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Comparisons Between Twice-Daily and Once-Daily Training Sessions in Male Weight Lifters

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Many elite athletes use increased daily training frequencies as a means to increase training load without substantial published literature to support this practice. To compare the physiological responses to twice- and once-daily training sessions with similar training volumes. Methods: Ten nationally competitive male weightlifters (age 20.5 +/- 1.2 y, body mass 92.9 +/- 23.6 kg, training history 5.5 +/- 1.5 y) were matched on body mass and training experience, then randomly assigned to train either once or twice daily for 3 wk. Isometric knee-extension strength (ISO), muscle cross-sectional area, vertical-jump peak power, resting hormone concentrations, neuromuscular activation (EMG), and weightlifting performance were obtained before and after the experimental training period. All dependent measures before the training intervention were similar for both groups. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA did not reveal any significant main effects (group or trial) or interaction effects (group x trial) for any of the dependent variables. There were also no significant group differences when parameters were expressed as percentage change, but the twice-daily training group had a greater percentage change in ISO (+5.1% vs +3.2%), EMG (+20.3% vs +9.1%), testosterone (+10.5% vs +6.4%), and testosterone:cortisol ratio (-10.5% vs +1.3%) than did the once-daily training group. There were no additional benefits from increased daily training frequency in national-level male weightlifters, but the increase in ISO and EMG activity for the twice-daily group might provide some rationale for dividing training load in an attempt to reduce the risk of overtraining.
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76
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2007;2:76-86
© 2007 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Hartman, Clark, D. Bemben, and M. Bemben are with the Dept of Health and Exercise Science, Uni-
versity of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. Kilgore is with the Dept of Kinesiology, Midwestern State
University, Wichita Falls, TX 76308.
Comparisons Between Twice-Daily
and Once-Daily Training Sessions
in Male Weight Lifters
Michael J. Hartman, Brandon Clark, Debra A. Bemben,
J. Lon Kilgore, and Michael G. Bemben
Context: Many elite athletes use increased daily training frequencies as a means
to increase training load without substantial published literature to support this
practice. Purpose: To compare the physiological responses to twice- and once-
daily training sessions with similar training volumes. Methods: Ten nationally
competitive male weight lifters (age 20.5 ± 1.2 y, body mass 92.9 ± 23.6 kg,
training history 5.5 ± 1.5 y) were matched on body mass and training experience,
then randomly assigned to train either once or twice daily for 3 wk. Isometric
knee-extension strength (ISO), muscle cross-sectional area, vertical-jump peak
power, resting hormone concentrations, neuromuscular activation (EMG), and
weightlifting performance were obtained before and after the experimental train-
ing period. Results: All dependent measures before the training intervention were
similar for both groups. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA did not reveal any
signicant main effects (group or trial) or interaction effects (group × trial) for
any of the dependent variables. There were also no signicant group differences
when parameters were expressed as percentage change, but the twice-daily training
group had a greater percentage change in ISO (+5.1% vs +3.2%), EMG (+20.3% vs
+9.1%), testosterone (+10.5% vs +6.4%), and testosterone:cortisol ratio (–10.5%
vs +1.3%) than did the once-daily training group. Conclusions: There were no
additional benets from increased daily training frequency in national-level male
weight lifters, but the increase in ISO and EMG activity for the twice-daily group
might provide some rationale for dividing training load in an attempt to reduce
the risk of overtraining.
Key Words: weight lifting, training frequency, performance
Currently, there is a paucity of information on the physiological effects of
increased daily training frequency. Anecdotal evidence suggests that there are both
physiological and performance benets associated with multiple daily training ses-
sions,1 as many high-performance athletes from the sports of bodybuilding, power
Twice-Daily Training in Weightlifters 77
lifting, and weight lifting2,3 use multiple daily training sessions to improve perfor-
mance. The underlying physiological mechanisms remain unknown, however.
During periods of high training load, many well-trained athletes divide their
training into multiple daily training sessions.2,3 Because the intensity of a workout
is inversely related to its duration, splitting workouts into 2 or more daily sessions
enables athletes to maintain high training intensity while still performing the same
volume of exercise per day. Possible benets of split training volumes might include
a more favorable anabolic environment4-6 and increased neuromuscular efciency,7
which could decrease an athlete’s risk of unplanned overreaching or overtraining.
Other authors have theorized that frequent training sessions followed by periods
of recovery might allow for greater training intensity through maximal energy
utilization and reduced fatigue during exercise.2
A potential indicator of training state relevant to resistance exercise is the
response of anabolic and catabolic hormones. The response of anabolic and catabolic
hormones, specically testosterone, cortisol, and the ratio of testosterone to cortisol
(testosterone:cortisol), could validate the effectiveness of multiple daily training
sessions. Hakkinen et al4,5,8 examined the hormonal response of twice-daily training
(TDT) in men during periods of 1 day and 1 week. They reported acute improve-
ments in T: cortisol after TDT during both a 1-day and a 1-week training period.
Although not conclusive, these data might indicate the potential benets of TDT
for creating a positive hormone balance that could potentiate muscle hypertrophy
and result in enhanced sport performance.
Additional measures of neuromuscular performance might also be potential
indicators of the training response. For example, changes in surface electromyo-
graphic (EMG) amplitude are indicative of changes in motor-unit activation and
have been associated with acute increases in maximal strength largely based on
neuromuscular improvements.9 The measurement of a maximal-effort vertical
jump10 and testing of the maximal efforts in the competition lifts in national-level
weight lifters10,11 have also routinely been used to determine athletes’ responses
and the effectiveness of high-intensity training.
The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological responses between
twice-daily training sessions and once-daily training sessions with similar train-
ing volumes in national-level weight lifters. This study examined the response of
increased daily training frequency on muscle strength and power, muscle hypertro-
phy, neuromuscular activation, and resting hormone concentrations. The information
gained in this study might expand the knowledge base of multiple daily training
sessions and help coaches program their athletes’ training.
Methods
Subjects
Subject characteristics for 10 male weight lifters are presented in Table 1. Each
weight lifter who participated in this study had competed in at least 1 national-level
event and was recruited from a USA Weightlifting Regional Development Centers
(Wichita Falls, Tex). All subjects had similar histories of physical activity and
competition, all had followed a similar training program for 6 months before the
study, and all had trained continuously for competitive weight lifting for at least 1
78 Hartman et al
year. Subjects signed an informed consent and completed a health questionnaire and
screening. Testing protocols were consistent with and approved by the University
of Oklahoma human subjects research committee (IRB# 00003191).
