Risk behaviour, sexually transmitted infections and HIV among long-distance truck drivers: A cross-sectional survey along national highways in India

National Institute of Medical Statistics, Indian Council of Medical Research, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.
AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 5.55). 01/2009; 22 Suppl 5(Suppl 5):S81-90. DOI: 10.1097/01.aids.0000343766.00573.15
Source: PubMed


To report HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and sexual behaviour of long-distance truckers on four national highway routes from a large, cross-sectional, national-level trucker survey in India.
Seven trans-shipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes, north-west (NW), north-south (NS), north-east (NE) and south-east (SE) were identified as survey sites. A total of 2066 long-distance truckers were selected using a two-stage, time-location cluster sampling approach and, after consent, interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Urine and blood sample were tested for selected STIs.
Overall, HIV prevalence among truckers was found to be 4.6%, with prevalence highest on the SE route (6.8%) and lowest on the NS (2.4%). Positive HSV-2 serology, which was tested in a 10% subsample, was low along three routes, 10.0%, 12.8% and 6.7% for the NE, NS and NW, respectively, but 38.7% in the SE. The truckers from the SE were found to be more likely to have sex with paid partners than the NE route. Moreover, truckers who owned their trucks were more likely than those who did not use condoms consistently with paid partners, and truckers who drive trucks owned by their relatives/friends are more likely than others to have any STI.
Low self-risk perception for HIV (9.9%), low consistent condom use with non-paid partners (18.6%) and wives (3%), low reported exposure to any interventions (25.6%) and low levels of ever having taken an HIV test (16.5%) make truckers an important bridge population requiring strengthened interventions.

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Available from: Arvind Pandey, May 25, 2015
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    • "Mobile populations, including truck drivers, have been identified as vulnerable group for acquiring and transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Stratford et al., 2000; UNAIDS, 2007; Pandey et al., 2008). Studies from some parts of Africa and Asia have demonstrated a link between long-distance truck drivers and the prevalence of HIV/STIs (Manjunath et al., 2002; Mbugua et al., 1995; Mustikawati et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Although the high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis infections among longdistance truck drivers has been well documented globally, such data are sparse from Africa, and there has been no such data from Ghana. This study carried out between the months of January and June 2013 sought to determine the sero-prevalence and risk factors of HIV, HBV and syphilis infections among long distance truck drivers at the Tema sea port, Ghana.Materials and Methods: Of a total of 800 eligible drivers, 106 (13.25%) drivers consented to take part in the study. Subjects voluntarily completed a risk factor questionnaire and provided blood specimen for testing for HIV, syphilis and the surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg).Results: The mean age of the drivers was 40.56 ± 11.56 years. The sero-prevalence of HIV was 0.94%, 14.2% had HBsAg and reactive syphilis serology was 3.8%. On multivariate analysis, the main determinants of HBV infection were; multiple sexual partnership (OR, 6.36; 95% CI: 1.35– 29.79), patronage of commercial sex workers (OR, 6.85; 95% CI: 0.88 – 52.89), cross-border travelers (OR: 6.89-fold, 95% CI: 0.86 - 55.55) and prolonged duration of trips for more than two weeks (OR: 4.76; 95% CI: 0.59 – 38.02). The main determinant of syphilis infection on multivariate analysis was being a Muslim (OR, 2.19; 95% CI: 0.22 – 21.74).Conclusion: The data indicate a lower sero-prevalence of HIV but a higher sero-prevalence of syphilis. However, the sero-prevalence of HBV infection is comparable to that of the general population.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · African Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    • "In India, though several studies have been carried out to understand the behavioural pattern including reproductive behaviour of the HIV infected population majorly among high-risk groups i.e., Female sex workers, Men having Sex with Men, Injecting Drug Users and long distance truck drivers who are clients of sex workers [19]-[22]. Nevertheless few studies in India look specifically into the utilisation of maternal health services or fertility and reproductive health by HIV status. This is majorly due to absence of specific data pertaining to this. "

    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · World Journal of AIDS
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    • "Over the last decade, the HIV epidemic in India has been spreading from high-to low-risk populations, and from urban to rural areas, mainly through the bridge populations (Becker et al., 2007; Solomon, Chakraborty & Yepthomi , 2004; Solomon, Kumarasamy, Ganesh, & Amalraj, 1998). The most important bridge population appears to be long-distance truckers (''truckers'') and men who migrate between states for seasonal work in construction and other industries (Pandey et al., 2008). India has approximately 3.5 million truckers. "
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    ABSTRACT: It is important to know about patterns of sexual behaviors among married couples in order to develop effective HIV prevention strategies for them. Herein we describe the sexual behaviors, estimate prevalence of anal intercourse (AI) among truck drivers ("truckers") and their wives, and determine partner-specific demographic and behavioral correlates of AI. We carried out a cluster-sampled cross-sectional survey among 18-49 year-old wives and their trucker husbands in a south Indian district. Data were collected by same-gender research team members with color-coded computer-assisted interviews. We used random intercept logistic regression to identify the independent correlates of AI. Thirteen percent of 475 wives and 467 truckers reported ever having AI with their spouse. Of those who responded, 55 % of 40 wives and 47 % of 36 truckers never used condoms during AI. Of those who responded, 22 of 32 wives and 24 of 32 husbands felt that condoms were unnecessary during AI. Reporting ever having AI was associated with younger age and higher education of both husband and wife. AI reported by wives was associated with having sexual partner(s) other than husband (adjusted OR 8.8 [95 % CI 3.2-24.0]), correctly answering all HIV knowledge items (adjusted OR 4.9 [95 % CI 1.9-12.5]), husband's sexual debut occurring before marriage (adjusted OR 1.9 [95 % CI 1.0-3.5]), and husband's high HIV risk perception (adjusted OR 2.5 [95 % CI 1.2-5.4]). AI reported by truckers was associated with having sex with a male or transgender (adjusted OR 4.0 [95 % CI 1.2-13.3]). Reported prevalence of AI was high considering that in India anal sex is non-normative, heavily stigmatized and, criminal. Indian heterosexual mobile populations need to be informed about the greater risk of HIV infection consequent to unprotected AI.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Archives of Sexual Behavior
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