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UK Consumer Responses to iDTV Report

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The UK is the most advanced country in the world in consumer adoption and usage of interactive digital television (iDTV). The future success of iDTV and its role in society depends on how well consumers respond to what it offers. This report attempts to draw together the fragmented evidence on the consumer response to date in the UK, together with some published forecasts. The initial basis for the report was a September 2001 conference organised by the Future Media Research Programme at London Business School. The report covers five areas of consumer response: • Adoption to-date of digital TV (DTV) and iDTV (Section 2) • Attitudes and projected future adoption (Section 3) • Response to interactive TV programming (Section 4) • Response to interactive TV advertising (Section 5) • Response to other interactive TV services (Section 6). • The final section summarises the results and some implications. DTV has taken off fast in the UK, driven by competition between satellite, cable and terrestrial TV platforms. DTV penetration in December 2001 was 33% of homes with a television. BSkyB, the satellite operator, switched off its analogue signal in September 2001, having converted almost all its viewers to digital. It had driven DTV penetration by heavy investment in programming, marketing, and “free” set top boxes (STBs). It still has over 60% of DTV homes, but has been steadily losing share to digital cable. The future of digital terrestrial TV (DTT) is uncertain at the time of writing. More than 50% of DTV homes have iDTV, here defined as DTV with a “return path” from the home to the broadcaster and this proportion continues to grow. The evidence is that iDTV is mainly seen as enhanced television rather than a low-cost way of accessing the Internet or other interactive services. iDTV penetration (19% among all UK adults in January 2002) was twice as high among those with Internet access via a home PC as among those without (27% vs. 13%). Nevertheless, for a significant minority (8% of adults) iDTV is the only online access device in the home. However, if we also include those with access at work/college and/or with WAP, the total proportion of UK adults with online access rises from 43% (with online PCs at home) to about 58% (with at least one kind of access, and in many cases two or three). This, however still leaves 42% “digital have-nots”, many aged 65+. Demographically, iDTV adopters are fairly representative of the general population, but with a skew towards families with children, young adults, and men. Unlike online home PCs, iDTV does not have a strong ABC1 bias. The finding that consumers see iDTV as enhanced television rather than primarily an interactive medium is strongly reflected in their stated reasons for adoption. These are dominated by TV- related reasons, especially the desire for more/better channels and programmes as well as improved pictures and sound. Interactive services such as web access, email, and home shopping are seen as additional benefits, not core reasons for adoption. Opinions differ as to future adoption of DTV and iDTV. Most analysts project continuing adoption slowing down as digital pay-TV approaches saturation and then accelerating again as cheap digital television sets appears from 2005/2006, leading to faster adoption of free-to-air digital TV. However, the Government’s target of analogue switch-off by 2010 looks ambitious. Viewers regard some interactive programming (e.g. game shows) as a welcome addition to the viewing experience, although not all programmes or genres are suitable for concurrent interactivity. Others, especially documentaries, cooking/gardening/DIY shows etc, are well- suited to using the Web to provide further information for browsing or downloading after transmission. Finally, some entertainment programmes, such as Big Brother and Banzai, have successfully generated direct audience involvement (and extra media coverage) using interactivity. Interactive TV advertising, in principle, has high potential for targeting and for convenient direct response ads. It has been shown to boost audience involvement and response, although it has been held back by a lack of standards, high perceived costs, the low penetration and usage of iDTV compared with regular television, and perhaps by viewers’ and advertisers’ lack of experience. iDTV advertising response rates vary greatly but are typically higher during daytime. However many consumers see advertising as intrusive and iDTV advertisers have usually needed to give an incentive of some kind to persuade viewers to interact. Other concerns include legal (privacy) issues and the increasing possibility for viewers with personal video recorders (PVRs) and similar technologies to skip commercial breaks. Consumers’ use of other interactive services via their iDTVs is characterised by short visits, mostly as an alternative to uninteresting TV programmes. Many people in homes with iDTV have never even tried any of the interactive services, while others have been discouraged by poor reliability, slow access, and weak content. The main successes to-date have been iDTV games and gambling, although operators have found it hard to make these profitable. Overall, UK consumers’ initial responses to iDTV suggest that its main value is as an entertainment medium, primarily providing better television (range, picture, sound, plus some interactive enhancement) as well as games and gambling. It has mainly been adopted by homes which are already online and see it as complementary to the PC which is preferred for more functional “lean-forward” tasks such as searching for information or shopping. However, iDTV is seen as possibly appropriate for browsing or buying some leisure products and services, such as holidays, games, and music. Our overall conclusion is that iDTV is television with interactivity, not the Internet with moving pictures.
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UK Consumer Responses to iDTV
Report
May 2002
Karolina Brodin, Patrick Barwise and Ana Isabel Canhoto
Karolina Brodin, Visiting Doctoral Student, London Business School
Patrick Barwise, Professor of Marketing and Chairman of the Future Media Research Programme,
London Business School
Ana Isabel Canhoto, Research Assistant, Future Media Research Programme, London Business School
This report is also available online at www.idtvconsumers.com
Other online papers include www.marketingandtheinternet.com and
www.predictionsmedia.com.
London Business School, Regent's Park, London NW1 4SA, U.K.
Tel: +44 (0) 20 7262-5050 Fax: +44 (0) 20 7724-1145
http://www.london.edu/marketing
Copyright © London Business School 2002
UK CONSUMER RESPONSES TO iDTV
Contents Page
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .....................................................................................2
1. INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................5
2. CONSUMER ADOPTION TO DATE ..........................................................7
2.1 Adoption of DTV and iDTV............................................................................................... 7
2.2 Complementarity of iDTV and Online Home PCs .......................................................... 8
2.3 Total Online Access Including at Work and Via WAP................................................. 10
2.4 Characteristics of DTV and iDTV adopters................................................................... 12
3. CONSUMER ATTITUDES AND PROJECTED FUTURE ADOPTION
……………………………………………………………………………….14
3.1 Consumer attitudes to DTV and iDTV ........................................................................... 14
3.2 Projected future adoption ................................................................................................ 18
4. RESPONSE TO INTERACTIVE TV PROGRAMMING........................22
4.1 Programme types with interactive potential .................................................................. 22
4.2 Response to interactive game shows and sport .............................................................. 23
5. RESPONSE TO INTERACTIVE TV ADVERTISING............................26
5.1 The potential of interactive TV advertising.................................................................... 26
5.2 Attitudes............................................................................................................................. 30
5.3 Response rates ................................................................................................................... 31
5.4 Effectiveness ...................................................................................................................... 33
6. RESPONSE TO OTHER INTERACTIVE SERVICES ...........................37
6.1 Games and gambling ........................................................................................................ 38
6.2 Email, the Web, and t-commerce .................................................................................... 40
7. SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS...........................................................43
7.1 Summary............................................................................................................................ 43
7.2 Implications ....................................................................................................................... 44
8. REFERENCES ..............................................................................................47
1
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The UK is the most advanced country in the world in consumer adoption and usage of interactive
digital television (iDTV). The future success of iDTV and its role in society depends on how
well consumers respond to what it offers. This report attempts to draw together the fragmented
evidence on the consumer response to date in the UK, together with some published forecasts.
The initial basis for the report was a September 2001 conference organised by the Future Media
Research Programme at London Business School.
The report covers five areas of consumer response:
Adoption to-date of digital TV (DTV) and iDTV (Section 2)
Attitudes and projected future adoption (Section 3)
Response to interactive TV programming (Section 4)
Response to interactive TV advertising (Section 5)
Response to other interactive TV services (Section 6).
The final section summarises the results and some implications.
DTV has taken off fast in the UK, driven by competition between satellite, cable and terrestrial
TV platforms. DTV penetration in December 2001 was 33% of homes with a television. BSkyB,
the satellite operator, switched off its analogue signal in September 2001, having converted
almost all its viewers to digital. It had driven DTV penetration by heavy investment in
programming, marketing, and “free” set top boxes (STBs). It still has over 60% of DTV homes,
but has been steadily losing share to digital cable. The future of digital terrestrial TV (DTT) is
uncertain at the time of writing.
More than 50% of DTV homes have iDTV, here defined as DTV with a “return path” from the
home to the broadcaster and this proportion continues to grow. The evidence is that iDTV is
mainly seen as enhanced television rather than a low-cost way of accessing the Internet or other
interactive services. iDTV penetration (19% among all UK adults in January 2002) was twice as
high among those with Internet access via a home PC as among those without (27% vs. 13%).