Experimental Design
The study protocol was designed to determine the effects of increased daily training
frequency on physiological characteristics related to maximal sport performance in
national-level weight lifters. Testing was conducted before and after a 3-week experi-
mental training period in which the daily training volume was designated as either
1 or 2 daily training sessions with similar daily training volume (see Figure 1). The
Table 1 Descriptive Measures, Mean ± SD*
Variable G I (n = 5) G II (n = 5)
Age (y) 20.2 ± 1.4 20.9 ± 0.9
Body weight (kg) 94.0 ± 29.6 91.8 ± 19.3
% Fat 18.4 ± 11.2 16.9 ± 9.1
Training (y) 4.8 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 0.4
Snatch (kg) 111.0 ± 23.1 114.0 ± 28.5
Clean and jerk (kg) 139.0 ± 39.2 136.5 ± 32.5
Squat (kg) 196.5 ± 39.2 179.5 ± 41.2
*Group 1 (G I) performed once-daily training, and group 2 (G II) performed twice-daily training.
Figure 1 — Weekly organization of daily workload between groups. All groups performed
the same workouts at the same relative intensity. Group 1 (G I) performed all of their train-
ing in a single training session (4 sessions/wk), and the training volume for group 2 (G II)
was split between twice-daily training sessions (8 sessions/wk).
Twice-Daily Training in Weightlifters 79
3-week training program was chosen for several reasons. First, in order to validate the
research design and evaluate the ndings obtained by Hakkinen et al (1993n), the
current study incorporated a similar 3-week period as their study, which evaluated
female athletes. In addition, the weight-lifting athletes in the present study typically
trained in 3-week blocks, so, in an attempt to limit any unnecessary distractions to
the athletes, the 3-week training period remained unchanged.
Training Protocol
Subjects were paired by body mass and training results and randomly divided into
2 groups. Group 1 (GI) performed all of their training in a single training session
(4 sessions/wk), and the training volume for group 2 (GII) was split between twice-
daily training sessions (8 sessions/wk) with at least 3 hours of rest between sessions.
The training load imposed during the study was a variation on published research
and training programs for competitive weight lifting proposed by researchers and
coaches.12 All subjects completed a 1-week period of reduced training load before
the 3-week experimental training periods to ensure recovery and accurate baseline
measures. All training took place under the supervision of certied coaches and
experienced sport scientists. All training loads were predetermined for the subjects
based on training results, quantied by the researchers, and kept constant for the
duration of the experiment (see Table 2).
Table 2 Experimental Training Protocol
Day Exercises
1 Squat 5 × 5 at 85%
Front squat 5 × 3 at 95%cjn
Jerk 6 × 1 at 85–90%cj
Accessory 3 × 10
2 Snatch 5 × 1 at 80–90%
Clean and jerk 5 × 1+1 at 80–90%
Snatch (blocks) 4 × 2 at 75%
Gluteal–hamstrings raise 3 × 10
3 Squat 5 × 5 at 75%
Push press 5 × 1+3 at 80%
Jerk 6 × 1 at 85–90%cj
Accessory 3 × 10
4 Snatch 5 × 1 at 80–90%
Clean 5 × 1 at 80–90%
RDLn 4 × 4 at 85%cj
Gluteal–hamstrings raise 3 × 10
80 Hartman et al
Muscle Strength
Muscle strength was determined by measuring isometric strength of the knee
extensors of the right thigh using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer (Biodex
Medical Systems, Shirley, NY). Subjects were seated in an upright position and
secured around the chest, waist, and dominant thigh. The nondominant leg and
arms were unrestrained. The right knee was positioned at the dynamometer’s axis
of rotation and secured to the dynamometer’s lever arm proximal to the ankle.
Subjects were given several warm-up trials of submaximal isometric knee exten-
sions. After 2 minutes of rest, the subjects performed 3 maximal isometric knee
extensions (ISO). Participants were asked to produce as much force as possible
for 3 seconds, and strong verbal encouragement was provided. Two minutes of
rest were allowed between ISO trials. Peak torque (in Nm) was calculated as
the highest average torque value that occurred during any 0.5-second duration
within the 3-second ISO.
Even though weight lifting is primarily a closed kinetic chain exercise, the
seated isometric knee extension was used to assess strength of the quadriceps muscle
group. This procedure is a common laboratory test of muscle strength that allows
for a tightly controlled movement that can be consistently reproduced over time
and between subjects. In addition, the quantication of the EMG signal during a
dynamic movement makes interpretation more difcult and subject to measurement
error. Finally, this design, as stated earlier, followed the protocols of Hakkinen et
al (1993n), which used the same isometric knee-extension test in conjunction with
surface EMG to isolate the quadriceps muscles. In order to evaluate a muscle- and
movement-specic task, the snatch and the clean and jerk were also used to deter-
mine possible changes in sport-specic performance.
Muscle Power
Muscle power was determined using a countermovement vertical jump. Jumps
were performed on a contact mat (Probiotics, Birmingham, Ala). Subjects were
allowed to warm up on their own (calisthenics, etc) for 2 to 3 minutes, followed
by several practice jumps. Subjects were instructed to maintain a hands-on-hips
position in order to concentrate on hip–leg power and minimize jumping-technique
differences resulting from arm swing. All subjects were instructed to maintain an
upright posture on jumping and landing to ensure valid measurements. Four trials
were performed, with instructions to obtain maximal height on each jump. Jumps
were separated by at least 45 seconds. Flight time (in milliseconds) and jump height
(in centimeters) were calculated from the contact mat. Jump height was derived
from ight time using the common formula,
Jump height (m) = 9.81 m/s2 × ight time (s)2/8.
Peak power (in watts) was estimated using the equation developed by Sayers
et al13:
Peak power (W) = [60.7 × jump height (cm)]
+ [45.3 × body mass (kg)] – 2055n
Twice-Daily Training in Weightlifters 81
Muscle Hypertrophy
Muscle hypertrophy of the rectus femoris was determined by measuring muscle
cross-sectional area using diagnostic ultrasound.14 A Fukuda Denshi model 4500
(Fuji Electric Co, Tokyo, Japan) in conjunction with a 5-MHz linear transducer
and a Mitsubishi P90 video-copy processor was used to identify the cross-sec-
tional area of the rectus femoris of the right upper thigh. Subjects were placed
in a supine position with a rolled-up towel under the popliteal fossa. A point 15
cm above the superior border of the patella, following the midline of the anterior
surface of the thigh, was identied for measurement. The transducer was placed
perpendicular to the anterior surface of the measurement site, and care was taken
that no depression of the skin surface occurred. Measurements were obtained in
triplicate and averaged.
Neuromuscular Activation
In conjunction with the ISOs, neuromuscular activation was determined via surface
EMG. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed over the longitudinal axis of the rectus
femoris muscle of the dominant limb. Electrode placement for the rectus femoris
was 50% of the distance between the inguineal crease and the superior border of
the patella. The reference electrode was placed on the lateral condyle of the knee.
