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Geodiversity and Geoconservation: What, Why, and How?

Geodiversity and Geoconservation:
What, Why, and How?
Murray Gray
JUST 100 MILES NORTH OF PHILADELPHIA, the location of the 2005 George Wright Society
conference, and straddling Interstate Highway 476, the Northeast Extension of the Pennsyl-
vania Turnpike, lies Hickory Run State Park. Through this protected area runs the outer
limit of the last ice-sheet to flow southwards into the USA about 20,000 years ago. As a
result, the park displays two very different landscape types that in turn have produced two
distinctive sets of wildlife habitat.
The George Wright Forum4
Geodiversity &
 :  . 
The undulating nature of the western
part of the park reflects the glacial deposi-
tion associated with the end moraine of the
ice-sheet and the valley erosion associated
with glacial meltwater rivers. The eastern
part of the park is higher and was not cov-
ered by the ice, but was affected by
periglacial processes. These included the
frost disturbance of rock outcrops, the frost
weathering of boulders, and the downslope
movement of these boulders to accumulate
in the famous Hickory Run Boulder Field, a
National Natural Landmark and State Park
Natural Area (Figure 1).
On the glaciated western side of the
park, the end moraine is dominated by thin
and moist soils, evergreen trees, and sphag-
num moss bogs. Blackburnian warbler, red-
breasted nuthatch, and northern water
thrush inhabit this area, and in the spring
spotted and Jefferson salamanders and
wood frogs flock to the bogs to breed. On
the other hand, the unglaciated eastern side
of the park is dominated by beech and
chestnut oak trees inhabited by the Ameri-
can redstart, red-eyed vireo, and Louisiana
water thrush (Commonwealth of Pennsyl-
vania 2004).
Hickory Run State Park therefore illus-
trates how the geological evolution of a
landscape has produced a diversity of land-
forms and materials that in turn have pro-
vided a range of habitats in which biodiver-
sity has evolved. We do not have to think
too hard to understand that Hickory Run is
only one example of these types of relation-
ships. For example, think of the range of
physical habitats within any one of the large
Alaskan national parks, such as Denali,
Glacier Bay, or Wrangell–St. Elias.And then
contrast these glaciated mountain parks
with others such as Hawaii Volcanoes,
Grand Canyon, Carlsbad Caverns, and
Death Valley, and add in any national sea-
shore and national river. This issue of The
George Wright Forum contains papers out-
lining in detail several other examples illus-
trating similar physical/biological relation-
ships. From this and other studies across
the world, it can be argued that the Earth’s
biodiversity is largely due to the diversity of
the geological world (geodiversity), and that
for land management to be fully effective a
holistic understanding and approach is nec-
What is geodiversity?
“Geodiversity” can be defined simply as
“the natural range (diversity) of geological
(rocks, minerals, fossils), geomorphological
(land form, physical processes) and soil fea-
tures. It includes their assemblages, rela-
tionships, properties, interpretations and
systems” (Gray 2004:8). The term first
appears in articles from Tasmania, Aus-
tralia, in the mid-1990s (Sharples 1993;
Dixon 1995; Kiernan 1996) and it is no
coincidence that this immediately followed
the adoption by many countries of the U.N.
Convention on Biodiversity at the Earth
Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Tas-
manian geoscientists realized that there are
many parallels between biological diversity
and diversity in the abiotic world.Using the
terms “biodiversity” and “geodiversity”
helps to indicate that nature consists of two
equal components, living and non-living,
and which, taken together, could help to
promote a more holistic approach to nature
conservation than the traditional biocentric
Subsequently, the use of the term “geo-
diversity” has spread, particularly in Aus-
tralia, where it is an integral part of the Aus-
tralian Natural Heritage Charter (Australian
Heritage Commission 1996, 2002), in
Geodiversity & Geoconservation
Volume 22 • Number 3 (2005) 5
Figure 1. Hickory Run National Natural Landmark. Note the graffiti on some stones. Photo courtesy of the author
Scandinavia (Johansson 2000), and in the
United Kingdom (Gray 2004),where sever-
al local geodiversity action plans (LGAPs)
mirror their biological equivalents (LBAPs)
and where a report titled State of Nature—
Geodiversity has been published (English
Nature 2005). However, the term has yet to
be adopted in the USA.
Geological diversity is illustrated by the
5,000 or so minerals known to exist in the
world, some of which are very rare and
could easily be lost. These diverse minerals,
when combined with other factors, such as
crystal or particle size, shape,and structure,
create thousands of different named rock
types. About a million fossil species have
been identified, but probably millions more
await discovery. There are 19,000 named
soil series in the USA alone (Brady and Weil
2002). Less easily classified are landforms
and topography. Some landform names,
such as canyons, end moraines, and arches,
are used widely, but much of the Earth’s
surface form does not fall neatly into a
named landform category. There are also
many commonly used names for physical
processes, e.g., coastal erosion, landsliding,
and glacial abrasion, but,when examined in
detail, these processes become increasingly
complex. Given the above brief discussion,
the conclusion must be that there is as
much geodiversity in the world as biodiver-
Why should we conserve geodiversity?