2
Nevertheless, for a significant minority (8% of adults) iDTV is the only online access device in
the home. However, if we also include those with access at work/college and/or with WAP, the
total proportion of UK adults with online access rises from 43% (with online PCs at home) to
about 58% (with at least one kind of access, and in many cases two or three). This, however still
leaves 42% “digital have-nots”, many aged 65+.
Demographically, iDTV adopters are fairly representative of the general population, but with a
skew towards families with children, young adults, and men. Unlike online home PCs, iDTV
does not have a strong ABC1 bias.
The finding that consumers see iDTV as enhanced television rather than primarily an interactive
medium is strongly reflected in their stated reasons for adoption. These are dominated by TV-
related reasons, especially the desire for more/better channels and programmes as well as
improved pictures and sound. Interactive services such as web access, email, and home shopping
are seen as additional benefits, not core reasons for adoption.
Opinions differ as to future adoption of DTV and iDTV. Most analysts project continuing
adoption slowing down as digital pay-TV approaches saturation and then accelerating again as
cheap digital television sets appears from 2005/2006, leading to faster adoption of free-to-air
digital TV. However, the Government’s target of analogue switch-off by 2010 looks ambitious.
Viewers regard some interactive programming (e.g. game shows) as a welcome addition to the
viewing experience, although not all programmes or genres are suitable for concurrent
interactivity. Others, especially documentaries, cooking/gardening/DIY shows etc, are well-
suited to using the Web to provide further information for browsing or downloading after
transmission. Finally, some entertainment programmes, such as Big Brother and Banzai, have
successfully generated direct audience involvement (and extra media coverage) using
interactivity.
3
Interactive TV advertising, in principle, has high potential for targeting and for convenient direct
response ads. It has been shown to boost audience involvement and response, although it has
been held back by a lack of standards, high perceived costs, the low penetration and usage of
iDTV compared with regular television, and perhaps by viewers’ and advertisers’ lack of
experience. iDTV advertising response rates vary greatly but are typically higher during daytime.
However many consumers see advertising as intrusive and iDTV advertisers have usually needed
to give an incentive of some kind to persuade viewers to interact. Other concerns include legal
(privacy) issues and the increasing possibility for viewers with personal video recorders (PVRs)
and similar technologies to skip commercial breaks.
Consumers’ use of other interactive services via their iDTVs is characterised by short visits,
mostly as an alternative to uninteresting TV programmes. Many people in homes with iDTV
have never even tried any of the interactive services, while others have been discouraged by poor
reliability, slow access, and weak content. The main successes to-date have been iDTV games
and gambling, although operators have found it hard to make these profitable.
Overall, UK consumers’ initial responses to iDTV suggest that its main value is as an
entertainment medium, primarily providing better television (range, picture, sound, plus some
interactive enhancement) as well as games and gambling. It has mainly been adopted by homes
which are already online and see it as complementary to the PC which is preferred for more
functional “lean-forward” tasks such as searching for information or shopping. However, iDTV
is seen as possibly appropriate for browsing or buying some leisure products and services, such
as holidays, games, and music.
Our overall conclusion is that iDTV is television with interactivity, not the Internet with moving
pictures.
4
1. INTRODUCTION
This report aims to integrate the evidence on UK consumers’ response to-date to interactive
digital television (iDTV). It covers five areas of consumer response:
adoption to-date of digital television (DTV) and iDTV (Section 2)
attitudes and projected future adoption (Section 3)
response to interactive programming on iDTV (Section 4)
response to interactive advertising on iDTV (Section 5)
response to other interactive services on iDTV (Section 6)
The final section summarises the results and some implications.
We define DTV as any television platform (whether satellite, cable, or terrestrial) for which
content is transmitted in digital form. We define iDTV as DTV which is interactive in the sense
of having a “return path” to allow two-way communication between the consumer and the
broadcaster (e.g., instruction to change the viewing angle of a camera), advertiser (e.g., shopping
order), or service supplier (e.g., request a movie). It is important to underline that, in practice,
interactivity is a matter of degree. There are many functions regarded as interactive that do not
necessarily require a return path, e.g. playing free games, using news services, switching
between tennis courts at a Wimbledon Tennis Championship broadcast, “surfing” through a
limited walled garden Internet, near-video-on-demand, or even just using teletext (Parker 2001).
Much of the material reported here is based on presentations by invited speakers at a September
2001 Future Media Research Programme conference at London Business School. We are
grateful to the presenters for allowing us to reproduce this material1 as well as to other experts
who gave comments on an earlier draft of the report2.
1 Andrew Curry (The Henley Centre), Dave Chilvers (Continental Research), Tim Davies and Lucy Shepherd (CIA
MediaLab), Julian Dobinson (BSkyB), Andrew Kearney and Catherine Blizzard (Carlton Television), Jon James
(Flextech), Duane Varan (Interactive TV Research Institute, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia), David Muir
(futureOgilvy), Alex Owens (BBC), Chris Goodall (Enders Analysis) and Andrew Wallace (Pace Micro).
2 Robin Foster (ITC), Anthony Robb-John (Two Way TV), Shuvo Saha (Proctor & Gamble), Joy Taylor (Interactive
Forum).
5
The deployment of iDTV is more advanced in the UK than in any other country, despite the
current uncertainty about the future of digital terrestrial TV. Even here, iDTV is still at an early
stage and the research published to-date is limited and fragmented. But the future success and
impact of digital television depends crucially on consumer response. This report is a first step in
pulling together the evidence about that response, as an input to strategic decisions by interested
parties in the UK and elsewhere.
6
2. CONSUMER ADOPTION TO DATE
2.1 Adoption of DTV and iDTV
DTV was launched in September 1998 and its adoption has been fast. Three-and-a-half years
after the first DTV service was available it has reached one in every three UK households,
although the rate of adoption has slowed (Figure 2.1).
Figure 2.1: % of UK Households with DTV
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
Dec-98
Feb-99
Apr-99
Jun-99
Aug-99
Oct-99
Dec-99
Feb-00
Apr-00
Jun-00
Aug-00
Oct-00
Dec-00
Feb-01
Apr-01
Jun-01
Aug-01
Oct-01
Dec-01
Penetration
Source: Continental Research, 2002a
The main driver of the rapid growth was the offer by BSkyB and ONDigital (later ITV Digital)
of “free”, i.e. subsidised, set-top boxes. Another key driver was BSkyB’s conversion of analogue
satellite households to digital. This ended in September 2001, when BSkyB switched off its
analogue signal.
Increasingly, growth has been driven by two other factors:
Upgrading of analogue cable households to digital (by NTL and Telewest)
Aggressive marketing to attract new subscribers by all three platforms (satellite, cable and
terrestrial).
7
However, these further factors have limited growth:
The slowdown in general economic conditions
High churn, especially for ONdigital/ITV Digital
Recent uncertainty about the future of ITV Digital and the digital terrestrial platform.
These various factors have contributed to a change in the relative weight of each digital platform
as illustrated below (Table 2.1)
Table 2.1: Growth of Digital Platforms
% of UK households
06.00 09.00 12.00 03.01 06.01 09.01 12.01
Digital satellite TV 13 16 18 20 21 22 21
Digital terrestrial TV 4 6 4 5 4 4 4
Digital cable TV 1 2 3 4 6 7 9
Total 18 22 25 29 31 33 33
Source: Authors’ estimates based on Continental Research data (Figures may not sum due to
rounding)
As of December 2001, digital satellite TV still accounted for over 60% of DTV households. Yet,
it is losing share to digital cable TV, as is digital terrestrial TV.
Not all DTV households have iDTV. In January 2002, two years after the launch of the UK’s
first iDTV system (Open…., now branded Sky Active), 16.4m out of the UK’s 47.1m adults
aged 15+ lived in homes with DTV, a penetration of 35%2. Of these, 9.1m (55%) had iDTV,
defined as DTV online access with a return path (Continental Research 2002a).
2.2 Complementarity of iDTV and Online Home PCs
Some analysts believe that the reason for iDTV’s success in the UK is that it “represents an
alternative to household Internet access, which is not as readily available or as inexpensive (...)
as it is in the United States” (Chain Store Age, 2001). Additionally, the 25-year experience with
8
teletext may have contributed to people feeling comfortable with TV as a medium for getting
information compared with the US (Groticelli and Kerschbaumer, 2001). However, iDTV and
PCs have very different natures (lean back versus lean forward) and are used to fulfill different
needs (entertainment versus task orientation). Therefore, they should thus be regarded as largely
complementary to each other (Henley Centre, 2001).