Interelectrode impedance was minimized by shaving the area and cleansing with
isopropyl alcohol. All subjects maintained the same exact electrode placement
during pretest and posttest analysis. The raw EMG signals were collected and
expressed as root mean square using AcqKnowledge 6.0 software (Biopac Sys-
tems Inc, Santa Barbara, Calif). The EMG signal was preamplied (gain × 1000)
using a differential amplier (EMG MP150, Biopac Systems; bandwidth, 1 to
5000 HZ). EMG signals were band-pass ltered (fourth-order Butterworth lter)
at 10 to 500 HZ. 0.5-second epochs of the EMG signal that corresponded with the
same 0.5-second epoch used to calculate MVC torque were used to calculate EMG
amplitude and during the MVC.
Hormone Analysis
Blood samples were obtained after an 8-hour fast and 1 day of complete rest, because
it was the intent of the test to discriminate between acute and chronic changes in
total testosterone and cortisol. Blood was collected from the antecubital vein using
a 21-gauge needle tted to a Vacutainer assembly. After collection, the 7-mL blood
sample was allowed to coagulate and was then centrifuged for 15 minutes at 3000
revolutions per minute. Serum samples were then stored at –72°C until analysis.
Testosterone and cortisol were measured using in vitro 125I radioimmunoassay kits
(Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, Inc, Webster, Tex). A Riastar Gamma Counter
(Packard Instruments, Meriden, Conn) was used to detect radiolabeled testos-
terone (or cortisol) and indirectly determine unknown testosterone (or cortisol)
concentrations based on a standard curve determined from the standard samples
included in the kits. All of the assays were carried out in duplicate according to
the manufacturer’s instructions. The sensitivity of the testosterone assay was 0.08
ng/mL, and the intra-assay coefcients of variation for the upper and lower controls
82 Hartman et al
were 8.56% and 0.69%, respectively. The sensitivity of the cortisol assay was 0.5
µg/dL, and the intra-assay coefcients of variation for the upper and lower controls
were 0.96% and 15.15%, respectively. Interassay variation between the testosterone
assays was 5.96% for the lower control and 6.84% for the upper control. Interassay
variation between the cortisol assays was 2.07% for the upper control.
Weight-Lifting Performance
Initial values for each subject’s 1-repetition maximum were entered as the most
recent sanctioned ofcial competition results in the snatch, clean and jerk, and
total. These results were obtained for each subject either 23 or 24 days before they
participated in this study. The 1-day difference is a result of the fact that lifters in
the lighter weight classes (56 to 77 kg) lifted 1 day earlier than lifters in the heavier
weight classes (85 to 105+ kg). We determined that these meet results would be an
acceptable indicator of weight-lifting performance because our goal was to limit
any unnecessary distractions to the weight lifters’ training programs.
Final testing took place 3 days after the conclusion of the experimental training
in an unsanctioned weight-lifting competition. Although the posttesting session
was an unsanctioned meet, all test conditions were similar to the pretest sanctioned
competition. Certied judges were used, all testing equipment was identical (cali-
brated equipment certied by the IWF, York Barbell Co, York, Pa), and the rules of
the International Weightlifting Federation were followed. It was assumed that for
these elite athletes, motivation to perform would be similar between the 2 testing
dates, but no actual measures were taken to quantify motivation.
Statistical Analysis
All performance measures were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sci-
ences (SPSS v11.5 software, SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill). Baseline differences between
training groups were measured using an independent t test. Two-way (group × trial)
repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to determine the
effects of the experimental training protocol on the dependent variables. In addition,
percentage change from pretraining to posttraining for each subject was calculated
([post – pre/pre] × 100) for each dependent variable, and a group comparison was
made using an independent t test. Effect size and statistical power were recorded for
each analysis completed. Effect size was calculated to indicate the magnitude of each
treatment (training-program) effect,15 and statistical power provided an indication
of the probability of making a type II statistical error. Linear regression (R2) was
used to determine the shared variability between variables. Results less than P < .05
were accepted as signicant, and all data are reported as mean ± SD.
Results
The initial analyses of baseline values of the dependent variables revealed no
statistical difference (P > .05) between groups before the experimental training.
After the experimental training, both groups experienced nonsignicant increases
in countermovement vertical jump, cross-sectional area, ISO, and EMG, with no
signicant group differences (Table 3).
Twice-Daily Training in Weightlifters 83
Table 3 Comparisons Between Training Groups, Mean ± SD*
Variable Group Pre Post % Change† ES‡
Neuromuscular
measures
CMJ (cm) I 54.8 ± 12.5 56.9 ± 9.7 3.5 ± 5.7 0.15
II 58.1 ± 6.4 58.7 ± 9.2 2.9 ± 2.1 0.29
CMJ PP (W) I 5661.6 ± 1100.2 5535.6 ± 1091.7 2.3 ± 3.2 0.12
II 5631.9 ± 1050.1 5670.0 ± 1137.6 0.4 ± 2.2 0.03
CSA (cm2) I 7.9 ± 2.0 8.1 ± 1.9 3.2 ± 5.8 0.11
II 7.3 ± 2.1 7.4 ± 1.8 2.1 ± 9.3 0.04
ISO (nm) I 304.8 ± 121.9 313.5 ± 116.3 3.2 ± 10.2 0.07
II 272.3 ± 71.4 285.3 ± 73.6 5.1 ± 13.7 0.18
EMG (µV) I 0.066 ± 0.02 0.068 ± 0.01 9.1 ± 26.0 0.12
II 0.069 ± 0.03 0.076 ± 0.03 20.3 ± 45.7 0.25
Hormone
concentration
T (ng/mL) I 6.76 ± 2.31 6.79 ± 1.81 6.4 ± 27.3 0.02
II 7.26 ± 0.58 7.95 ± 1.14 10.5 ± 19.7 0.78
C (µg/mL) I 14.26 ± 8.74 16.58 ± 7.52 31.6 ± 68.9 0.29
II 16.95 ± 5.86 20.75 ± 4.69 30.4 ± 44.8 0.72
T:C I 0.67 ± 0.46 0.57 ± 0.44 1.3 ± 63.3 0.22
II 0.45 ± 0.09 0.39 ± 0.06 –10.5 ± 22.300.80
Weight-lifting
performance
snatch (kg) I 111.0 ± 23.1 112 ± 25.2 0.6 ± 2.6 0.04
II 114.0 ± 28.5 115 ± 30.3 0.5 ± 2.5 0.03
clean and jerk
(kg) I 139.0 ± 39.2 139.0 ± 30.4 0.3 ± 2.3 0.01
II 136.5 ± 32.5 138.5 ± 30.8 1.9 ± 2.3 0.06
*Group 1 (G I) performed once-daily training, and group 2 (G II) performed twice-daily training. CMJ
indicates countermovement jump height; CMJ PP, countermovement jump peak power; CSA, cross-
sectional area; ISO, isometric maximal voluntary contraction; EMG, electromyographic amplitude; T,
testosterone; C, cortisol; T:C, testosterone:cortisol ratio.