Geodiversity ought to be conserved for
two reasons. First, geodiversity is valuable
and valued in a large number of ways, and
second, it is threatened by a huge variety of
human activities. It is a measure of a civi-
lized and sophisticated society that it
should want to conserve elements of the
planet that are both valued and threatened
(Gray 2004).
Values. Table 1 gives a summary of over
30 recognizable values of geodiversity with
examples where appropriated from protect-
ed areas in the USA. These could be
referred to as “geosystem services” to indi-
cate equivalence with the common ap-
proach of ecosystem services often used to
justify wildlife conservation. Many of them
are included in the classification of intangi-
ble values given by Harmon and Putney
(2003) and Harmon (2004), though here
we focus specifically on the values of geodi-
Intrinsic or existence values are those
associated with things simply for what they
are rather than what they can be used for by
humans (utilitarian values). There is a
large philosophical and ethical discussion
on this topic in the literature, and interested
readers are referred to,for example, Attfield
(1999) and Beckerman and Pasek (2001).
Cultural values may originate from folk-
lore associated with the origin of rock for-
mations or landforms. For example, the col-
umnar jointing of the Devils Tower Na-
tional Monument in Wyoming is reputed to
be the claw marks of a giant grizzly bear try-
ing to reach a group of people on the sum-
mit. Cultural values are also associated with
links between rock sites and archaeology.
Obvious examples here are the Alibates
Flint Quarries, Canyon de Chelly, Gila Cliff
Dwellings, and Petroglyph National Monu-
ments. Similarly, some geological features
may have spiritual value. Examples include
the sacred vision quest sites of North
American Indians, such as Chief Mountain
within Glacier National Park, Montana
(Gulliford 2000) or the nearby Writing-on-
Stone Provincial Park in Alberta, Canada.
Many other present-day societies also feel a
strong bond with their physical surround-
Geodiversity & Geoconservation
The George Wright Forum6
Geodiversity & Geoconservation
Volume 22 • Number 3 (2005) 7
Intrinsic Value
1. Intrinsic value
Abiotic nature free of human valuations
Cultural Value
2. Folklore
Devils Tower NM; Sleeping Bear Dunes
3. Archaeological/Historical
Alibates Flint Quarries NM; Petroglyph
4. Spiritual
Chief Mountain, Glacier NP
5. Sense of Place
John Muir at Yosemite
Aesthetic Value
6. Local Landscapes
Sea views; sound of waves; touch of sand
7. Geotourism
Grand Canyon NP; Yellowstone, NP
8. Leisure Activities
Rock climbing; caving; skiing; hiking
9. Remote Appreciation
Nature in magazines and TV
10. Voluntary Activities
Footpath construction; mine restoration
11. Artistic Inspiration
Moran & Jackson at Yellowstone
Economic Value
12. Energy
Coal; oil; gas; peat; uranium
13. Industrial Minerals
Potash; fluorspar, rock salt; kaolinite
14. Metallic Minerals
Iron, copper; chromium; zinc; tin; gold
15. Construction Minerals
Stone, aggregate; limestone; bitumen
16. Gemstones
Diamond; sapphire; emerald, onyx; agate
17. Fossils
Tyrannosaurus “Sue”; fossil & mineral
18. Soil
Food production; wine; timber; fiber
Functional Value
19. Platforms
Building and infrastructure on land
20. Storage & Recycling
Carbon in peat and soil; oil traps; aquifers
21. Health
Nutrients & minerals; therapeutic
22. Burial
Human burial; nuclear waste chambers
23. Pollution Control
Soil and rock as water filters
24. Water chemistry
Mineral water; whisky; beer
25. Soil functions
Agriculture; horticulture; viticulture;
26. Geosystem functions
Operation of fluvial, coastal, glacial
27. Ecosystem functions
Habitats and biodiversity
Scientific Value
28. Geoscience Research
History of Earth; evolution; geoprocesses
29. History of Research
Early identification of unconformities,
30. Environmental
Climate change; sea-level change;
31. Education & Training
Field studies; professional training
Table 1. Summary of geodiversity values with some examples.
ings, allowing local inhabitants to develop a
sense of place. John Muir developed a
famously strong relationship with Yosemite,
and today the parks are “a lifelong source of
awe” for many (Pritchard 1995:xvi).
Aesthetic values relate to the valued
impact on the senses instilled by many pro-
tected areas. John Muir (1901:56) invited
us to “climb the mountains and get the
good tidings. Nature’s peace will flow into
you as sunshine flows into trees.” Today
tourists are drawn to the stunning scenery
of Glacier Bay, the grandeur of the Grand
Canyon, the geothermal wonders of Yellow-
stone, or the rock colors of Zion. Geo-
tourism is at least as popular as ecotourism.
We also use the physical landscape for
recreational activities. Skiing, rock climb-
ing, caving, canyoneering, whitewater raft-
ing, glacier hiking, all require specific land-
scapes or geological environments. Many
valued landscapes have inspired painters,
sculptors, poets, and musicians to create
important works. Harmon (2004) notes the
contribution of the landscape painter
Thomas Moran and the photographer
William Henry Jackson in bringing the sce-
nic wonders of Yellowstone to the attention
of the U.S.Congress and the general public.