The complementarity of iDTV and online PCs is reflected on the overlap in their adoption.
According to Continental Research (2002a), 20.2 million UK adults (43%) had online access via
a home PC in January 2002. Based on Continental’s figures, we estimate that 5.5 million of these
also had iDTV, a penetration of 27%. In contrast, only about 3.5 million of the 26.9 million
adults in homes without online PCs had iDTV, a penetration of only 13%:
5.5m = 27% 3.6m = 13%
20.2m 26.9m
The population breakdowns are shown in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2: UK adults with access to iDTV and/or online home PCs (January 2002)
UK adults 15+ (millions) % of UK adults 15+
All UK adults 15+ 47.1 100
Those in homes with:
iDTV and PC
iDTV and no PC
PC and no iDTV
5.5
3.6
14.8
12
8
31
Total iDTV and/or PC 23.9 51
Total iDTV
Total PC
9.1
20.2
19
43
3As with other new media, the penetration for individuals – ie the percent living in homes with the technology – is
somewhat higher than the homes penetration. This is because the homes which adopt tend to have an above-average
number of household numbers, mainly because adoption is low among those aged 65+, see Section 2.4 below.
9
Source: Authors’ estimates based on Continental Research (2002a). (Figures may not sum due
to rounding)
Thus, iDTV penetration was about twice as high among adults with online PC access at home as
among those without (27% vs. 13%). But the idea of iDTV as a way of broadening online access
is not entirely a myth. As shown in Table 2.2, the 8% of adults with iDTV but no online PC at
home brought the total population with online access at home to 51% (versus only 43% with
online PCs at home).
On this basis, iDTV is emerging as primarily a complementary medium for people who already
have web access at home: given the choice, almost no-one with access to both would do their
grocery shopping via the TV rather than the PC. However, there is a significant minority (8% of
adults in January 2002) for whom iDTV is the only online access device in the home.
2.3 Total Online Access Including at Work and Via WAP
Continental Research (2002a) also reports ownership of WAP phones. They estimate that 4.6m
UK adults 15+ (10%) had WAP phones in January 2002. Most of these were in homes with an
online PC and/or iDTV, but 1.0 million (2% of all adults) were not, bringing the number with
online access via at least one of these three media to 24.9 million – 53% of all adults.
This excludes those with online access at work (including school or college) but not at home or
through WAP. Continental Research (2002b) estimates that, at the end of 2001, 34% of adults
had Internet access at work. Most of these (27% of all adults) also had Internet access at home,
but a significant minority (the other 7%) did not, bringing the total proportion with any Internet
access via a PC to 50%:
Internet access via a home PC 43%
+ Internet access at work but not via a home PC 7%
Total 50%
Of the 7% with online access at work but not via a home PC, we do not know how many had
iDTV and/or WAP. Our estimate would be 20%-40% of the 7%, i.e. about 2% of all adults.
10
On this basis, Internet access at work adds a net 5% to our earlier estimate that 53% of adults had
online access at home (via a PC and/or a TV) and/or via WAP. If this estimate is correct, 58% of
all UK adults had some kind of online access by January 2002:
Access via online home PC 43%
+Access via iDTV/WAP/PC at work (but not home PC) 15%
Total 58%
Thus over 40% of UK consumers (doubtless accounting for well over half of total consumer
expenditure) already had Internet access at home. Including those with iDTV or WAP brings the
proportion to more than 50%. If we also include these with access at work, almost 60% had some
kind of online access.
Despite the collapse of the various digital and related bubbles (including, to some extent, iDTV
and WAP), we expect the proportion with online access to continue growing slowly but steadily.
The main challenge for content and service providers is not that consumers have failed to adopt
digital technologies (although this is true of some technologies) but rather that it has proved far
harder than most suppliers expected to convert adoption into revenue. For most operators, the
biggest issue today is average revenue per user (ARPU).
In addition, there should be concern at the “digital divide”. Our analysis suggests that iDTV can
play a role in bringing people without PCs online, but only to a limited extent. We are moving
into a world in which most consumers have online access, many via multiple digital channels,
while a large minority has none (Barwise 2001a):
Since January 2002, the number of iDTV households has probably increased both in absolute
terms and as a proportion of DTV households. Strategy Analytics has estimated that by
December 2002 40% of UK households will have iDTV-capable TV sets, representing a 43%
increase since February 2002 (Higgins, 2001).
11
2.4 Characteristics of DTV and iDTV adopters
iDTV adoption correlates with the presence of children and the ages of adult household
members. For instance, a BMRB survey for the BSC and ITC in August/September 2001 found
the following adult DTV penetrations by age (Towler 2002).
16-24 47%
25-44 53%
45-64 34%
65+ 18%
All UK adults 40%
Table 2.3 Demographic profiles of adults in DTV, iDTV and online PC households %
January 2001 UK
population
DTV iDTV Home
PC
access
With children 0-14 36 43 49 39
Without children 64 57 51 61
15-24 15 20 18 19
25-34 20 22 29 21
35-44 17 22 18 25
45-54 16 16 16 18
55-64 13 9 9 9
65+ 19 10 9 7
Male 49 52 57 55
Female 51 48 43 45
AB 22 23 24 39
C1 28 28 27 34
C2 22 26 29 17
DE 28 23 20 13
Source: Continental Research, 2001a
Table 2.3 shows the demographic profile for adults in DTV and iDTV households in a January
2001 study by Continental Research. The main deviation from the general population – and the
12
online PC population – is that DTV and (especially) iDTV penetration is skewed towards
households with children. iDTV is also skewed towards the age range 25-34 and towards men.
DTV, iDTV and online PCs all show a large shortfall among older consumers. DTV and iDTV
do not show the strong ABC1 skew which still characterises online PC access.
Table 2.4 shows the latest demographic figures for DTV alongside the January 2001 figures in
Table 2.3. These show little change over the year.
Table 2.4 Changes in the demographic profile of adults in DTV households
% of population Jan 2001 Jan 2002
With children 0-14 43 44
Without children 57 56
15-24 20 16
25-34 22 24
35-44 22 24
45-54 16 16
55-64 9 11
65+ 10 8
Male 52 51
Female 48 49
AB 23 23
C1 28 30
C2 26 22
DE 23 26
Source: Continental Research, 2001a and 2002a
13
3. CONSUMER ATTITUDES AND PROJECTED FUTURE
ADOPTION
3.1 Consumer attitudes to DTV and iDTV
In line with our conclusion in Section 2.2 that iDTV is largely complementary to home PCs,
there is wide agreement in the industry that the main motivation for adopting DTV has been to
get more/better television, rather than interactive services. Consumers often have only a vague
idea about what kinds of interactive services and programming are offered before becoming
DTV users. Therefore interactivity has not been a major motivator for adopting DTV. Many
early adopters have been disappointed with the reality of interactivity, except for some TV-
related services such as Sky Sports Extra, Big Brother and Banzai.
According to CIA MediaLab (2001), early DTV adoption was mostly motivated by a desire to
reclaim lost events from terrestrial television (e.g. soccer) plus pester power, similarly to what
had happened with analogue pay-TV adoption. Current adoption is driven by the promise of
more channels, better picture/sound quality, and better/extra programme coverage. The only
significant non-TV benefit is interactive games, mentioned by 11% of adopters. Online
shopping, email and the Internet are
barely mentioned (Table 3.1).
Table 3.1: Main Reasons for Purchasing DTV
% of
respondents
More TV channels 72
Better picture quality 31
Better coverage (e.g. Sky Sports Extra) 30
Better sound quality 18
Better programmes 14
Access to PPV events 14
Games 11
Online shopping 4
Source: CIA MediaLab, 2001
14
Still only 60% of the households with digital TV had access to interactive services like shopping
and banking (Table 3.2).
Table 3.2: Which DTV services do consumers have? (Base UK homes with digital TV)
% of
answers
Extra channel packages 77
Interactive services e.g.,
shopping, banking
60
Internet / e-mail 34
None of these-only free
channels
15
Source: Hoak Breedlove Wesneski, 2000
Continental Research (2001b) reports that 89% of digital adopters give either more channels
(55%) or better picture quality (34%) as the single most important benefit of DTV (although not
everyone would agree that DTV picture quality is typically better than analogue). More channels
are seen as especially important by younger consumers.
There is less agreement among adopters about how DTV could be improved. 45% mention more
programme variety and 36% a more efficient EPG (electronic programme guide). But significant
numbers also mention faster interactive service (31%), full Internet access (25%), and
faster/easier email (15%) (Table 3.3).