†Percentage change = [(post – pre)/pre] × 100.
‡Effect size = (post – pre)/pooled SD.
Although it was not statistically signicant (P > .05), the twice-daily train-
ing group (G II) had a greater percentage increase in muscle strength (+5.2% vs
+3.2%, respectively), neuromuscular activation (+20.3% vs +9.1%, respectively),
testosterone (+10.5% vs +6.4%, respectively), and testosterone:cortisol ratio
(–10.5% vs +1.3%, respectively) than the once-daily training group (G I). Analysis
of the percentage variance explained (R2) thatn the proportion of variation in ISO
that can be attributed to EMG activity was also greater for G II (R2 = .84 vs .62,
respectively; see Figure 2).
84 Hartman et al
Discussion
The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological responses between
twice-daily training sessions and once-daily training sessions with similar training
loads in national-level weight lifters. Our data suggest no additional benet to per-
forming twice-daily training sessions as opposed to once-daily training sessions.
Several previous research studies have shown that high-level competitive
weight lifters are capable of performing 2 training sessions on the same day with no
injuries or decrements in performance.4-8,10,16 In fact, given sufcient recovery after
TDT, an increase in performance has also been observed.7,10 Although the subjects
in this study did not experience improvements in weight-lifting performance with
TDT, it should be noted that neither did TDT result in performance decrements.
The short- and long-term responses of testosterone and cortisol to resistance
exercise have been studied extensively in competitive weight lifters.4,8,16-19 Testos-
terone levels have been shown to decrease, while cortisol levels increase, during
brief periods (1 to 8 weeks) of very intense training.4,8,15,17 To our knowledge, the
study of hormonal response to TDT have been limited to brief training interven-
tions in weight lifters during 1 day,4 2 days,8 1 week,5 and 2 weeks of training.17
This was the rst study to examine the changes in resting hormone concentrations
in 2 groups of highly trained weight lifters training either twice daily or once daily
over a 3-week period.
Although no signicant group differences were observed in resting hormone
concentrations after the experimental training, the increased response of resting
testosterone concentration might indicate that G II was in a greater positive envi-
ronment than G I (+10.5%, 7.26 ng/mL to 7.95 ng/mL vs +6.4%, 6.76 ng/mL to
6.79 ng/mL, respectively). Cortisol responses were very similar for both groups,
with approximately a 30% increase. This increase in cortisol, coupled with the
testosterone changes, resulted in a decrease in testosterone:cortisol ratio for G II
Figure 2 The relationship between changes in muscle strength and neuromuscular
activation. Group 1 (G I) performed all of their training in a single training session (4 ses-
sions/wk), and the training volume for group 2 (G II) was split between twice-daily training
sessions (8 sessions/wk).
Twice-Daily Training in Weightlifters 85
(indicating an enhanced anabolic:catabolic ratio) compared with G I. These ndings
are similar to those of Hakkinen et al.4,5,8 In general, effect sizes were low (0.01
to 0.27), with G II cortisol (0.65), G II testosterone (1.19), and G II testosterone:
cortisol ratio (–0.67) being the exceptions. These effect sizes, coupled with our
fairly small sample size resulted in low statistical-power values for the main effects
(trial and group power values ranged between .55 and .10) and interactions (power
values ranged between .20 and .10). These power values, although not close to
the optimal value of .80, were quite comparable to previously published research
in this area.15,19
Previous research has demonstrated a possible neuromuscular benet from
dividing the same daily training load into 2 separate sessions. Hakkinen and Kal-
linen7 investigated neuromuscular adaptations in 10 female athletes during an
intensive strength-training period for 3 weeks and during a separate second 3-week
training period when the same total training load was distributed into 2 daily ses-
sions.7 The authors concluded that isometric strength, muscle cross-sectional area,
and muscle activation determined via surface EMG increased during the second,
twice-daily, training period. They suggested that twice-daily training sessions
were more conducive to muscle hypertrophy and might offer a more effective
neuromuscular training stimulus.
The ndings from the present study demonstrated a greater increase in strength
(+5.1% vs +3.2%) and muscle activation (+20.3% vs +9.1%) for the TDT group
than for the once-daily group. These results support the ndings of Hakkinen and
Kallinen,7 who reported that the division of daily training loads into 2 small ses-
sions might be more favorable for neural adaptations leading to increased strength
development rather than muscle hypertrophy,7 as well as the study by Hakkinen
and Pakarinen,8 who reported that male strength athletes performing 2 weeks of
TDT experienced signicant increases in isometric strength compared with the
same daily training load performed in once-daily sessions.8
Practical Applications
and Conclusions
Progressive overload training might be an ineffective method of increasing training
loads in well-trained athletes.3,8 Therefore, additional workouts have been proposed
as a method to increase total training load while potentially reducing the risk of
overtraining and injury.2,20 There were larger increases in countermovement verti-
cal-jump peak power, ISO, EMG, and testosterone concentrations observed for the
twice-daily training group, even though these changes were still statistically similar
to the once-daily training group. Perhaps more interesting is the enhanced benet to
the neural aspects of muscle function indicated by the increase in EMG amplitude
and the increased testosterone and testosterone:cortisol ratio for the TDT group.
Improvements by well-trained athletes are often small and limited because these
individuals are already near their physiological peak in most performance measures,
but even small improvements in performance, similar to those demonstrated in this
study, might provide some rationale for increased training frequency. By devoting
less time to a single session, athletes might be able to train at higher intensities,
which could lead to better performance, but further research is still warranted.
86 Hartman et al
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... In terms of periodisation, short term studies [38,39], of just three week's duration, have demonstrated the efficacy of dividing volume-equated training loads into a greater number of training sessions. Hakkinen and Kallinen [38] reported increases in isometric strength, muscle hypertrophy and activation when training was divided into two daily sessions, as compared to one, across two separate three week training periods. ...
... Hakkinen and Kallinen [38] reported increases in isometric strength, muscle hypertrophy and activation when training was divided into two daily sessions, as compared to one, across two separate three week training periods. Similar results were observed by Hartman et al. [39] who reported larger increases in both strength and muscle activation when young male weightlifters trained twice daily, with similar volumes, as opposed to once. The authors suggested that despite there being no clear benefit to dividing training across days, an increase in isometric strength and electromyographic activity could potentially reduce the risk of sustaining injury. ...