Economic values of geodiversity include
fuels such as coal, gasoline, and uranium;
industrial minerals such as limestone, gyp-
sum, and phosphates; metallic minerals;
gemstones; and construction minerals such
as building stone, aggregate, sand, clay, and
bitumen. Most of these are non-renewable
resources and their use and limits ought to
be better understood than they are. Oil is an
obvious example, leading to debates over
the need for oil exploration in Alaska’s
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
Functional values include geosystem
services of subsurface rocks as stores of
water, oil, and gas; as burial sites for nuclear
waste and potentially for carbon dioxide;
and as filters for water as it moves down-
wards to the water table. Soils are vital for
agriculture, viticulture,and forestry, and are
an important source of minerals vital for
health, such as magnesium, zinc, calcium,
selenium, and chromium. River channels
perform the function of transporting water
and sediment from land towards the sea and
their capacity is adjusted to stream dis-
charge. Beaches and sand dunes act to pro-
tect the coastline and inland low ground
from coastal flooding. Many of these physi-
cal systems are in dynamic equilibrium and
their continued functioning is vital to envi-
ronmental systems. As outlined in the intro-
duction, the physical environment also
plays a huge role in providing diverse envi-
ronments, habitats, and substrates that cre-
ate and nurture biological diversity.
Finally, the physical world also provides
opportunities for research and education.
Research has given us a huge amount of
knowledge about the history of the planet,
the processes that shape it, the way in which
climates have changed, and the evolution of
life through time. It is important that the
physical evidence for further research is
conserved and to ensure that further studies
and opportunities to train and educate pro-
fessional geoscientists, university students,
schools, and the general public are not lost.
Threats. Butcher and Butcher (1995)
included a long discussion on threats to the
U.S. national parks. These threats included
dams and diversions, water pollution, geot-
hermal drilling, air pollution, noise pollu-
tion, urban impacts both within or adjacent
to parks, excessive numbers of cars, visitor
use impacts, a science shortfall, and an “et
cetera” category that included the impact of
concession structures and operations, inap-
Geodiversity & Geoconservation
The George Wright Forum8
propriate recreational activities, and poach-
These and other threats continue to
have an impact of the georesources of the
parks. River and coastal engineering works
disrupt the operation of natural geomor-
phological processes. Leaching of polluted
agricultural, mine, or sewage water contin-
ues to affect a number of parks. The threat
of geothermal resource exploitation in Ida-
ho on the Yellowstone system is still a con-
cern. Urban impacts and car numbers have
continued to increase and are a serious
threat to several parks, as are visitor and
recreational pressures, such as rock climb-
ing at Devils Tower National Monument in
Wyoming. And unauthorized fossil collect-
ing is a continuing concern (Santucci
These human impacts may result in loss
of, or damage to,important rocks, minerals,
or fossils, remodelling of natural topogra-
phy, loss of access or visibility, interruption
of natural processes, pollution, or visual
impacts. Figure 1 illustrates the problem of
graffiti on the national natural landmark
boulder field at Hickory Run.
As touched upon above, the sensitivity
and vulnerability of georesources vary.
“Sensitivity” refers to how easily features
can be damaged. Some features, such as
many cave deposits,are highly sensitive and
very easily damaged even by merely walking
on or touching them (Gray 2004). Others
are much more robust with much higher
thresholds of energy required to damage or
remove them, and some can repair them-
selves, such as footprints on a beach which
are removed by the next high tide. “Vul-
nerability” refers to the likelihood of dam-
age given public access or lack of it. Obvi-
ously the greatest threats are to highly sensi-
tive and vulnerable features and systems.
How should we conserve geodiversity?
Different elements of geodiversity need
to be protected and managed in different
ways. Table 2 is a possible general scheme.
It distinguishes between rare and common
occurrences since it is argued that geodiver-
sity, and indeed the environment in general,
should be respected both within and
beyond protected areas. With these aims in
mind we can then consider the detailed
approaches required to meet the aims.
Clearly, creating a protected area with
the supporting legislation and penalties is
one approach but does not guarantee pro-
tection due to infringement of regulations
or changes in political attitudes or funding.
Fines are rarely substantial enough to deter
commercial collectors. One of the most
secure methods is to physically restrain vis-
itors from reaching sensitive sites by fencing
or even by placing them within specially
constructed buildings. For example, the
remaining easily accessible petrified tree at
Yellowstone National Park is surrounded
by a high fence to prevent illegal collecting
(Figure 2). In other places at Yellowstone,
boardwalks and fences encourage visitors
not to stray onto delicate formations. At
Craters of the Moon National Monument in
Idaho, notices inform visitors that they are
not permitted to stray from the paths
because of the easily cracked lava surface. If
we are dealing with rare fossils, minerals, or
rocks, an effective means of protecting is
burial in situ or removal and curation in a
museum. This is often the approach taken
with dinosaur and other fossils. A third
effective way of conserving nature is for a
nature conservation charity to buy sites
with the remit of retaining them for their
nature conservation value in perpetuity. An
example is The Nature Conservancy, which
owns Egg Mountain in Montana, famous
Geodiversity & Geoconservation
Volume 22 • Number 3 (2005) 9
for its Maiasaur dinosaur finds (Horner and
Dobb 1997).