Interactive service is seen to add value and is a welcome addition to the TV environment but not
a ‘must have’ service or a huge innovation (Carlton Television, 2001). For viewers, iDTV lies
conceptually between teletext and the Internet, although the perception varies by viewer type.
Factors that affect the perception of iDTV include familiarity with teletext, DTV (especially
EPGs), and the Internet (Carlton Television, 2001).
15
Table 3.3: Priorities for improving DTV
% of
adopters
More programme variety 45
More efficient EPG 36
Faster interactive services 31
Full internet access 25
Better picture quality 20
Faster and easier e-mail 15
More interactive TV 15
More PPV films 15
Improved sports programmes 12
Better sound quality 10
Improved movie quality 9
Better back-up service 9
None of these 6
Source: Continental Research, 2001b
The staged rollout of services and a perceived lack of coaching/education have led to less than
satisfactory first impressions for many viewers. An example of this lack of coaching comes from
an NTL customer: “We got this (direct mailing) through the post the other day and (...) [it] is the
first thing I’ve seen that explains everything you can do” (Netpoll, 2001).
Many new users are keen to explore what iDTV has to offer and are willing to experiment with
the services, but the initial enthusiasm quickly dissipates due to common complaints about
unreliability, lack of speed, and lack of depth.
This, in combination with inflated initial expectations of what the interactivity would mean for
the TV experience, may make it hard to regain the interest from disillusioned or disappointed
viewers (CIA MediaLab, 2001). In a survey carried out by produxion.com and Mantra, only 6%
of those who had tried interactive betting said they would repeat the experience (Cane, 2001a).
One area of controversy is about the propensity to switch services. Some sources claim that
customers are reluctant to switch and, therefore, “the first companies to get inside the home will
win” (HSBC, 2000). Switching costs could come from subscription fees, acquisition of STB and
other equipment (e.g., keypads), learning the software and others. Other sources (e.g., the Henley
16
Centre) argue that the propensity to switch is high for many consumers. When the equipment
gets old or starts playing up, the consumer is likely to consider a switch.
Consumer Segments
There have been several attempts at segmenting iDTV viewers and identifying the early adopters
as well as the most promising followers. Netpoll (2001) believes that “teenagers with an interest
in all things cool” are the most knowledgeable users of interactive services. Another important
segment is that composed of eager sport viewers. However, the “over 50s” segment and that
composed by housewives, either childless or with young children, may account for an important
share of future interactive users because they “see it as less intimidating than the PC with less
chance of making errors” (Cane, 2001b).
Another study by Continental Research (2001b) has identified that a segment composed
predominantly of high-income men with no children has been at the digital forefront (“Boys with
toys”). Next in terms of iDTV adoption, there is a group predominantly composed of men, of
mixed income levels, who use many of the services available such as player-cam or fan match
commentary, but not online banking or betting (“Match of the Day man”). (Table 3.4)
Table 3.4: Segments of iDTV users
Name of segment Composition iDTV usage % of DTV
households
Boys with toys Predominantly male
High income
No children
PPV sport and PPV movies, player-
cam, games and all online services
7
Match of the Day
man
Predominantly male
Mixed income
Sky Sports, player-cam, fan
commentary and online services; not
banking or betting
5
Ikea generation Young families
Good income
TV as entertainment centre: radio
and games; not PPV
21
Royle Family Both male and female
Lower income
Have children
TV as focal point: PPV movies,
online shopping, quizzes,
competitions and radio
3
Richard Madeley
fan club
Females with children
Lower incomes
PPV movies and radio; no interactive
services
12
The other half Predominantly female
Mixed social
background and income
Does not use interactive services 52
Source: Continental Research, 2001b
17
3.2 Projected future adoption
After rapid initial growth, DTV’s household penetration has slowed. Nevertheless, analysts are
generally optimistic and estimate that DTV’s household penetration will reach as high as 93.4%
by 2010 (Figure 3.1). Others argue that the digital resisters are broadly the same as the multi-
channel resisters and will therefore prove hard to convert (Henley Centre).
Figure 3.1: DTV household penetration in the UK
1.0%
11.0%
26.0%
37.7%
47.0%
56.8% 61.1% 65.9% 70.7% 76.5% 82.8% 88.3% 93.4%
0.0%
10.0%
20.0%
30.0%
40.0%
50.0%
60.0%
70.0%
80.0%
90.0%
100.0%
1998 1999 2000 2001e 2002e 2003e 2004e 2005e 2006e 2007e 2008e 2009e 2010e
Source: Jerel Whittingham, Durlacher, November 2000
Many sources are optimistic with Equifax forecasting 60% household penetration by the end of
2003 (Chain Store Age, 2001) and the UK government forecasting a rise to 47% by 2003 and
76% by 2008 (Bardsley, 2000).
Regarding iDTV usage, Jupiter forecasts that 25.5% of all individuals will use interactive
services by 2003, and 38.6% by 2006 (Behe, 2001).
This trend is influenced by a number of factors.
First, there is a shift of focus among the main digital network operators. BSkyB has now
completed the conversion of analogue subscribers into digital. Its focus has now shifted from
acquiring new subscribers to improving customer retention, revenue per subscriber (ARPU) and
profitability. The Set Top Box (STB) subsidisation programme is ending. NTL and Telewest are
under strong shareholder pressure to improve profitability rather than penetration. Their focus is
18
on upgrading analogue subscribers to digital and increasing ARPU. At the time of writing, ITV
Digital is under administration and its shareholders (Carlton and Granada) are under strong
financial pressure to limit further investment in DTV.
Second, according to some analysts, the potential "third wave adopters" might be looking for a
cheap and friendly substitute to the PC. They will be mainly using interactive services such as e-
mail, shopping, banking, gambling and travel services, according to the Yankee Group. These
users “will be largely lured (...) by set top box subsidisation”, and the providers will have to use
revenues from PPV or t-commerce to offset their high acquisition costs (Electronic Advertising
& Marketplace Report, 2001). Forrester Research predicts that by 2005 only 15% of the
operators’ revenues from iDTV will come from subscriptions. According to Forrester, 49% will
come from t-commerce and the rest (36%) from marketing fees and advertising (Hoak Breedlove
Wesneski 2000) (Table 3.5). We think these estimates of advertising and t-commerce revenue
are highly optimistic.
Table 3.5: iDTV revenue breakdown (%)
2000 2003e 2005e
Advertising 20 30 36
t-commerce 28 38 49
Subscription fees 52 32 15
Total 100% 100% 100%
Source: Forrester quote by Behe, 2001 and Hoak Breedlove Wesneski, 2000
Third, further penetration of DTV will increasingly depend on later adopters, who do not want
pay-TV. They may be willing to buy a STB or an integrated DTV set in order to view free-to-air
digital channels which are now being launched (Hargreaves, 2001). However, it is unclear how
attractive these channels will be to these viewers (Barwise, 2001b).
The Henley Centre’s projections for future penetration of DTV assume a slowdown over the next
five years as digital pay-TV matures, followed by a second period of fast growth as the cost of
integrated DTV sets falls and as free-to-air DTV channels get into their stride (Figure 3.2).
Nevertheless, even this renewed growth is not projected to achieve the penetration required for
analogue switch-off by the government’s target date of 2010 (Cane, 2001c). As Henley Centre’s
19
Andrew Curry put it, “Digital resisters will be very slow to convert” and most households with
DTV in 2010 will also have one or more analogue sets still in use. Psychologist Armond
Aserinsky argues that there is a large portion of DTV population who will not embrace iDTV,
because they “will become very anxious with the innumerable choices and hanker for a time
when there were only three channels” (Spoonauer, 2001).
Figure 3.2: DTV penetration forecast
100%
90
80
Digital free to air
70
60
Digital terrestrial
50
40
Digital satellite
30
20
10
Digital cable
0
Source: Henley Centre, 2001a
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Fourth, technological developments such as video-on-demand and personal video recorders,
which allow viewers to watch their favourite programmes at whatever time is most convenient
for them, are expected by some analysts to be a huge force driving iDTV’s future adoption
(Spoonauer, 2001). According to the Gartner Group, a key factor influencing mass-adoption of
iDTV will be the bundling of iDTV into existing hardware or services, similarly to what
happened with the modem (which now comes embedded in most computers). It is a matter of
viewers not even realising they are using the technology (Spoonauer, 2001).
