Serum Concentrations of Cytokines and Lung Cancer Survival in African Americans and Caucasians

Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.13). 01/2009; 18(1):215-22. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0705
Source: PubMed


Accumulating evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the development and progression of cancer. Our group recently identified a cytokine gene signature in lung tissue associated with lung cancer prognosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that concentrations of circulating cytokines in serum may be associated with lung cancer survival. Ten serum cytokines, namely, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, were assessed in 353 non-small cell lung cancer cases from a case-control study of lung cancer in the greater Baltimore, Maryland area. Cytokines were measured using an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. IL-6 serum concentrations (>or=4.0 pg/mL) were associated with significantly poorer survival in both African Americans [hazard ratio (HR), 2.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-5.80] and Caucasians (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.22-2.40). IL-10 (HR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.33-5.15) and IL-12 (HR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.14-3.44) were associated with lung cancer survival only in African Americans. Some evidence for an association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels with survival in Caucasians was observed, although these results were not significant. These hypothesis-generating findings indicate that selected serum cytokine concentrations are associated with lung cancer survival, and indicate that further research is warranted to better understand the mechanistic underpinnings of these associations.

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    • ", lung cancer [41] and adverse disease features in diffuse B cell lymphoma patients [6] [42] referring it as a good prognostic marker while another one showed its diagnostic significance in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [43]. The possible use of TGFb1 as a biomarker has also been proposed in many studies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Altered Cytokine production can lead to immune dysfunction in cancer patients. Hence, we investigated the cytokine balance in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients and their significance in providing new therapeutic insights. We quantified Th17 (IL17A), Treg (TGFβ1), Th1 (IL2, IFNγ) and Th2 (IL4, IL10) like cytokines in the sera of 78 cases and 39 controls by ELISA. The intracellular expression of these cytokines was analyzed in 10 subjects from each group by flow cytometry. Serum levels of IL17A, TGFβ1, IL4 and IL10 were significantly higher while IL2 and IFNγ were relatively lower in patients as compared to controls. TGFβ1 (r=0.55), IL4 (r=0.75) and IL10 (r=0.80) significantly (P<0.0001) correlated with disease progression and their elevated levels showed increased odd ratios of approximately18, 14 and 37 respectively. IL17A appeared as a risk factor (OR=2.21, 95% CI=0.89-5.42) although statistically insignificant. The levels neither correlated with disease progression nor with TGFβ1, IL4 and IL10 but showed positive association with IL2 (r=0.51, P<0.0001) and IFNγ (r=0.24). Flow cytometry data also showed similar trend. We reported a distinct TGFβ1 and Th2 (IL4, IL10) polarization with a borderline elevation of IL17A while, a suppression of Th1 (IL2, IFNγ) cytokines in OSCC patients.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Human immunology
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    • "Upon reaching the liver, these molecules seem to alter the syntheses of the oligosaccharides, as suggested by the report that indicated that interleukins (IL) 1 and 6 resulted in enhanced levels of fucosylation for AGP produced by human hepatocytes (Azuma et al. 2000). Lung cancers are known to release several cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-8 (Takizawa et al. 1993; Alleva et al. 1994), with increased levels of IL-6 being associated with a poor prognosis for both African-American and Caucasian populations (Enewold et al. 2009). Interestingly, when healthy human bronchial mucosa fragments were incubated with these types of molecules, increased levels of the genes encoding for the α1,3/ 4-fucosyltranferases and the α2,3-and α2,6-sialyltransferases, which could result in increased abundances of sialyl Lewis epitopes , were observed (Delmotte et al. 2002). "
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Glycobiology
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    • "Sustained changes in macrophage phenotype exacerbate several lung diseases, and alternative macrophage activation is an early event in lung tumorigenesis [6,42,43]. TH2 cytokine levels rise in AC-bearing mice and human NSCLC patients, and alternative activation resulting from TH2-like cytokines increases IGF-1 macrophage production [11,38,39,44]. Selectively removing alternatively-activated macrophages reduced lung tumor colonization in mice [45]. "
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    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Molecular Cancer
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