Education has an important role to play
in helping to conserve features. At Devils
Tower National Monument, a climbing
management plan has been introduced to
monitor climbing impacts, educate
climbers, retain rock faces that are currently
free of bolts, and investigate whether some
bolt holes can be repaired. Interpretation
boards, leaflets, and trails can carry educa-
tional messages about nature conservation
interests and the correct behavior in con-
serving them, as can ranger-led talks and
Part of conservation should also include
adequate scientific documentation about
the geological interest of protected areas,
promotion of further research as necessary,
and a conservation management plan that is
regularly updated. The latter should
include a program for monitoring the con-
Geodiversity & Geoconservation
The George Wright Forum10
Table 2. Geoconservation aims for the eight elements of geodiversity.
dition of geoheritage assets within the pro-
tected area and an enhancement and res-
toration program to upgrade facilities and
repair damage. The U.S. National Park Ser-
vice’s abandoned mineral lands program is
an example of the latter, and successful land
restoration schemes have been carried out
at Redwood and Joshua Tree National
Parks in California. Land management in
general should aim to retain the integrity of
landforms, landscapes, and active process-
es, and restore them authentically where
Geoconservation should be driven by
the need to conserve geodiversity, given its
value and the real and potential threats to it.
Without geodiversity there would be little
biodiversity, and an integrated approach to
nature conservation and sustainable land
management ought to be obvious. Too
many nature conservation organizations
and objectives are riddled with institutional
biocentrism. But geoconservation is at last
being taken more seriously because it is
impossible to have a sensible land manage-
ment strategy that ignores the physical
aspects of the environment, e.g., topogra-
phy, soils, and physical processes.The con-
cept of geodiversity provides a fundamental
basis for geoconservation and deserves to
be more widely adopted in North America.
I hope this volume of The George Wright
Forum helps to stimulate interest in and
debate on these new ideas.
I am very grateful to Bob Higgins and
Vince Santucci for inviting me to partici-
pate in the 2005 GWS conference and for
their encouragement to develop and apply
the concept of geodiversity. Matthew Ben-
nett, Cynthia Burek, Lars Erikstad, and
Jonathan Larwood kindly helped develop
Table 2.
Geodiversity & Geoconservation
Volume 22 • Number 3 (2005) 11
Figure 2. Fencing to protect a remaining petrified tree at
Yellowstone National Park. Photo courtesy of the author
Attfield, R. 1999. The Ethics of the Global Environment. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University
Australian Heritage Commission. 1996. Australian Natural Heritage Charter. 1st ed.
Canberra: Australian Heritage Commission.
Australian Heritage Commission. 2002. Australian Natural Heritage Charter. 2nd ed.
Canberra: Australian Heritage Commission.
Beckerman, W., and J. Pasek. 2001. Justice, Posterity and the Environment. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Butcher, D., and R. Butcher. 1995. Exploring our National Parks and Monuments. 9th ed.
Boulder: Roberts Rinehart Publishers.
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 2004. A Recreational Guide for Hickory Run State Park.
Philadelphia: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Dixon, G. 1995. Aspects of Geoconservation in Tasmania: A Preliminary Review of
Significant Earth Features. Report to the Australian Heritage Commission, Occasional
Paper no. 32. Hobart, Tasmania: Parks and Wildlife Service.
English Nature. 2005. State of Nature—Geodiversity. Peterborough, U.K.: English Nature.
Gray, M. 2004. Geodiversity: Valuing and Conserving Abiotic Nature. Chichester, U.K.: John
Wiley & Sons.
Gulliford, A. 2000. Sacred Objects and Sacred Places: Preserving Tribal Traditions. Boulder:
University Press of Colorado.
Harmon, D.2004. Intangible values of protected areas: What are they? Why do they matter?
The George Wright Forum 21:2, 9–22.
Harmon, D., and A.D. Putney, eds. 2003. The Full Value of Parks: From Economics to the
Intangible. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.
Horner, J.R., and E. Dobb. 1997. Dinosaur Lives: Unearthing an Evolutionary Saga. San
Diego: Harcourt Brace & Co.
Johansson, C.E., ed. 2000. Geodiversitet I Nordisk Naturvård. Copenhagen: Nordisk Minis-
Kiernan, K. 1996. The Conservation of Glacial Landforms. Hobart, Tasmania: Forest
Practices Unit.
Muir,J. 1901. Our National Parks. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin.
Santucci, V.L. 1999. Palaeontological Resource Protection Survey Report. Washington, D.C.:
National Park Service, Ranger Activities Division and Geologic Resources Division.
Sharples, C. 1993. A Methodology for the Identification of Significant Landforms and
Geological Sites for Geoconservation Purposes. Hobart, Tasmania: Forestry Commis-
Murray Gray, Department of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End
Road, London E1 4NS, United Kingdom;
Geodiversity & Geoconservation
The George Wright Forum12
... The methodology for assessment of geodiversity is currently versatile as researchers have their view on the range of abiotic elements that must be calculated. An important role in the assessment is the aim of the research, which Gray (2005) has been describing 31 of geodiversity values [38], starting from scientific and economic aspects to historical and spiritual values (e.g., geocultural values). Moreover, also important are issues with the accessibility of data (e.g., accurate geological data for the Samoa Islands [10]) and software (e.g., ArcGIS) for specific areas of research, as well as the GIS knowledge of the scientists. ...