... It is therefore possible that RPEs were higher in the 1-day group due to a greater intra-session volume of NHE. As the intensity of training can be directly inverse to its duration, dividing sessions could facilitate a lower level of exertion and greater programing efficiency [39]. This is reflected in our finding which shows consistently higher RPEs in the 1-day group in our study. ...
Article
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Purpose: This randomised controlled trial examined the effect of an 8-week volume-equated programme of Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) training, executed at frequencies of 1- or 2-days per week, on fitness (10 m and 40 m sprint, '505' change of direction [COD] and standing long jump [SLJ]) in male youth soccer players (mean age: 16.4 ± 0.81 years). Method: Players were divided into an experimental group (n = 16) which was further subdivided into 1-day (n = 8) and 2-day (n = 8) per week training groups and a control group (n = 8). Results: There were significant group-by-time interactions for 10-m sprint (p<0.001, η2 = 0.120, d = 2.05 [0.57 to 3.53]), 40-m sprint (p = 0.001, η2 = 0.041, d = 1.09 [-0.23 to 2.4]) and COD (p = 0.002, η2 = 0.063, d = 1.25 [-0.09 to 2.59). The experimental group demonstrated a 'very large' effect size (d = 3.02 [1.5 to 4.54]) in 10-m sprint, and 'large' effect sizes in 40-m sprint (d = 1.94 [0.98 to 2.90]) and COD (d = 1.84 [0.85 to 2.83). The control group showed no significant changes. There were no significant differences between the 1-day and 2-day training groups. In three of the four tests (40 m, COD, SLJ) the 2-day group demonstrated larger effect sizes. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were significantly lower in the 2-day group (p<0.001, 3.46 [1.83 to 5.04). Conclusion: The NHE increases fitness in youth soccer players and there may be advantages to spreading training over two days instead of one.
... Training frequency is typically defined as the total number of weekly resistance training sessions and is one of several components to consider when designing resistance training programs (Bird et al., 2005;ACSM, 2009). Performing briefer, more frequent sessions could potentially allow for increased training load or more repetitions lifted at same training load compared to longer and less frequent sessions due to reduced fatigue and higher energy utilization (Hartman et al., 2007). Furthermore, it has been reported that a higher training frequency is advantageous for muscle strength if an increased frequency also increases the training volume (Grgic et al., 2018). ...
... Training frequency can be increased by adding more training days per week or by increasing the number of daily training sessions. The latter, to divide the daily training program into multiple shorter sessions, is frequently used by athletes (Storey et al., 2012) and has shown promising results (Häkkinen and Kallinen, 1994;Hartman et al., 2007). For example, Hartman et al. (2007) examined nationally competitive male weightlifters and reported that performing two shorter sessions per day over a 5-week training period led to superior increases in muscle strength compared to performing one session per day. ...
... The latter, to divide the daily training program into multiple shorter sessions, is frequently used by athletes (Storey et al., 2012) and has shown promising results (Häkkinen and Kallinen, 1994;Hartman et al., 2007). For example, Hartman et al. (2007) examined nationally competitive male weightlifters and reported that performing two shorter sessions per day over a 5-week training period led to superior increases in muscle strength compared to performing one session per day. Therefore, it is possible that shorter sessions may lead to less fatigue and more work performed. ...
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The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of performing a lower body resistance training program in one long or two shorter sessions in 1 day on training volume and affective measures. Employing a randomized-crossover design, 23 resistance-trained women (22 ± 2 years, 166 ± 6 cm, and 66.4 ± 7.5 kg) performed two training days consisting of (i) one long (46 min) or (ii) two short sessions (total of 43 min) separated by 3.5–5 h. Each training day was separated by 4-6 days and consisted of three sets to failure for six exercises. Training volume (number of repetitions lifted) were recorded during the sessions. Rating of perceived exertion for effort (RPE), rating of perceived exertion for discomfort (RPD), session displeasure/pleasure (sPDF) and exercise enjoyment (EES) were measured 10 min after each session. Participants also completed a readiness to train questionnaire (7 questions), 24 h after each session, and which training protocol they preferred, 48 h after the last session. The long session led to higher RPE (+1 point, p < 0.001, ES = 1.07), RPD (+1 point, p = 0.043, ES = 0.53) and sPDF (p = 0.010, ES = 0.59) compared to the short sessions. There was no difference in EES (p = 0.118, ES = 0.33). The short sessions had 3% higher training volume than the long session (p = 0.002, ES = 0.42). There were no differences in perceived readiness to train 24 h after the sessions (range: p = 0.166–0.856 and ES = 0.08–0.32). Twenty-two participants preferred the long session, while one preferred the short sessions. In conclusion, performing a longer, lower body, resistance training session led to greater perceptions of effort, discomfort and session pleasure than splitting the same program into two shorter sessions among resistance-trained women. However, two shorter sessions led to a greater training volume.
... Designing time-efficient training programs can therefore be valuable to increasing participation and adherence to a strength training program [2]. Many well-trained athletes divide their training into multiple weekly training sessions, particularly during periods of high training load and/or volume [4]. ...
... It is theorized that briefer, more frequent weekly training sessions might allow for training with greater training loads compared to less frequent sessions of a longer duration due to maximal energy utilization and reduced fatigue during exercise [4]. Beyond a given threshold, the quality of training begins to degrade as session duration increases [5]. ...
... Training frequency is typically defined as either the total number of weekly resistance training sessions, or the number of times a given muscle group is trained per week [7,[12][13][14][15][16][17]. Previously, several studies have examined the effects of different strength training frequencies on muscular adaptations and muscle strength [1,3,4,6,9,12,18,19]. The majority of these studies have compared muscle group frequency and not session frequency. ...
Article
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Background The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a 12-week upper/lower split- versus a full-body resistance training program on maximal strength, muscle mass and explosive characteristics. Fifty resistance untrained women were pair-matched according to baseline strength and randomized to either a full-body (FB) routine that trained all of the major muscle groups in one session twice per week, or a split-body program (SPLIT) that performed 4 weekly sessions (2 upper body and 2 lower body). Both groups performed the same exercises and weekly number of sets and repetitions. Each exercise was performed with three sets and 8–12 repetition maximum (RM) loading. Study outcomes included maximal strength, muscle mass, jump height and maximal power output. Results No between-group differences were found in any of the variables. However, both FB and SPLIT increased mean 1-RM from pre- to post-test in the bench press by 25.5% versus 30.0%, lat pulldown by 27.2% versus 26.0% and leg press by 29.2% versus 28.3%, respectively. Moreover, both FB and SPLIT increased jump height by 12.5% versus 12.5%, upper-body power by 20.3% versus 16.7% and muscle mass by 1.9% versus 1.7%, p < 0.01, respectively. Conclusions This study did not show any benefits for split-body resistance-training program compared to full-body resistance training program on measures of maximal- and explosive muscle strength, and muscle mass. Trial registration : ISRCTN81548172, registered 15. February 2022.
