mechanisms have been proposed such as improvement of gut epithelial barrier function, Immunomodulatory effects, degradation of toxin receptors, competition for nutrients, production of inhibitory substances, antiproliferative effects, blocking of adhesion sites and modulation of gut microbiota. Bacterial cell components such as DNA or peptidoglycan may also be involved in functional mechanism of probiotics. Effectiveness of a probiotic for potential application as prophylactic or treatment agent for certain ailment is determined by its ability to possess all or most of these characteristic features. The current article describes the general functional mechanisms of probiotics.
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Banana inflorescence is an underutilised agricultural by-product, though rich in therapeutic properties. Although valued for its fibre content, consumption is restricted due to the tedious preparation procedures involved. Moreover, it is a highly perishable product and browning is the major problem associated with processing. Developing a packaged, shelf-stable, ready-to cook product from the inflorescence would offer consumers a convenient, highly nutritious option. This will also reduce agricultural wastage and improve the economic status of farmers. Our study aimed at storage studies of processed inflorescence in a suitable packaging material for a minimum period of 60 days and its value addition. Nutritional and functional properties were also analysed. Shelf life study indicated that the product packed in metallised polyester-polyethylene pouches was microbiologically safe at every stage of storage and no peroxides and free fatty acids were formed. Cutlet made out of dehydrated and stored inflorescence were well accepted. Methanolic extract of dried inflorescence showed good antioxidant activity. Antimicrobial activity was appreciable and it had fairly good anti-diabetic activity too. Results obtained were promising and revealed that well packaged inflorescence could be stored at room temperature for at least a period of two months without affecting nutritional and sensory qualities. Citation: Ravindran, A., John, J. A., and Jacob, S. 2021. Nutritional, functional and shelf-life assessment of processed banana inflorescence (Musa paradisiaca). Journal of Postharvest Technology, 9(2): 58-70.
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This very complex topic must be dealt with only superficially here. Volumes have been written about sensory evaluation, and the best that this short paper can do is to generalize about sensory evaluation of horticultural commodities from our experience with tomatoes.
The influence of storage temperature and period of storage on the quality of dehydrated ripe mango slices was invesigated. Dehydrated ripe mango slices could be stored at low temperature (7°C) upto 6 months and 4 months at room temperature (33-33.5°C) without losing their colour, flavour and texture. Low temperature helped in retaining higher level of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids in the slices. The quality of the product was affected significantly by storage temperature, period as well as their interaction.
Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem in both North America and western Europe, and incidence and mortality rates are rapidly increasing in many previously low-risk countries. It has been hypothesized that increased intakes of fiber, vitamin C, and beta carotene could decrease the risk of colorectal cancer. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of fiber, vitamin C, and beta-carotene intakes on colorectal cancer risk in a combined analysis of data from 13 case-control studies previously conducted in populations with differing colorectal cancer rates and dietary practices. The study was designed to estimate risks in the pooled data, to test the consistency of the associations across the studies, and to examine interactions of the effects of the nutrients with cancer site, sex, and age. Original data records for 5287 case subjects with colorectal cancer and 10,470 control subjects without disease were combined. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks and confidence intervals for intakes of fiber, vitamin C, and beta carotene, with the effects of study, sex, and age group being adjusted by stratification. Risk decreased as fiber intake increased; relative risks were 0.79, 0.69, 0.63, and 0.53 for the four highest quintiles of intake compared with the lowest quintile (trend, P < .0001). The inverse association with fiber is seen in 12 of the 13 studies and is similar in magnitude for left- and right-sided colon and rectal cancers, for men and for women, and for different age groups. In contrast, after adjustment for fiber intake, only weak inverse associations are seen for the intakes of vitamin C and beta carotene. This analysis provides substantive evidence that intake of fiber-rich foods is inversely related to risk of cancers of both the colon and rectum. If causality is assumed, we estimate that risk of colorectal cancer in the U.S. population could be reduced about 31% (50,000 cases annually) by an average increase in fiber intake from food sources of about 13 g/d, corresponding to an average increase of about 70%.