Finally, the Government can play a key role in influencing the trend. Last summer it stated its
interest in pushing for iDTV: “the Government has launched initiatives to encourage people to
buy digital television sets… It has also introduced a labelling scheme to ensure customers know
20
which equipment will be out of date when switch off eventually occurs” (Peachey, 2001). Since
then, however, the actions of the Government have been relatively low key.
Yankee Group forecasts that by 2005, nearly as many individuals will be connected to the
Internet via iDTV as via a PC, with iDTV becoming “the poor man’s Internet connection
(Electronic Advertising & Marketplace Report, 2001). Similarly, the Henley Centre (2001b) has
projected that iDTV will be the interactive platform with the widest reach by 2005 (Figure 3.3).
Many households will have access to both platforms. For these users, as discussed in Section 2.2,
the platforms will be seen as complementary with the PC as the dominant channel for e-
commerce (Barwise, 2001b).
0
20
40
60
80
100
2000 2001e 2002e 2003e 2004e 2005e 2006e 2007e 2008e 2009e 2010e
iDTV PC access web-enabled mobile
Figure 3.3: Penetration of different interactive platforms among UK individuals
Source: Authors’ estimates based on Henley Centre data
21
4. RESPONSE TO INTERACTIVE TV PROGRAMMING
4.1 Programme types with interactive potential
iDTV can support two types of change in the viewing of TV programming:
(a) changes in which programmes are watched, when and potentially how they are paid for
(b) changes in the programmes themselves, and therefore also in how they are watched.
Under (a), we would include video-on-demand (VoD) and pay-per-view (PPV), plus personal
video recorders (PVRs) and related digital time-shift technologies, some of which may also
affect how programmes are watched – part of (b). However, PVR penetration is still minimal
(near 0% in 2000, less than 2% by the end of 2001 - Whittingham, 2000). We here focus on (b),
which involves interactivity in the programme itself.
Earlier commentators such as George Gilder (1994) and Nicholas Negroponte (1995) expected
digital technology to revolutionise TV programming and viewing for all genres. They and other
enthusiasts suggested that viewers would watch most programmes other than news and most
sport time-shifted rather than live. Viewers would also make extensive use of interactive features
such as the ability to stop, freeze, replay, “drill down” for more information, purchase products
placed by advertisers, place real-time bets on sport events, change camera angles, and choose
alternative storylines, and would use many other features yet to be devised. (Barwise, 2002).
More recently, in March 2001, the BBC’s director of new media, Ashley Highfield, announced
that the BBC was moving towards a policy of commissioning only programmes with additional
interactive propositions (Higgins, 2001).
The current climate, though, is justifiably cautious about these claims. In practice, the usage of
interactive features seems to vary widely with the type of programme being watched. The main
genres with immediate significant interactive potential appear to be game shows and sport,
discussed below. Programmes that have a break in the action such as news, sports events and
awards shows “have worked very well”, according to Eric Handler of the Walt Disney Group, but
22
the same is not true for programmes that have to be followed closely such as sitcoms or dramas
(Spoonauer, 2001).
According to Alex Owens, a senior research specialist at the BBC, the interactive programmes
that work best are those that understand and anticipate viewers’ needs and/or add to the viewing
experience without distracting the viewer from it (BBC, 2001). Owens also argues that
interactive services can be applied to any type of programme as long as it is relevant to the
content of the specific programme. As Kris Jones of PACT puts it “Interactivity only works
successfully when it is integral to the overall idea, and not just an add-on” (Higgins, 2001).
4.2 Response to interactive game shows and sport
The main drivers for the usage of interactive features while watching TV (i.e., concurrent
enhancement) are (BBC, 2001):
Wish for increased involvement in the programme – e.g., voting and quizzes
Need for information and updates – e.g., sports scores and highlights
Need to improve enjoyment of the linear programme – e.g., subtitles and lyrics
Wish to build emotional relationship – e.g., background information on programme,
character or presenters (often accessed immediately after viewing the programme).
Perception of choice
Boredom or lulls in activity – e.g., rain breaks during a live sports event, magazine
programming
Examples of recent popular enhanced
programmes are the reality show “Big
Brother” (Image 4.1), the Wimbledon
Tennis Championship (Image 4.2), Golf
tournaments and Formula 1 motor racing.
Furthermore, Sky has declared that, when the Sky’s Sports Active interactive application is
available on a match, more than 40% of viewers access it at least once during the match
(Teather, 2001).
Example of awareness and usage of interactive features
Champions League
78% were aware of interactive service
60% of these used interactive service
71% of these thought that it added value
Source: Carlton Television, 2001
23
Image 4.1 Example of Big Brother’s interactive feature
Source: BBC, 2001
Image 4.2 Example of Wimbledon’s interactive feature
Source: BBC, 2001
More recently, MTV hosted its first interactive TV programme with the European Music
Awards. Michiel Bakker, MTV’s UK Managing Director, strongly believes that the interactive
features played a significant part in the 12% increase in viewing figures. He points out that
viewers who have voted had a vested interested in the event and were more likely to watch the
show live (Adegoke, 2001). With a similar objective, the Discovery Channel has just launched
Discovery Mastermind, a quiz game where viewers recording the highest scores are invited to
participate in a viewers’ final at the end of the series.
Viewers are divided when it comes to perception of choice in the iDTV environment. For some,
the perception of choice is a key driver for trial, whereas for others it is viewed as something that
the broadcaster, not the viewer, should be doing. An example of the latter view comes from a
frustrated Sky Digital viewer: “One of the huge, huge, huge problems I have with the whole
[interactive] thing is the idea that we want to be editors. The idea that we all want to have
24
control, well I don’t. I don’t want to sit there fiddling around at 10 o’clock in the evening,
constructing it with the variety of endless options that may be there. Apart from the initial flurry,
I’ve only used the interactive television once” (BBC, 2001).
Additionally, it is crucial to achieve a balance in the intensity of the experience: “too difficult,
and the user becomes anxious; too simple, and boredom sets in” (Curry, 2000).
25
5. RESPONSE TO INTERACTIVE TV ADVERTISING
5.1 The potential of interactive TV advertising
Interactive television has the potential to revolutionise TV advertising (Image 5.1) because:
Interactivity makes audience input possible in the forms of information exchange and
transactions are much more efficiently executed than via other response mechanisms
Internet-like data collection and storage capabilities mean that an advertiser can gather
valuable information unobtrusively whenever a viewer clicks through an interactive service
on the TV screen, which will help build a profile of the household
Video messages can be sent directly to households (who are identified by type of household
or by ID) allowing for targeted advertising
Image 5.1 Projected example of interactive advertising
Source: Henley Centre, 2001
The data gathered through iDTV could be fed into a company’s CRM systems providing better
information on its customers (Talacko, 2001) and making customising and targeting a more
attainable goal. Additionally, when compared to other forms of advertising, interactive
advertising is claimed to (O’Brien, 2001):
Offer consumer information at a lower cost– using iDTV for market research is argued to be
cheaper than a focus group or phone survey
Provide rich information – it helps advertisers identify which networks, offers and messages
produce the highest rates of interaction
26
Be flexible – iDTV suits different marketing styles and objectives (e.g., low-cost leads for
financial services or coupons and trial samples for FMCG)
iDTV allows the viewer to request more information
about an advertised product or even to buy it, with
minimal effort. With addressability, it potentially
allows much more accurate targeting such as showing
a dog food commercial only to viewers whose store
loyalty cards show they buy dog food (Barwise,
2001b). The possibility to connect purchase patterns
with TV viewing habits, though, raises questions
about privacy (Business Week Online, 2000; Privacy
Watch, 2001). It is technically possible to know who is the viewer, where he/she is and which
transactions he/she is already performing. Yet, there are regulations, such as the Data Protection
Act, that protect the consumer from being harassed and, therefore, limit the scope of interactive
advertising. The only satisfactory solution to this limitation is permission marketing where
viewers must “opt in” to receive further information. (Godin, 1999;Cassidy, 2002].
Example of impact of iDTV advertising
Domino’s Pizza
Domino’s claims that it sells 3% of its pizzas
in the UK via iDTV
Source: Yahoo!Internet Life, 2001
Of the interactive sales, 75% are via iDTV
and 25% via the web. The ticket value is
35% greater than over the telephone. 21% o
f
the customers are entirely new to Domino’s.
The interactive ad led to a 27% increase i
n
sales.