... Previous research exploring the effects of POR in strength athlete populations has focused largely on prospective cohort (Warren et al., 1992;Fry et al., 1993Fry et al., , 2000aHartman et al., 2007;Haff et al., 2008;Bazyler et al., 2017;Khlif et al., 2019;Suarez et al., 2019) and longitudinal observational studies involving weightlifting athletes (Häkkinen et al., 1987(Häkkinen et al., , 1989Fry et al., 1994b), as well as case studies involving both weightlifting (Bazyler et al., 2018;Travis et al., 2020a) and maximal effort throws athletes (Bazyler et al., 2017). These study designs facilitate the assessment of exposure to tailored POR protocols, as well as the analysis of baseline data at different time points with or without manipulation of the training environment. ...
... In contrast to the intuitive, instinctive approach to POR revealed by participants of this research, previous studies have used well-controlled prescriptive high-volume (Fatouros et al., 2006;Wilson et al., 2013;Lowery et al., 2016) and high-intensity (Fry et al., 1994a(Fry et al., ,c,d, 1998(Fry et al., , 2000b(Fry et al., , 2006Sharp and Pearson, 2010;Nicoll et al., 2016;Sterczala et al., 2017) resistance exercise POR protocols to investigate potential diagnostic markers of FOR and NFOR/OTS. Such protocols have incorporated either single exercise (typically the barbell back squat) (Fry et al., 1994a(Fry et al., ,c,d, 1998(Fry et al., , 2000b(Fry et al., , 2006Nicoll et al., 2016;Sterczala et al., 2017) and multiple exercises (Ratamess et al., 2003;Volek et al., 2004;Fatouros et al., 2006;Kraemer et al., 2006;Sharp and Pearson, 2010;Lowery et al., 2016;Drake et al., 2017), and both traditional strength-based exercises (squat variations, pulls and presses) and sport-specific exercises (snatch, clean and jerk, throwing drills) (Fry et al., 1993(Fry et al., , 2000aHartman et al., 2007;Bazyler et al., 2017) have been selected. Overall, the number of studies reporting either no performance maladaptation (i.e., return to baseline) or performance improvement outweigh those that have observed NFOR/OTS (Bell et al., 2020;Grandou et al., 2020b). ...
Article
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Functional overreaching (FOR) occurs when athletes experience improved athletic capabilities in the days and weeks following short-term periods of increased training demand. However, prolonged high training demand with insufficient recovery may also lead to non-functional overreaching (NFOR) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The aim of this research was to explore strength coaches' perceptions and experiences of planned overreaching (POR); short-term periods of increased training demand designed to improve athletic performance. Fourteen high-performance strength coaches (weightlifting; n = 5, powerlifting; n = 4, sprinting; n = 2, throws; n = 2, jumps; n = 1) participated in semistructured interviews. Reflexive thematic analysis identified 3 themes: creating enough challenge, training prescription, and questioning the risk to reward. POR was implemented for a 7 to 14 day training cycle and facilitated through increased daily/weekly training volume and/or training intensity. Participants implemented POR in the weeks (~5–8 weeks) preceding competition to allow sufficient time for performance restoration and improvement to occur. Short-term decreased performance capacity, both during and in the days to weeks following training, was an anticipated by-product of POR, and at times used as a benchmark to confirm that training demand was sufficiently challenging. Some participants chose not to implement POR due to a lack of knowledge, confidence, and/or perceived increased risk of athlete training maladaptation. Additionally, this research highlights the potential dichotomy between POR protocols used by strength coaches to enhance athletic performance and those used for the purpose of inducing training maladaptation for diagnostic identification.
... Accordingly, coaches can be confident of achieving performance improvements regardless of whether a 1-or 2-days per week programming format is chosen, though there may be a small practical advantage to adopting the 2-day format. Previously, Hartman et al. (Hartman et al., 2007) suggested no apparent benefit in dividing the training load of young weightlifters across two daily sessions rather than condensing into one. The authors did however suggest a potential protective effect against injury when utilising the more frequent format. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This randomised controlled trial examined the effect of volume-equated programmes of Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) training, executed at frequencies of 1- or 2-days per week, on explosive athletic tasks (30 m sprint, 15 m manoeuvrability and standing long jump [SLJ]) in male youth soccer players (mean age: 10.3 ± 0.5 years). Materials and methods: Players were divided into an experimental group (n=31) which was further subdivided into 1-day (n=16) and 2-days (n=15) per week training conditions, and a control group (n=14). Results: There were significant group-by-time interactions for 30-m sprint (p<0.001, d=0.6), SLJ (p=0.001, d=1.27) and 15 m manoeuvrability (p<0.001, d=0.61). The experimental group demonstrated small to moderate effect sizes in 30-m sprint (d=0.42, p=0.077), SLJ (d=0.97, p<0.001) and 15 m manoeuvrability (d=0.61, p<0.001). The control group showed small significant performance decrements or no change in these variables. There were no significant differences between the 1-day and 2-day training groups. In two of the three tests (30 m sprint, SLJ) the 2-day group demonstrated larger effect sizes. Conclusion: The NHE enhances explosive athletic task performance in prepubertal youth soccer players and there may be only small advantages to spreading training over two days instead of one.
... It should be mentioned that a high TTV in one training session may result in an increased rate of perceived exertion (RPE) [12,13], greater fatigue accumulation, and slower rate of neuromuscular recovery [14]. On the other hand, increasing RT frequency facilitates TTV distribution over a larger number of sessions, providing favorable conditions for neuromuscular adaptations [15,16]. Thus, an increase in RT frequency might be an effective strategy to stimulate the neuromuscular system and, consequently, increase strength performance [12,17,18]. ...
Article
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Several studies comparing resistance training (RT) frequencies may have been affected by the large between-subject variability. This study aimed to compare the changes in lower limbs maximal dynamic strength (1RM) and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) after a RT with different weekly frequencies in strength-trained individuals using a within-subject design. Twenty-four men participated in a 9-week RT program, being randomly divided into two conditions: resistance training with equalized total training volume (RTEV) and with unequalized total training volume (RTUV). The RT protocol used the unilateral leg press 45° exercise and each subject's lower limb executed one of the proposed frequencies (one and three times/week). All conditions effectively increased 1RM and CSA (p<0.001); however, no significant differences were observed in the values of 1RM (p = 0.454) and CSA (p = 0.310) between the RT frequencies in the RTEV and RTUV conditions. Therefore, RT performed three times a week showed similar increases in 1RM and CSA to the program performed once a week, regardless of training volume equalization. Nevertheless, when the higher RT frequency allowed the application of a greater TTV (i.e., RTUV), higher effect size (ES) values (0.51 and 0.63, 1RM and CSA, respectively) were observed for the adaptations.