..., accessed on 19 December 2022) [38]. ...
... Meanwhile, geomorphological data based on SRTM (Shuttle Reader Topography Mission) [55] and transformed into the slope model utilizing "Slope, Aspect, Curvature" of "Terrain Analysis-Morphometry" tool of Saga GIS implanted into QGIS software. The calculation is based on default method "9 parameter 2-nd order polynom" created by Zevenbergen and Thorne (1987) [38]. ...
Full-text available
Hydrology is one of the most influential elements of geodiversity, where geology and geomorphology stand as the main values of abiotic nature. Hydrological erosion created by river systems destructing rock formations (eluvial process) from streams’ sources and then transporting and redepositing (alluvial process) the rock debris into the main river channels, make it an ongoing transformation element of the abiotic environment along channel networks. Hence, this manuscript demonstrates the influence of hydrological elements on geosite recognition, specifically for qualitative–quantitative assessment of geodiversity, which is based on a combination of geological and geomorphological values. In this concept, a stream system will be treated as an additional element. The basement area of the Manawatu Region has been utilized as the territory for the research of hydrological assessment. The region is in the southern part of the North Island of New Zealand and has relatively low geological and geomorphological values and diversity. The Strahler order parameter will be demonstrated as a hydrological element for geodiversity assessment. This parameter has been chosen as one of the most common and acceptable within geographical information system (GIS) environments. The result of this assessment compares the influences of Strahler order on qualitative–quantitative assessment of geodiversity and provides its drawbacks. Additionally, the places with high values will be considered for more accurate field observation to be nominated as potential geosites with an opportunity for geoeducational and geotouristic significance.
... In this study, three stages of geoheritage assessment methods had been used, which were: qualitative assessment, quantitative assessment and evaluation. The first stage, which is the qualitative assessment was based on classifying the geodiversity [3], geoheritage values, scope [4][5], scale [4] and level of significance [4] that present in the study area. ...
... The aesthetic values, on the other hand, correspond to any interesting or distinctive geological features, whereas the recreational values to varied leisure activities, the cultural values to historical occurrences, and ecological values to ecological influence or protected status. [3][8] [13] ( Table 1). ...
... In order to investigate or assess the geological features of a specific location for geoheritage goals, several scientists develop unique assessments of geosite analyses or evaluations. In this study, the combination previous methods [3] [4][5] [6][7] [9] together with the proposed method in second part of quantitative assessment, were used to assess and evaluate the geoheritage potential of Bukit Panau. Technically, the ranking for geotourism site is about right with the value of 19 [9] and the potential of geoheritage in Bukit Panau is high based on the calculated values of 75%. ...
Full-text available
Bukit Panau (Panau Hill) is an isolated hill located in Pasir Mas District, in between Tanah Merah and Pasir Mas town, in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. It is increasingly popular with tourists, especially those who enjoy trekking. The first discovery of Sauropod in this location was a piece of shocking news for not only Kelantan, but also the whole country. However, there are many arguments regarding the actual existence of this fossil in this area. Bukit Panau is geologically composed of igneous and sedimentary rocks. This paper aims to assess the geoheritage potential of Bukit Panau based on three stages: the qualitative assessment, quantitative assessment and evaluation. The qualitative assessment focused on identifying the geodiversity, geoheritage values, scope, scale and level of significance. The quantitative evaluation was split into two parts: one for possible geotourism sites, and the other just for potential for geoheritage based on calculations and an equation that was provided. SWOT analysis was the final technique, which was evaluation. Based on this study at Bukit Panau, five geoheritage values have been identified: scientific, aesthetic, recreational, cultural, and ecological values.The level of significance for this area is regional and the geoheritage feature scale is small to medium based on our assessment. The quantitative assessment showed that this study area was about right to become a geotourism site and high in terms of geoheritage potential.
... A partir da necessidade de gestão e conservação da biodiversidade e de áreas naturais protegidas, o termo geodiversidade passou a ser aplicado com a finalidade de abarcar os elementos não-bióticos do meio ambiente, uma vez que a diversidade biótica demanda a existência da geodiversidade, concebida pelos processos geológicos e geomorfológicos que produzem a paisagem (GRAY, 2004;BRILHA, 2005;CPRM, 2010). Ainda, Gray (2005) definiu, inicialmente, a geodiversidade como a variedade geológica de minerais, fósseis e rochas, composta também pela diversidade geomorfológica referente aos processos físicos, às formas do relevo e às características do solo. Gradativamente, a geodiversidade passou a abarcar também a variedade de materiais, formas e processos físicos que se encontram sobre a superfície terrestre (GRAY, 2005;HJORT et al., 2015). ...