Source: BSkyB, 2001
US advertisers are enthusiastic about the long-term potential of interactive TV advertising, but
they are not yet investing significantly. Those interviewed by Forrester (O’Brien, 2001) rate their
interest in interactive TV advertising as 4 (minimum = 1; maximum = 5), but were only spending
an average of 0.5% of their TV budget on iDTV. By 2003, though, the average investment was
expected to have increased fourfold to about 2% (Table 5.1). This estimate may be optimistic,
since US iDTV penetration is expected to be only 17% in 2003. The question is whether US
advertisers will consider interactive advertising worth investing in before a much bigger part of
the population has access.
27
Table 5.1 % of TV budget spent of iDTV
<1% 1% to 2% 2% to 5% >5% Median
2001 74 23 3 0 0.5
2003e 9 49 20 23 2
Source: Daniel O’Brien, Forrester, 2001
Today’s low level of investment reflects both iDTV’s small and fragmented consumer base and
the relatively primitive stage of the technology, including the lack of standards (see box). In
addition, the current economic recession has
lead to budgets being tightened.
The total DTV audience in the UK is now
substantial, and many of these viewers are
“interacting” (without necessarily using a return
path). However, there is still no agreed way to
accurately measure the viewer’s level of
interaction with an interactive advertisement. It
is therefore difficult to know how to value the
opportunity of interactive advertising, which
means that there are still sharp disagreements
about how to price the media space.
Emerging standards
Europe: The EU passed legislation earlier this yea
r
that makes Multimedia Home Platform (MHP)
mandatory for next-generation set-top boxes. The
p
roblem is that MHP works only on more
expensive set-top boxes with more memory an
d
processing power than current models offer.
Japan: The Japanese government has established
a
second-generation Integrated Services Digital
Broadcasting standard and pushed broadcasters an
d
consumer electronics companies to agree o
n
technical protocols.
USA: The US adopted the Eight-level Vestigial-
sideband Modulation standard, which is a high-
definition scheme, but very costly and difficult to
implement. The standards bodies are now favouring
MHP, the European standard.
Sources: Fischetti, 2001 & Hayes, 2001
Decreasing costs may contribute to the further uptake of interactive advertising (the fixed costs
are likely to change, but not the cost of bandwidth - Flextech, 2001). And, finally, education will
have a role as well, both for advertisers, who will produce more appealing and effective
advertisements, and for viewers, who will interact more.
The advertising inventory consists currently mainly of DAL’s (dedicated advertiser location),
banners, interactive airtime, microsites and sponsorships (BSkyB, 2001). Regarding the types of
interface, there are (Flextech, 2001):
28
- The simple one-page model (much like a poster), suitable for simple offers from established
brands
- The basic data entry/Q&A site, consisting of 2-3 pages. This is more suitable for qualified
lead generation
- The customised/full service site, which is extensive and aimed at complex lead generation
and/or brand-building.
In the future we are likely to see targeted advertising, as well as more possibilities for the viewer
to interact with an ad. Software has been developed that allows marketers to target ads at the
individual household level and to customise an ad’s audio, video and graphics, and at the same
time allows the viewer to choose a spot that interests her or to request additional information
about for example products, promotions and sweepstakes. Elkin (2002) claims that: “once the
viewers’ preferences are fed into the set-top box, cable operators receive reports that are then
sent on to advertisers to shape their marketing efforts”, but “viewers must specifically opt in for
any personal information to leave the household”. He adds that, although many media executives
have shown great interest in trying targeted advertising, they worry about how long it will take
before the technology will have a substantial rollout [in the USA].
With the advent of personal video recorders (PVRs) and Video on Demand (VoD), which give
viewers the possibility to skip commercials, “advertising will slowly disappear from the slots
inserted into programmes (...). Advertisers will choose instead to deliver their messages through
interactive programmes”, according to KPMG
Consulting (Ward, 2001). Currently, advertisers are
focusing on enhanced commercials (because they
leverage existing media) and EPG visibility (to create
awareness) (O’Brien, 2001). Additionally, some are
starting to explore impulse buying and stimulate it within
the context of TV programming (see box).
Example of impulse buying on iDTV
Rock Concert
When KBHK, a San Francisco
b
roadcaster, screened a rock concert b
y
Melissa Etheridge recently, 22% of the
audience ordered a CD through the TV
during the show
Source: Ward, 2001
29
5.2 Attitudes
Existing iDTV users feel bombarded by numerous messages, visual and audio stimulation, and
the need to co-ordinate the remote control (CIA MediaLab, 2001). It is, therefore, important that
advertisers are aware of this sensory overload as they develop interactive content. According to
CIA MediaLab (2001), there is some demand for advertising interactivity, but viewers prefer to
access it in dedicated shopping areas in order to limit the impact on viewing programmes. Those
viewers with home Internet access seem more inclined to take action in response to interactive
advertising, suggesting that there is a relationship between familiarity with the Internet and iDTV
usage, as discussed in Section 3.1.
Regarding the preferred route for responding to adverts, the key issue is convenience, so TV
remote access is preferable among young people to visiting a website. CIA MediaLab (2001)
found that a majority of 15-24s and 25-34s think that using a website to respond to an advert is
very/relatively useful (62% and 56%, respectively), but even more feel that the remote control is
useful (76% and 65%, respectively). For all adults, Teletext pages (14%) rate below telephone
20%) and website (19%) routes, despite the high Teletext penetration (now 78% of adults,
Towler, 2002). This will, nevertheless, impact on future digital text and enhanced TV services.
Many analysts believe that the advent of PVRs and VoD will further increase viewers’ power.
One study estimates that at present up to 88% (others show figures ranging from 50%-90%) of
PVR users are skipping ads (Interactive Television Research Institute, 2001). These analysts
highlight the need to find ways to counteract this trend.
Other analysts, though, minimise this fact and say that the early adopters of this technology are
those viewers that are really annoyed by ads and are willing to pay to avoid them (Pace, 2001)
and, therefore, they are not representative of the wider market. Others have argued that ad
skipping will neither be significant nor stimulated by this technology because the hardware and
service are expensive, thus limiting PVR penetration.
At this stage, the jury is out on the impact of PVRs and VoD on the viewing of commercials.
There is much speculation but virtually no published research. Our own view is that VoD will
30
have limited impact because it will only ever account for a small proportion of viewing (and live
pay-per-view even less). In contrast, we believe PVRs will, once aggressively marketed, be
adopted on a large scale and lead to a substantial proportion of viewing being time-shifted,
(mostly by only a few minutes or hours) and that this will lead to viewers skipping ads perceived
as irrelevant or boring (Barwise, 2002). We hope some data will emerge into the public domain
over the next year or so to clarify this important issue.
5.3 Response rates
Interactive TV advertising has yet to take form fully but, at this early stage, some of the results
look promising. For example, Sky had run only 34 interactive campaigns by September 2001 but
claimed that these campaigns had generated 1.2 million responses (BSkyB, 2001).
There is a wide variation in response rates. Even
within a single campaign, response rates have
ranged between 0.02% and 9.7% (Flextech,
2001). The average rate so far (0.6%-0.7%) is
claimed to be 10-20 times the analogue average
(Flextech, 2001). Younger viewers and more
web-literate viewers are more likely to be
responsive to interactive advertising (BSkyB,
2001; CIA MediaLab, 2001).
Figure 5.3 Action taken in response to ad viewing
Don
'
t
None of these
Clicked h usingthroug
remote
Acc sedessed adverti
teletext page
Acces rtisedsed adve
Website
Phoned advertised number
Visited a sed retaildverti
outlet
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
All Adults
Digital owners
Home Internet
Example of response rate
Virgin Mobile
An interactive campaign ran for 4 weeks in Ma
y
2001 on Sky and Flextech’s Bravo channel. I
t
consisted of an interactive ad and a banner under the
slogan: “What makes you see red?” In the ad, the
viewer could vote about what made them “see red”
and request a brochure. The viewers were aske
d
about their age.
31,712 viewers took part in the vote and 94%
requested a brochure. 63% of the visitors were in the
core target group (age 16-34).
Source: BSk
y
B
,
2001
Source: CIA MediaLab, 2001
31
Customised icons increase response rates from 0.4% to 1.6% (BSkyB, 2001). However, banner
ads have had very mixed response (CIA MediaLab, 2001), with some viewers claiming they
disliked clicking through and abandoning the original site. Nevertheless, because of their large
graphics, banners seem ‘easier’ to click on.
According to a survey on ad/sponsorship awareness (Carlton Television, 2001), 39% of
respondents remembered seeing an Internet banner in the last 4-week period and a higher
number, 65%, were aware of banners on interactive pages. Additionally, 28% were aware of
broadcast sponsorship and 40% were aware of interactive service sponsors.
