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    • "(Mohd Dahlan 1997) In conjunction, that treatment method is mostly applied to rubberwood using either preservative containing boron compounds or synthesis pyrethroids. (Mohd Dahlan 1997: Salamah 1993) The conventional chemical control has been a successful method of preserving wood-degrading fungi growth, but the effects of these chemicals are of concern because they create problems for the environment and public health. (Teoh et al., 2010) Currently, chemical fungicides (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 8 extracts from several species of the genera Trametes were evaluated for antifungal activities against the selected wood-degrading fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of extracts determined by broth dilution method ranged from 0.3 to more than 5 μg/μL. The differences in antifungal activities observed in different fungal species suggested that the ability to produce bioactive compounds is not homogeneously distributed. 4H-Pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl- (DDMP) was found as the major components in the methanol extracted of the Trametes versicolor, in which this flavonoid fraction is a complex natural products of current medicinal interest.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Rubber trees were introduced into the Malay Peninsula more than a century ago. The normal economical lifespan of a rubber tree is about 25 years, and, traditionally, rubberwood was used as firewood by the rural community. In recent decades, rubberwood has become an important timber for wood products, particularly in the furniture manufacturing sector, due to its attractive features, cream color, and good working properties. Sapstain, mold, and wooddecaying fungi are serious threats to rubberwood. Conventional chemical control has been a successful method of preventing staining fungal growth, but the effects of these chemicals are of concern because they create problems for the environment and public health. Thus, biological control has been recognized as an alternative approach to the problem. This article reviews the properties, potential utilization, and problems of protecting rubberwood against sapstain, mold, and wood-decaying fungi, and discusses the treatment methods available. Advances in biological control, particularly biofungicides, are emphasized as an alternative method for rubberwood treatment. Key wordsRubberwood–Molds–Preservation
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Wood Science
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    ABSTRACT: The preservative efficacy of organic biocidal products is strongly related to their capacity of penetration and retention within wood tissues. The specific detection of the pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is currently obtained after extraction followed by chemical analysis by chromatography techniques. However, visualizing the insecticide molecule within the wood structure requires specific probes together with microscopy techniques. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to prepare a polyclonal antibody directed against cypermethrin and to implement it on Pinus sylvestris wood samples treated with technical cypermethrin. The antibody was tested on cypermethrin-impregnated wood, and the specific recognition of the insecticide was visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immunogold-TEM assay evidenced the capacity of the synthetic biocide active substance to penetrate in the wood. The depth of penetration was measured on sections taken at increasing distances from the coated surface of the wood. Under the present conditions of application, cypermethrin was shown to penetrate up to the 6- to 9-mm zone below the surface. Such results correlated with chemical analyses carried out by GC-ECD after extraction. In addition, the immuno-TEM investigation allowed visualizing, for the first time at the ultrastructure scale of resolution, that cypermethrin was able to diffuse within the secondary wood cell walls. The scarce labeling of the compound middle lamella shows that the chemical does not diffuse freely in this part of the cell walls. The results suggest that the adsorption within the cell walls is an essential factor for the retention of cypermethrin and for its permanence in treated wood products.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Wood Science and Technology