... Ainda, Gray (2005) definiu, inicialmente, a geodiversidade como a variedade geológica de minerais, fósseis e rochas, composta também pela diversidade geomorfológica referente aos processos físicos, às formas do relevo e às características do solo. Gradativamente, a geodiversidade passou a abarcar também a variedade de materiais, formas e processos físicos que se encontram sobre a superfície terrestre (GRAY, 2005;HJORT et al., 2015). ...
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The waterfalls are features derived from the association of abiotic elements, especially water, rocks and relief. Cascades, waterfalls, rapids and jumps are understood as features that combine the systemic relationship between the components of geodiversity on the scale of geotopes, or more comprehensively on the scope of geofacies. In this context, there is a need to identify places where waterfalls occur, as well as define strategies for valuing and conserving this geoheritage that has value for its simple existence (BENTO; RODRIGUES, 2011; CLAUDINO-SALES, 2018). Therefore, the present research has as main objective to identify and analyze the waterfalls in the municipalities of Pelotas and Arroio do Padre (RS), from the identification of potential areas for the occurrence of these geodiversity elements and their articulation with the knowledge of the local population, through collaborative cartography, in order to subsidize the elaboration of geotourism itineraries. For the development of the research, the following methodological procedures were proposed: a) elaboration of the slope map; b) elaboration of the lineament concentration map; c) obtaining the local roughness concentration index; d) obtaining the relief form diversity index; e) map algebra to identify areas with potential occurrence of waterfalls; f) obtaining information about the waterfalls through collaborative cartography; g) inventory of verified waterfalls and; h) proposal of itineraries, considering the inventoried waterfalls. Subsequently, 17 waterfalls were evaluated and are part of the evaluation of a proposal for geotourism itineraries, which took into account elements of the chart sheet, summaries of the waterfalls and three pieces of information: the distance between properties and information; the presence of side roads. See - through collaborative cartography and map algebra, that the study presents a potential for the occurrence of waterfalls, which requires not only inventory, the conscious management of landowners and the application of geoheritage conservation actions by the public agencies, in addition to raising awareness among geotourists.
... Geodiversity is the natural range of unique earth scientific elements and objects that includes their relations, common features, properties, and contribution to landscapes (Gordon & Barron, 2013;Gray, 2005Gray, , 2011Gray, , 2012Gray, , 2018aGray, , 2019Serrano & Ruiz-Flaño, 2007;Zwoliński, 2004;Zwoliński et al., 2018). These geoscientific 'building blocks' are geological (rocks, minerals, fossils), geomorphological (landforms, topography), soil and hydrological elements of the inanimate environment that represent the elaborate system of the surface of our planet Earth Kozłowski, 2004;Manosso et al., 2021;D. ...
Geodiversity and geosite assessments precede geoheritage and geotourism utilisation. The process first determines the geodiversity value of an area (based on geoscientific attributions) and then the geotourism potential of the available sites. As a result, significant geosites can be identified, which are the bases of protection and tourism purposes. During geosite assessment, scientific and infrastructural aspects are essential because spectacular sites and landscapes carrying intrinsic or visible values generate interest among tourists and professionals. In this study, a quantitative workflow to determine the geodiversity index over an area, evaluate geosites and monitor significant ones is presented. The study area is the Bakony-Balaton UNESCO Global Geopark, where no quantitative assessment was conducted previously. A GIS-based geodiversity analysis identified the most diverse areas which gave the basis for the geosite assessment done in a ‘geodiverse’ sub-region of the geopark. The most important 9 of the 75 identified potential geosites were chosen to examine the spatial variance of the assessment. By continuous monitoring, we get an image of what the visitors like or do not like there. In this way, we were able to monitor the various opinions of geotourists to present unique development strategies for each of them. A connection between the location of geosites and the spatial distribution of geodiversity values was also determined by analysing and visualising the connection between geodiversity and geosite assessment results. Supplementary material at
... Geodiversity which is the basis for the development of geoheritage, geotourism, and geoparks, is a concept that similar with diversity concept in biology. The geodiversity is simply defined as the natural range (diversity) of geological (rocks, minerals, fossils), geomorphological (land form, physical processes) and soil features and includes their assemblages, relationships, properties, interpretations, and systems (Gray, 2005). As for geoheritage, briefly interpreted as a geological phenomenon or part of the geodiversity that contains such value that it needs to be passed down from generation to generation for various conservation-based uses. ...
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The development of a halal tourism village requires the role of youth social capital to ensure the sustainability of its tourism management. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the role of youth social capital in the development of halal tourism in tourist villages. This research was conducted in Setanggor Tourism Village, West Praya District, Central Lombok using a qualitative method of content analysis. Data was carried out by means of observation, documentation, and in-depth interviews with tourism managers in Setanggor Village.The results of this study indicate that there are several important elements that shape youth social capital, namely, social trust, self-help, collaboration, and social networks. The element of social trust is the main locomotive for encouraging youth to participate, such as: having a common identity as a Muslim who adheres to Islamic values, having an Islamic (culture) behavior, and both come from the same village. These social trust values serve as the basis for youth in increasing other elements of social capital. In an effort to maximize the strengthening of youth social capital in tourist villages, it is necessary 1) to have a meeting agenda between youth and adults in improving the quality of services such as politeness, hospitality, greetings, full of smiles, and humility of the community in serving tourists, smooth communication and information needed by tourists; 2) there is space for youth to show their existence and creativity; 3) the need for collaborative work between youth and adults through mentoring/training programs to improve the optimization of the role of youth social capital in managing and developing rural tourism. Therefore, strengthening youth social capital should be one of the strategic efforts in the context of developing sustainable halal tourism in tourist villages.