Some research suggests that there is a difference between dayparts. Analysis of some interactive
advertising campaigns indicated that response rates can average 15.6% during daytime and drop
down to 0.43% during peak time viewing (FutureOgilvy, 2001). Some analysts question this
finding, however. They say it is too early to draw patterns due to the limited number of
campaigns up until now and the fact that these may be early adopters drawn by the novelty factor
and, therefore, they may not be representative of future behaviour.
Other big questions are: How much of this response rate (among early adopters) is due to the
novelty factor? What if people skip ads and nobody interacts? And if there is no advertising on
interactive television, what and who will pay for the content?
When choosing among different programmes, advertisers and agencies will not only judge the
programmes from the number of viewers, but also from the number of interactive responses
generated (e.g., how many viewers are choosing to interact with the programme or even to buy
something). This suggests that some combinations of programmes/products being advertised will
be much more effective than others. For example, travel programmes could link well with the
possibility of booking a trip, music concerts with CD or merchandising sales, and movies and
sports events with pizza delivery.
32
5.4 Effectiveness
In its report “Cultivate Consumers with iTV Ads”, Forrester forecast that “over the next three
years, commercials will grow increasingly ineffective. By 2004, 31% of all TV viewing will be
on-demand (...) and ads in such programs will be easy to skip” (O’Brien, 2001). However this
projection (exaggerated, in our view) depends on the rate of VoD network buildout, adoption,
and usage. Additionally, there is a limit to the number of interactive ads per commercial break.
Some analysts suggest a limit of one interactive ad per commercial break (Solomons, 2001). To
counteract this trend, advertisers need to rethink TV interactive advertising in terms of:
The characteristics of the commercial
The way it is delivered to the viewer
Regarding the commercial’s characteristics, interactive ads need to be simple, entertaining, and
relevant as well as providing a reward for the viewer (FutureOgilvy, 2001). Because TV is
mostly seen as an entertainment medium rather than a utilitarian one, interactive ads also need to
be emotionally appealing (CIA MediaLab, 2001). Interactive features and personalisation
improve perception (Carlton Television, 2001). iDTV will be used for some low-ticket
transactions and for generating leads for high-ticket items (however, the leads may be of low
quality if it is too easy for consumers to request further information) (Barwise, 2001b). It can be
seen as phoneless direct response television (DRTV).
In order to encourage trial, the advertiser has to give the viewer a reason to enter the interactive
service. Thus the interactive ad has to provide continuity from the original ad and add value up
front (Carlton Television, 2001). To lure viewers to watch interactive advertising, some
advertisers are using incentives such as competitions, games, coupons, and special offers.
33
Image 5.4 Interactive advertising has to add value for the user
Source: Flextech, 2001
Regarding the way the ads are delivered, advertisers need to experiment with new formats. One
option is to place banners, logos, etc on EPGs. With the continuous rise in the number of
channels available to viewers, EPGs become crucial to help navigation. Established brands with
well-known logos and simple taglines may benefit from these simple “drive-by” impressions
(O’Brien, 2001).
Another option is enhanced programme sponsorship, making marketing messages harder to
avoid. Currently, branded content is prohibited in the UK by ITC regulations but some analysts
expect the ITC to relax its rules regarding sponsorship (Schreiber, 2001). Yet another option is
“pop-up” features such as video information, demos, contests and branded games (O’Brien,
2001) although these may alienate viewers if too intrusive.
Interactive advertising is applicable for a wide range of products and strategies, but “for some
more than others” (Carlton Television, 2001) (Table 5.4).
On the subject of customised advertising, Murdoch University (Interactive Television Research
Institute, 2001) conducted an experiment on persuasion through interactive television. In this
experiment 70 subjects were exposed to creative simulated interactive programming and
advertising. Two products were chosen, one low-involvement (a well-known brand of cookies)
and one high-involvement (a PC brand). There seems to be clear evidence that interactivity
shapes the way people process messages both in terms of the type of thinking and the number of
34
cognitive elements. Thus, interactive advertising seems to stimulate the cognitive process, which
shifts from “peripheral” to “central” processing (Petty et al, 1983). This means that instead of
thinking about peripheral aspects of the ad such as what the people in the ads are wearing,
viewers tend to think about the ad itself and relate it to their own life. The shift in the cognitive
process more than doubled in the experiment. Regarding the impact of interactivity on attitudes,
there was a positive relationship between the interactivity and the attitude to the ad in the case of
the low-involvement product, but not in the case of the high-involvement product. Purchase
intention went up for the low-involvement product, but down for the high-involvement product.
Table 5.4 Example of iTV advertising opportunities
Key: “+” Embrace / good fit; “+/-” Consider / potential fit; “-” Avoid / poor fit
Product Pop-
up
EPG Program
Enhanc.
Comments
Beer - + +
New branding billboards in sports and guides
Cars + + +
Winner: Car shoppers want info, makers want local
leads
Cell phones + + +/-
Tune calling-plan offers to coverage area,
competition
Clothing +/- +/- + Runway footage, live catalogues, co-op with small
stores
Computers + - +
Reviews, specs for techs, build-your-own bundles
Consulting +/- - +/-
B2B demo videos delivered off VoD servers
Credit cards + + -
Test and measure hundreds of offer variants
Fast food - + +
Links from tie-in movie promotions
Insurance + - +
Targeting will get stage-of-life ads to right
audiences
Movies +/- + +/-
Link from EPGs to theatre trailers and interviews
Packaged goods +/- + - Pricey for coupons and sales, but not for research
Prescription
drugs
+ - +
Good for leads and depth but sticky disclosure
issues
Vacations + +/- + Resorts, cruises will send you-are-there tours on
demand
Source: O’Brien, Forrester, 2001
Another experiment explored advertising style. 339 subjects were exposed to both informational
and transformational executions of interactive advertising. The results indicated that, even
though people chose the advertising style that they had a propensity to attend towards, choice of
style did not matter on any variable. What did matter was the match between the advertising
35
style (transformational or informational) and the subject’s style (transformational or
informational).
Therefore, the role of expectation is critical in interactive design (Interactive Television Research
Institute, 2001). It is important to acknowledge the expectations that consumers have for the
brand and product category before executing the interactive commercial. Otherwise the
advertiser might risk damaging the brand
36
6. RESPONSE TO OTHER INTERACTIVE SERVICES
Usage of interactive services in iDTV households is characterised by short visits, mostly as an
alternative to uninteresting TV programmes and occasionally as an extension of interesting ones.
Half of all iDTV users say they use interactive services when they cannot find a good
programme to watch, a quarter use it mainly during ad breaks, and the remaining quarter turn on
the TV specifically to use interactive services (Henley Centre, 2001). When using interactive
services, about 50% usually use it for periods of up to 10 minutes (Henley Centre, 2001) (Table
6.1).
Table 6.1: Length of visit
Minutes %
Up to 10 48
11-20 18
21-30 22
31-60 7
60+ 3
Source: BMRB Digital Viewer, Henley Centre Analysis,
2001a
As of March 2001, 50% of the individuals in digital households had not used interactive services
(Continental Research, 2001b). Key events last summer such as Big Brother and the Wimbledon
Tennis Championship have started to change this. Recent figures from BMRB suggest that 76%
of cable and satellite users and 50% of DTT users have tried interactive services and
programming.
Those households with both PC-based Internet access and iDTV still preferred to access the web
via their PC for most online services (Continental Research, 2001b). Regarding the interactive
programmes that viewers prefer, game shows are top of the list (31%) followed by reality shows
(20%) (produxion.com and Mantra, cited in Cane, 2001a).
37
6.1 Games and gambling
Interactive games are expected to become an important revenue stream for network operators,
based on the addiction factor, but opinions are divided regarding the role of gambling (or betting)
as a revenue generator. It is worth noting that this type of game is to be distinguished from the
studio game shows, which can be watched passively (or where the viewer can compete by using
iDTV) as already discussed in Section 3. Over time, the distinction may blur and thus become an
example of true convergence.
Game playing is currently the most popular single application of iDTV and shows signs of
significant usage (Henley Centre, 2001). Two Way TV has 1.5 million games played per month,
and 30% of all the households have played at least one game
(Two Way TV, 2002). On average the regular PPP (play per pay)
player spends over £7.50 per month (Two Way TV, 2002).
BSkyB’s Playjam games channel consistently ranks in the top 10
most popular channels among the 16-34 age group and registers
an average of 83m gameplays per week (Murphy, 2001).
Playjam’s users spend an average of 7 minutes on each game session and 31 minutes per week
on the channel (Murphy, 2001).