... One of the important elements of sports training is monitoring changes in the athlete's body. Most often, values relevant to the highest, best and instantaneous results are evaluated -maximum power [1], maximum energy production [2], training techniques [3][4][5][6], or changes at the biochemical level [7][8][9]. In addition, the overall performance of athletes or changes in muscle tissue are determined. ...
Article
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One of the most important elements in the training process is the “expansion” of muscle mass, which is a constituent a of fat-free component in the human body. The aim of the study was knowledge about the suitability of the fat-fat-free indicator for estimating changes in body composition during the training period in female weightlifters. Material and Methods: Twenty two women were examined and divided into two groups: Group I women training weightlifting in the Student Sports Club Talent (n = 8); Group II (control) students of cosmetology (n = 14). The average age of the examined women was 22.2 ±2.2 years, average body height 162.4 ±4.4 cm, average body weight 59.1 ±5.3 kg, average BMI 22.4 ±1.9 kg/m2, and the average percentage of body fat 17.7 ±4.7 %. Body height was determined using the SECA 213 height meter and body composition using the analyser BC-418 MA (Tanita). Based on the values of fat mass in kg (FatM) and fat-free mass in kg (FFM) obtained from the analyser, the total fat and fat-free mass index (FFF) was calculated for five body segments. Results: The value of the fat fat-free index in contestants (group I) during the first study differed in a statistically significant way from the values obtained after the training break as well as from the values obtained from the control group in both studies. The female athletes of Student Sports Club Talent in the period of reduced training load had statistically significantly lower levels of muscle tissue as observed through the increase of the FFF index value Conclusions: The FFF index is an objective tool to assess changes in body composition during training and post-start period. The post-start period training should be structured in such a way as to counteract the muscle mass reduction with the simultaneous increase of fat tissue mass.
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Bu çalışmanın amacı elit haltercilere uygulanan sekiz haftalık farklı kuvvet antrenman protokollerinin anaerobik güç ve vücut kompozisyonu üzerine etkilerini tespit etmektir. Sporculara sekiz hafta boyunca tamamlayıcı maksimum kuvvet (TMA: Deney A), piramidal kuvvet (PK: Deney B) ve kontrol grubuna rutin kuvvet antrenmanları (RKA) uygulanmıştır. Vücut ağırlığı TMA grubu (n=10; 68,20±12,34 kg), PK grubu (n=10; 73,30±9,95 kg) ve RKA grubu (n=10; 64,50±9,84 kg) toplamda 30 katılımcı yer almıştır. Süreç öncesi ve sonrası vücut kompozisyonu (çevre değerleri) ile birlikte dikey sıçrama, squat ve göğüs pres hareketlerinde güç değerleri MYO test aracılığı ile kayıt altına almıştır. TMA grubunda Maksimum kuvvet % 80-90 şiddette 2-3 tekrarlı yüklenmeye ek olarak % 60-80 şiddet aralığında 8-12 tekrarlı kalça ekstansör ve dikey sıçramaya yönelik program, PK grubunda %80-100 şiddet aralığında 5-3-1 tekrarlı inişli çıkışlı piramit yüklenme, RKA grubunda ise rutin antrenmanlarına devam etmesi sağlanmıştır. Veriler Anova analiz yöntemi ile değerlendirilmiştir. TMA antrenmanı uygulayanların vücut kompozisyonu (çevre ölçümleri-mm), dikey sıçrama, göğüs pres ve squat'a ait güç-watt/kg değerleri PK ve RKA kuvvet antrenmanına dahil olanlara göre anlamlı düzeyde fark bulunmuştur(p<0,05). Sonuç olarak; Elde edilen bu veriler ışığında, TMA'in diğer gruplara karşı daha etkili bir antrenman modeli olduğu tespit edilmiştir. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of eight-week different strength training protocols applied to elite weightlifters on anaerobic power and body composition. Complementary maximum strength (TMA: Experiment A), pyramidal strength (PK: Experiment B) and routine strength training (RCA) were applied to the control group for eight weeks. Body weight TMA group (n=10; 68.20±12.34 kg), PK group (n=10; 73.30±9.95 kg) and RKA group (n=10; 64.50±9.84) kg) in total 30 participants took part. Body composition (circumference values) before and after the process, as well as power values in vertical jump, squat and chest press movements were recorded by MYO test. In the TMA group, in addition to 2-3 repetitions of loading at 80-90% of maximum strength, the program for 8-12 repetitions of hip extensors and vertical jumps in the 60-80% intensity range, 5-3-1 repetitions of ups and downs in the 80-100% intensity range in the PK group In the pyramid loading and RCA group, it was ensured that he continued his routine training. The data were evaluated with Anova analysis method. There was a significant difference in body composition (circumference measurements-mm), vertical jump, chest press and squat power-watt/kg values of those who performed TMA training compared to those included in PK and RKA strength training (p<0.05). As a result; in the light of these data, it has been determined that TMA is a more effective training model against other groups.
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the recovery response of one resistance training session (1TRS) vs. two resistance training sessions (2TRS) performed in 1 day, on upper body performance, muscle morphology and muscle soreness in trained men. Methods: Twenty-four resistance trained men were randomly assigned into a 1TRS group (N = 12; age = 25.0 ± 2.4 years; body mass = 87.6 ± 14.0 kg; height = 177.1 ± 4.9 cm) or into a 2TRS group (N = 10; age = 24.4 ± 1.6 years; body mass = 81.1 ± 5.6 kg; height = 176.6 ± 6.7 cm). 1TRS performed one training session involving eight sets of 10 reps at 70% of 1RM at the bench press, while 2TRS group divided the same training volume in two workouts, with a recovery time of 4 hr. Performance [bench press throw power (BTP) and isometric bench press (IBP)] and muscle thickness of pectoralis major (PECMT) were assessed at baseline (BL), 15-min, 24-hr and 48-hr post-exercise. Results: Training intensity was significantly higher in 2TRS compared to 1TRS (p < .001). Faster recovery rates were detected for BTP (p = .039) and PECMT (p = .05) in 2TRS compared to 1TRS. Both BTP and PECMT were significantly more affected (p < .05) in 1TRS than in 2TRS at 24 h. Conclusions: Results indicate that the recovery process may be accelerated by splitting a high resistance training volume into two different training sessions performed in 1 day.
Article
This is the second part of a 2-part discussion (the first,"Weightlifting:A Brief Overview," appeared 28(l):5066, 2006) on weightlifting and will describe the best methods of designing a weightlifting program.