... In particular, the most common practice of geotourism comprises profiled visits of geological, geomorphological, archeological, mountainous, cultural, and ecological character, which promote the integral value of the area, i.e., tours which have recreational and educational character, in addition to familiarization with geoheritage [20,21]. The base of geotourism development is exclusively the offer of geodiversity, i.e., the geographical diversity of a certain area expressed by the geological structure and morphological elements and processes [22][23][24]. With the exception of rocks, geomorphological forms, and soil, geodiversity also includes various hydrological and climate processes under the influence of their modification. ...
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The study focuses on the present state and the assessments of geotourism development of the two most representative tufa deposits in the Djerdap National Park—the first UNESCO Global Geopark in Serbia. The findings were designated through implementing the freshly upgraded methodology—M-GAM-1-2 based on an early modified geosites assessment model (M-GAM). To overcome the limitations of the previous model, the authors implemented additional enhancements and involved members of the local community (residents and authorities) in the study to comprehensively evaluate the observed sites. The outcomes revealed that the attitudes of all stakeholders should be taken into consideration in order to develop geotourism properly, additionally attract visitors, and preserve tufa deposits for future generations of locals and visitors. Moreover, geotourism at the observed sites can be one of the vital activities of the population, as well as a type of compensation for various limitations in the development, which are imposed by the regimes of natural and cultural heritage protection within the recently established UNESCO Global Geopark.
... The classification of potential geological sites was based on geodiversity, scope, and scale (Brocx and Semeniuk, 2007;Đurovi c and Đurovi c, 2010;Ruban, 2010;Gray, 2013;Neches, 2016). Geodiversity is the type of geologic elements, which consist of rocks, fossils, minerals, soil, landforms, landscape, processes, and other resources (Gray, 2005). Meanwhile, the scope of geological sites were divided into mineralogical, petrological, structural, stratigraphic, geomorphological, speleological, and hydrogeological sites (Brocx and Semeniuk, 2007;Đurovi c and Đurovi c, 2010). ...
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Khon Kaen Geopark (KKGp), located on the Mesozoic sandstone syncline of the Khorat Plateau, northeastern Thailand, is distinguished by spatially small-scale (100–10,000 m²) forms of geodiversity (rocks, fossils, structures, landforms, landscapes, and minerals). Field investigations and classification suggest that paleontological sites present the first dinosaur species in Thailand and confirm the existence of five dinosaur species: Phuwiangosaurus sirindhornae, Kinnareemimus khonkaenensis, Siamotyrannus isanensis, Siamosaurus suteethorni, and Phuwiangvenator yaemniyomi. The geomorphological sites feature representative sandstone landforms, including waterfalls, cliffs, caverns, honeycombs, pedestal rocks, and rugged surfaces with irregular features. In addition, the mineralogical site has a Uranium Field (Cu–U-related ore deposit). This work proposes four geoeducation models: a geodiversity one-day trip, a geomorphological study trail, a geoethical study site, and the Phu Wiang Dinosaur Museum for geoconservation development for school and university students. According to the geoeducation assessment, KKGp has considerable educational value based on the Accessibility, Safety, Invulnerability, Observation condition, and Didactic (ASIOD) framework for geology and geography. Our findings suggest ways to broadly transform and enhance the geoeducation concept through a storytelling narrative of the geopark.
... Geosite refers to any geological site or landform which contains a significant geodiversity component that indicates the high geoheritage value [2]. The growing interest and understanding of the need to safeguard cultural and ecological values might be influenced by the use of unexplored areas for touristic, scientific, educational, recreational, and other purposes [3]. ...
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The study area is located in Jeli District, Kelantan, between 5°39’50”N and 101°41’20”E. With the existence of numerous geological structures, Lata Terubong has several distinct geological features. In general, the study area are composed of sandstone and acid intrusion of granite from Jeli Igneous Complex. The goals of this study are to i) determine the geo-tourism potential in Lata Terubong, and ii) create a list of possible geo-tourism activities in Lata Terubong. This study used the assessment of geoheritage values as quantitative assessment and survey method as the qualitative assessment.The location has good Aesthetical and Recreational values, according to the study. Swimming, picnics, and photography sessions are some of the geotourism activities that has been done there. As a result, it is critical to protect and conserve the geological tourist region from the threat of rapid development in order to safeguard its long-term viability.
