Genome sequence analysis of Helicobacter pylori strains associated with gastric ulceration and gastric cancer

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232-2605, USA.
BMC Genomics (Impact Factor: 3.99). 01/2009; 10(1):3. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-3
Source: PubMed


Persistent colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is associated with asymptomatic gastric inflammation (gastritis) and an increased risk of duodenal ulceration, gastric ulceration, and non-cardia gastric cancer. In previous studies, the genome sequences of H. pylori strains from patients with gastritis or duodenal ulcer disease have been analyzed. In this study, we analyzed the genome sequences of an H. pylori strain (98-10) isolated from a patient with gastric cancer and an H. pylori strain (B128) isolated from a patient with gastric ulcer disease.
Based on multilocus sequence typing, strain 98-10 was most closely related to H. pylori strains of East Asian origin and strain B128 was most closely related to strains of European origin. Strain 98-10 contained multiple features characteristic of East Asian strains, including a type s1c vacA allele and a cagA allele encoding an EPIYA-D tyrosine phosphorylation motif. A core genome of 1237 genes was present in all five strains for which genome sequences were available. Among the 1237 core genes, a subset of alleles was highly divergent in the East Asian strain 98-10, encoding proteins that exhibited <90% amino acid sequence identity compared to corresponding proteins in the other four strains. Unique strain-specific genes were identified in each of the newly sequenced strains, and a set of strain-specific genes was shared among H. pylori strains associated with gastric cancer or premalignant gastric lesions.
These data provide insight into the diversity that exists among H. pylori strains from diverse clinical and geographic origins. Highly divergent alleles and strain-specific genes identified in this study may represent useful biomarkers for analyzing geographic partitioning of H. pylori and for identifying strains capable of inducing malignant or premalignant gastric lesions.

Download full-text


Available from: Mark S Mcclain
  • Source
    • "For H. pylori, it is well known that different strains may vary in virulence and in the host immune response they evoke [16,17]. This host immune response plays an important role in induction and evolution of gastric lesions and influences colonization of the gastric mucosa by H. pylori[16]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter (H.) suis colonizes the stomach of pigs and is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Limited information is available on host immune responses after infection with this agent and it is unknown if variation in virulence exists between different H. suis strains. Therefore, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were used to compare colonization ability and gene expression of various inflammatory cytokines, as determined by real-time PCR, after experimental infection with 9 different H. suis strains. All strains were able to persist in the stomach of mice, but the number of colonizing bacteria at 59 days post inoculation was higher in stomachs of C57BL/6 mice compared to BALB/c mice. All H. suis strains caused an upregulation of interleukin (IL)-17, which was more pronounced in BALB/c mice. This upregulation was inversely correlated with the number of colonizing bacteria. Most strains also caused an upregulation of regulatory IL-10, positively correlating with colonization in BALB/c mice. Only in C57BL/6 mice, upregulation of IL-1beta was observed. Increased levels of IFN-gamma mRNA were never detected, whereas most H. suis strains caused an upregulation of the Th2 signature cytokine IL-4, mainly in BALB/c mice. In conclusion, the genetic background of the murine strain has a clear impact on the colonization ability of different H. suis strains and the immune response they evoke. A predominant Th17 response was observed, accompanied by a mild Th2 response, which is different from the Th17/Th1 response evoked by H. pylori infection.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Veterinary Research
  • Source
    • "Helicobacter pylori strain 26695 (20) was used as in previous studies (25) for tandem affinity purification (TAP) taking Hp-RNase J and RhpA as baits (Supplementary Table S1). For all other experiments, we used H. pylori strain B128 (26) in which the inducible plasmids could be introduced and stably maintained (Supplementary Table S1). For the details of bacterial growth conditions, see Supplementary Methods. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein complexes directing messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation are present in all kingdoms of life. In Escherichia coli, mRNA degradation is performed by an RNA degradosome organized by the major ribonuclease RNase E. In bacteria lacking RNase E, the existence of a functional RNA degradosome is still an open question. Here, we report that in the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori, RNA degradation is directed by a minimal RNA degradosome consisting of Hp-RNase J and the only DExD-box RNA helicase of H. pylori, RhpA. We show that the protein complex promotes faster degradation of double-stranded RNA in vitro in comparison with Hp-RNase J alone. The ATPase activity of RhpA is stimulated in the presence of Hp-RNase J, demonstrating that the catalytic capacity of both partners is enhanced upon interaction. Remarkably, both proteins are associated with translating ribosomes and not with individual 30S and 50S subunits. Moreover, Hp-RNase J is not recruited to ribosomes to perform rRNA maturation. Together, our findings imply that in H. pylori, the mRNA-degrading machinery is associated with the translation apparatus, a situation till now thought to be restricted to eukaryotes and archaea.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Nucleic Acids Research
  • Source
    • "The amino acid identities range between 65-100%. Among these core genes are housekeeping (HK) genes that are essential for H. pylori survival, and the genetic variability in these genes remains very low [10,11]. This conservation is reflected in phylogenetic analysis, where HK genes have been used to trace human migration, indicating co-evolution between H. pylori and its host. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In the past decade, researchers have proposed that the pldA gene for outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA) is important for bacterial colonization of the human gastric ventricle. Several conserved Helicobacter pylori genes have distinct genotypes in different parts of the world, biogeographic patterns that can be analyzed through phylogenetic trees. The current study will shed light on the importance of the pldA gene in H. pylori. In silico sequence analysis will be used to investigate whether the bacteria are in the process of preserving, optimizing, or rejecting the pldA gene. The pldA gene will be phylogenetically compared to other housekeeping (HK) genes, and a possible origin via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) will be evaluated through both intra- and inter-species evolutionary analyses. Results In this study, pldA gene sequences were phylogenetically analyzed and compared with a large reference set of concatenated HK gene sequences. A total of 246 pldA nucleotide sequences were used; 207 were from Norwegian isolates, 20 were from Korean isolates, and 19 were from the NCBI database. Best-fit evolutionary models were determined with MEGA5 ModelTest for the pldA (K80 + I + G) and HK (GTR + I + G) sequences, and maximum likelihood trees were constructed. Both HK and pldA genes showed biogeographic clustering. Horizontal gene transfer was inferred based on significantly different GC contents, the codon adaptation index, and a phylogenetic conflict between a tree of OMPLA protein sequences representing 171 species and a tree of the AtpA HK protein for 169 species. Although a vast majority of the residues in OMPLA were predicted to be under purifying selection, sites undergoing positive selection were also found. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the pldA gene could have been more recently acquired than seven of the HK genes found in H. pylori. However, the common biogeographic patterns of both the HK and pldA sequences indicated that the transfer occurred long ago. Our results indicate that the bacterium is preserving the function of OMPLA, although some sites are still being evolutionarily optimized.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · BMC Microbiology
Show more