Article
The time course of strength gain with respect to the contributions of neural factors and hypertrophy was studied in seven young males and eight females during the course of an 8 week regimen of isotonic strength training. The results indicated that neural factors accounted for the larger proportion of the initial strength increment and thereafter both neural factors and hypertrophy took part in the further increase in strength, with hypertrophy becoming the dominant factor after the first 3 to 5 weeks. Our data regarding the untrained contralateral arm flexors provide further support for the concept of cross education. It was suggested that the nature of this cross education effect may entirely rest on the neural factors presumably acting at various levels of the nervous system which could result in increasing the maximal level of muscle activation.
Article
Acute neuromuscular responses to two successive strength training sessions performed in the same day were investigated in nine male (MSA) and ten female (FSA) strength athletes. The loads for the leg extensor muscles varied between 70 and 80% of one repetition maximum (IRM) during the morning session (I) (from 10.00 to 11.00 hours) and between 70 and 100% of IRM during the afternoon session (II) (from 16.00 to 17.00 hours). Significant decreases occurred in maximal isometric strength both in MSA from 3855 +/- 791 to 3744 +/- 882 N (p < 0.05) and in FSA from 2493 +/- 553 to 2371 +/- 523 N (p < 0.05) during session I, while only slight (ns) changes took place in the maximal neural activation (IEMG) of the exercised muscles. During session II a great decrease of 8.5 +/- 6.3% (p < 0.01) took place in maximal strength (from 3911 +/- 786 to 3556 +/- 590 N) accompanied by a shift (worsening) in the average force-time curve in MSA, while only a slight change of 2.7 +/- 6.5% (ns) occurred in maximal strength (from 2462 +/- 529 to 2398 +/- 453 N) in FSA. The individual changes in the maximum averaged IEMG of the exercised muscle during session II were correlated (p < 0.05) to the individual changes in maximal strength. The present results suggest that high but submaximal loading of the neuromuscular system may result in an acute decrease in maximal strength of the exercised muscles taking place rather similarly both in males and females.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The effects of short-term overwork on performance measures, blood lactate, and plasma ammonia concentrations were examined in 28 elite junior weightlifters who participated in a 2 wk high volume resistance training camp. Performance testing (maximum effort vertical jump test and snatch lift) and blood chemistry analyses (ammonia and lactate) were conducted before (T1) and after (T2) 7 d of high volume training (2-3 workouts/d). Blood samples were collected from an antecubital vein at rest, preexercise, 5 min postexercise, and 15 min postexercise at T1 and T2. Results indicated a significant decrease from T1 to T2 in the maximum effort vertical jump test while the snatch lift test yielded no difference across time. Blood lactate and ammonia concentrations were significantly lower at 5 min postexercise at T2 while resting ammonia concentrations were significantly elevated at T2 compared to corresponding measures at T1. These data suggest possible early symptoms of overwork at T2 (decrease in performance of the maximum effort vertical jump test and the elevated resting ammonia concentrations); however, lower 5 min postexercise concentrations of lactate and ammonia at T2 indicated a positive adaptation to the 1 wk high volume resistance training period.
Article
To date, no published studies have demonstrated resistance exercise-induced increases in serum testosterone in adolescent males. Furthermore, few data are available on the effects of training experience and lifting performance on acute hormonal responses to weightlifting in young males. Twenty-eight junior elite male Olympic-style weightlifters (17.3 +/- 1.4 yrs) volunteered for the study. An acute weightlifting exercise protocol using moderate to high intensity loads and low volume, characteristic of many weightlifting training sessions, was examined. The exercise protocol was directed toward the training associated with the snatch lift weightlifting exercise. Blood samples were obtained from a superficial arm vein at 7 a.m. (for baseline measurements), and again at pre-exercise, 5 min post-, and 15 min post-exercise time points for determination of serum testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, plasma beta-endorphin, and whole blood lactate. The exercise protocol elicited significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) increases in each of the hormones and whole blood lactate compared to pre-exercise measures. While not being significantly older, subsequent analysis revealed that subjects with greater than 2 years training experience exhibited significant exercise-induced increases in serum testosterone from pre-exercise to 5 min post-exercise (16.2 +/- 6.2 to 21.4 +/- 7.9 nmol.l-1), while those with less than or equal to 2 years training showed no significant serum testosterone differences. None of the other hormones or whole blood lactate appear to be influenced by training experience.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Training-induced adaptations in the endocrine system and strength development were investigated in nine male strength athletes during two separate 3-week intensive strength training periods. The overall amount of training in the periods was maintained at the same level. In both cases the training in the first 2 weeks was very intensive: this was followed by a 3rd week when the overall amount of training was greatly decreased. The two training periods differed only in that training period I included one daily session, while during the first 2 weeks of period II the same amount of training was divided between two daily sessions. In general, only slight and statistically insignificant changes occurred during training period I in mean concentrations of serum hormones examined or sex hormone-binding globulin as well as in maximal isometric leg extensor force. However, during training period II after 2 weeks of intensive strength training a significant decrease (P less than 0.05) was observed in serum free testosterone concentration [from 98.4 (SD 24.5) to 83.8 (SD 14.7) pmol.l-1] during the subsequent week of reduced training. No change in the concentration of total testosterone was observed. This training phase was also accompanied by significant increases (P less than 0.05) in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and cortisol concentrations. After 2 successive days of rest serum free testosterone and LH returned to (P less than 0.05) their basal concentrations. Training period II led also to a significant increase (P less than 0.05) [from 3942 (SD 767) to 4151 (SD 926) N] in maximal force.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
A systems model, providing an estimation of fatigue and fitness levels was applied to a 1-year training period of six elite weight-lifters. The model parameters were individually determined by fitting the predicted performance (calculated as the difference between fitness and fatigue) to the actual one. The purpose of this study was to validate the systems model by comparing the estimated levels of fatigue and fitness with biological parameters external to the model calculation. The predicted and the actual performances were significantly correlated in each subject. The calculated fitness and fatigue levels were related to serum testosterone concentration, testosterone: cortisol and testosterone: sex hormone binding globulin ratios. The best results were obtained by the comparison between fitness and testosterone levels, which varied in parallel in each subject. In two subjects this correlation was significant (r = 0.91, P less than 0.05, and r = 0.92, P less than 0.01). The fitness changes calculated in each subject between the 15th and the 51st weeks of training were significantly correlated with the changes in serum testosterone concentration measured in the same period (r = 0.99, P less than 0.001). For the whole group testosterone and fitness variations were also significantly intercorrelated (r = 0.73, P less than 0.001). Correlations, less homogeneous and less significant, were calculated also for other hormones and ratios. These results suggest that (1) the relationships between training and performance can be described by the systems model, (2) the estimated index of fitness has a physiological meaning. The fatigue index remains to be clarified.