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This article focuses on the description, discussion, and problematization of the ways indigenous spirituality is presented in a Brazil’s hospital, in the context of the treatment of chronic illnesses in children under medical supervision. It describes a short extract from a more wide-ranging study, focusing on the analysis of excerpts of the verbal responses of health professionals, and of two specific cases. Adopting a phenomenological approach, the vicissitudes of the hospitalization of indigenous children are described from the perspectives of the professionals, with an emphasis on the outcomes of the reported cases, which are riddled with impasses and challenges, with important implications for the country’s health policy and for the training of health professionals. Grounded on the cosmological explications for the illness, the indigenous child’s family members tend to resort to pajelança, (indigenous traditional healing rituals), even within the hospital environment, with or without the consent of the medical team. This process does not always end harmoniously or in an integrated fashion, evidencing the rifts in the interaction between indigenous curing practices, underpinned by thousands of years of tradition, and medical practices grounded on formal, rational, and scientific understanding. We conclude by indicating perspectives for professional training and the respective ethical considerations.
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O termo cunhado inicialmente por Gray (2005) como "geodiversidade" abarca a multiplicidade geológica de minerais, rochas, fósseis e a variedade geomorfológica, referente aos processos físicos, às formas do relevo e às características do solo. Os elementos da geodiversidade que exibem determinada relevância e que necessitam ou merecem conservação são concebidos como geopatrimônio. Visto isso, para a gestão sustentável desses elementos são necessárias estratégias de valorização e conservação. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho possui como objetivo inventariar as quedas d'água de Pelotas e Arroio do Padre (Rio Grande do Sul-Brasil) a fim de subsidiar roteiros geoturísticos a fim de fortalecer o desenvolvimento de base local. Para que esse objetivo fosse atendido, foram estabelecidos os seguintes procedimentos metodológicos: a) aplicação da cartografia colaborativa, b) trabalhos de campo e; c) inventariação das quedas d'água através da aplicação do método expedito. Os procedimentos metodológicos descritos, proporcionaram a identificação de dezoito quedas d'água, que foram posteriormente inven-tariadas a partir da aplicação de uma ficha de avaliação. Verificou-se, a partir do emprego das técnicas metodológicas, que as quedas d'água reconhecidas como geopatrimônio dos municípios de Pelotas e Arroio do Padre necessitam da gestão consciente dos proprietários, órgãos públicos e da sensibilização dos geoturistas, além da aplicação de ações conservacionistas integradas e pautadas nos Objetivos do Desenvolvimento Sustentável, da Agenda de 2030.
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Explores the ethical principles and concepts relevant to global environmental problems. Addresses climate change, overstressed natural resources and endangered wildlife, as well as many other issues that are affecting both the developed and developing worlds. Cosmopolitan and other kinds of ethical theory are sifted, and a consequentialist ethic is defended as the best basis for coping with global environmental problems. This cosmopolitan ethic is equally important for interpersonal issues, and coheres with an understanding of humanity as trustees of the natural world, and with the values elicited from reflection on the possibility of human extinction. Issues covered include intergenerational equity, priorities among species, and international justice. The author also considers the application of related principles to problems such as deforestation, the increasing scarcity of fresh water, and population growth. Finally, a cosmopolitan ethic is shown to involve a commiment in practice to global civil society and to global citizenship.
The adverse effects of nuclear warfare are described. The use of even a portion of the current worldwide stockpile of over 50,000 nuclear weapons could lead to: 1) destruction of the earth's ozone layer, 2) dispersal of radioactive fallout, 3) injection into the stratosphere of dust with long-term genetic damage and 4) massive population losses from blasts and secondary fire storms. Environmental professionals can make an important contribution to the growing effort to find acceptable and desirable ways to halt and reverse the nuclear arms race. They have the special experience and knowledge-base needed to articulate the threat to global environment represented by nuclear war. (JMT)
In rich countries, environmental problems are seen as problems of prosperity. In poor countries, they are seen as problems of poverty. This is because the environmental problems in poor countries—such as lack of clean drinking water or decent sanitation—are problems that affect them here and now, whereas in rich countries the environmental problems that people worry about most—largely as a result of current prosperity and economic growth—are those that seem likely to harm mainly posterity and hence violate our obligations to future generations. But what exactly are our obligations to future generations? Are they determined by some sort of ethical system, such as the ‘rights’ of future generations, or justice between generations, or intergenerational equity, or sustainable development? The first part of this book is addressed to these questions. It is argued that while ethical ‘systems’ do not provide much help, we still have moral obligations to take account of the interests that future generations will have. But an appraisal of these interests in the light of probable future developments suggests that, while environmental problems have to be taken seriously, our main obligation to future generations is to bequeath to them a more decent society in which there is greater respect for basic human rights than is the case today throughout most of the world. Furthermore, it cannot serve the interests of justice if the burden of protecting the environment for the benefit of posterity is born mainly by poorer people today. More resources devoted to the environment means fewer are devoted competing claims for, say, health care or education or housing, not to mention plain private consumption. And in poor countries millions of people suffer from acute lack of sanitation, clean drinking water, shelter, and basic infrastructures to prevent or cure widespread disease. Neither generations nor nations are homogeneous entities. The later chapters of this book, therefore, are addressed to the ethical aspects of the way that resources ought to be shared out between environmental protection and competing uses in all countries, and how the burden of dealing with global environmental problems ought to be shared out between rich and poor nations.
A Recreational Guide for Hickory Run State Park. Philadelphia: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
  • Pennsylvania Commonwealth
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 2004. A Recreational Guide for Hickory Run State Park. Philadelphia: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.