Example of gaming success
Tetris
Tetris attracted 1m plays a
t
25p per play during the two
weeks following its launch o
n
Sky Digital in the UK.
Source: Murphy, 2001
Gaming is something of a cash cow” (Schreiber, 2001). The main revenue streams are pay-per-
play, subscription fees, registration of scores (via premium rate telephony), branded games /
sponsorship and advertising. So far, though, most advertisers have been cautious about
sponsorship and advertising in the gaming environment (Henley Centre, 2001).
The fact that playing games on iDTV is so popular may not be too surprising if we consider that
using the TV set as a medium for games is an already established habit through the use of game
consoles (Sega, Nintendo and Playstation). The move from using a game console to playing an
online TV game might not be too big. However some sources argue that many users are
disappointed by the iDTV gaming experience considering that the games compare poorly with
their arcade equivalents created for PCs or consoles (Cane, 2001a). However others say that it is
38
important to bear in mind that user sessions for digital TV games are much shorter than for PC
games and often take place as a break in the day or (like other interactive applications) instead of
watching television (waiting for programme, finished programme, nothing good on, etc.). These
sources argue that usage is modal and that expectations are usually appropriately aligned with the
experience of each channel (Henley Centre, 2002).
Regarding the role of gambling as a revenue generator, opinions are divided. On the one hand
there are those that expect iDTV to provide a way of getting to a new gambling clientele and
uncap revenue. On the other hand there are those who consider that the TV betting process is far
more difficult than the telephone one, thus hindering impulse betting and seriously limiting the
revenue potential.
KPMG Consulting considers that betting (together with TV-poll voting and merchandise sales
around big live events) will drive the future of transactional revenue from TV programming,
even though there will be “no overnight revolution” (Ward, 2001). BSkyB is equally optimistic
and has announced that it expects to generate £700m from online betting by 2005, mostly from
iDTV (Dresdner Kleinwort Wasserstein Research, 2001). An example of the success of this type
of application comes from France, where Canal Satellite’s horse racing TV betting service has
been a huge success (Schreiber, 2001).
Example of spread betting
GIG
Global Interactive Gaming is developing
a proposition where viewers, using
money from a prepaid account, coul
d
choose to take bets on, for instance,
which soccer team would score the nex
t
goal or whether there would be a throw-
in in the next 10 seconds
Source: Murphy, 2001
One of the most promising forms of gambling is “spread
betting”, i.e. the possibility of placing bets during the
occurrence of the event. This form of betting encourages
viewers to stick with the channel they are watching and
thus discourages zapping or surfing.
The main streams of revenue are subscription fees and
registration of scores (via premium rate telephony).
The main limitations for TV betting are:
Legislation - service providers need to obtain a licence which is geographically limited
39
Regulatory - minors cannot place bets and the current systems do not guarantee an effective
safeguard
Taxation - these activities are heavily taxed which seriously limits the revenue potential
Consumer behaviour – Betting is not a socially acceptable pastime and some consumer
groups consider the offering intrusive and addictive.
According to the less optimistic analysts, iDTV is unlikely to gain a large share of the existing
betting market. According to EndersAnalysis’ (2001) estimates, TV gambling revenue potential
will be in the range of £100-200m by 2005, with the largest share of revenues coming from
football-related betting. The average TV bet does not exceed £5, which is ten times smaller than
the average telephone bet. Chris Goodall (EndersAnalysis, 2001) thinks it unlikely that iDTV
gambling revenue is going to be profitable. According to Goodall, one reason why betting is not
going to be successful lies in human behaviour: betting is not among the socially acceptable
pastimes. An occasional bet on a horse might be acceptable, but many are the articles about the
dangers of compulsive gambling. Moreover, “most gamblers like to lose in private
(EndersAnalysis, 2001).
6.2 Email, the Web, and t-commerce
Research suggests that very few people prefer to access the Internet from their television sets
(Figure 6.1).
Figure 6.1 Preferred access method for online activities
67
20
6
70
78
20
10
16
93
92
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Internet e-m ail Online
Shopping
Onlin e
Banking
TV
Unsure
PC
Source: Continental Research, 2001c
40
The PC has of course a first mover advantage over iDTV and once people have established a
preferred mode of access, their attitudes and behaviour can be hard to change. Another reason for
this reluctance to access Internet, e-mail, online shopping and online banking from the TV
environment can be found in the perception of the medium. TV as a medium has traditionally
been associated with entertainment and information, not with communication and transactions
(Henley Centre, 2001), i.e., TV is seen as a “lean back” medium, in contrast to the PC, which is
considered a “lean forward” medium. Yet another reason for the limited success of TV as a web
access platform might be that television viewing is sometimes a secondary activity (e.g., viewing
while preparing or having a meal) as well often as a social activity (e.g., family viewing),
whereas the PC is usually used with a specific aim in mind by one person.
The interactive services that seem to work best on TV are those that do not directly compete with
the functions usually performed over the PC (Figure 6.2).
Figure 6.2 Interactive Services work best when they don’t compete with the PC
40%
61%
14% 15% 12%
24%
9%
14%
26%
37%
62%
73%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
Financial
Services
e-mail Travel
Services
M u s ic O n line
Games
Browsing
Shops
PC
iD TV
Source: BMRB Digital Viewer, Henley Centre, 2001 (Base:
all users of Open who were also online at home)
Yet, it may be too soon to write off iDTV as a commerce platform. Even though only 8% of Sky
Digital’s subscribers have used the interactive components to purchase items, some retailers are
still optimistic (Chain Store Age, 2001). The British grocer Sainsbury, for instance, expects t-
commerce to represent 5% of its total yearly sales by 2005, even though it currently represents
less than 1% (Chain Store Age, 2001).
41
The medium has its own characteristics, though, and retailers cannot just transport their website
to the TV set (Chain Store Age, 2001). Woolworths, for instance, carries only 300 SKUs in its
iDTV service, whereas the average Woolworths store carries up to 25,000 SKUs. Howard Unna,
Woolworths’ e-commerce director, justifies this by saying that “Customers shopping with us on
iDTV tend to know what they want before they even get there, whereas in the store, customers
walk up and down the aisles and browse” (Chain Store Age, 2001). The t-commerce offering is
probably going to be most successful for products that fit the consumers’ perception of the TV
medium as a source of entertainment. Among these, toys and games, home and electrical
products, and CDs, videos and DVDs have the potential to be successful (Henley Centre, 2001).
Viewers express a willingness to buy certain products such as holidays (48%), cinema/concert
tickets (45%) and books (45%) (Pace, 2001). Security does not seem to be a significant barrier as
only 2% are concerned with security matters in the iDTV environment (Interactive Television
Research Institute, 2001).
The challenge is to manage viewers’ expectations and adapt the iDTV offer to the medium.
42
7. SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS
7.1 Summary
Digital TV penetration has taken off fast in the UK. All Sky households and 50% of cable
households have already converted to digital. iDTV penetration is over 40% of DTV households
and growing. Younger households and families account for the majority of the UK iDTV
adopters. Prime motivators for getting digital TV have been the possibility of getting a larger and
better choice of channels, and getting better picture and sound quality. Interactivity is seen to add
value to the TV experience but not as a huge innovation, lying conceptually between teletext and
the Internet. Interactive features in some programming are successful. Viewers use the possibility
to for example cast votes and gain additional information e.g. Big Brother, Wimbledon and
Banzai. Interactive services as game playing, betting etc. are mostly used as an alternative to
uninteresting TV programmes, and for short visits. The main factors influencing future adoption
are STB cost, free-to-air channels and technological developments that allow for more
customised TV viewing, mainly convenient time-shifting via PVRs and smart STBs.
The main driving forces for the usage of concurrent programme enhancement are increased
involvement/enjoyment, in the programme, information and updates, building of emotional
relationships, perception of choice and boredom.
When compared with other forms of advertising, interactive advertising is potentially powerful,
but raises some questions about privacy (to which permission marketing is the only long-term
solution). Interactive advertising campaigns enjoy, on average, greater response rates than
traditional ones. Nevertheless, ways have to be found to counteract the possibilities brought by
the PVR, which allows viewers to skip commercial breaks and fast-forward through TV
broadcasting. Responsiveness to interactive TV advertisements is higher among younger
viewers, web savvy viewers, and during daytime. Interactive ads need to be simple and
emotional, entertaining, relevant and providing some reward for the viewer. Interactive
advertising seems to stimulate the cognitive process and, naturally, advertising strategies vary by
product category.
43
TV is associated with entertainment and information and not with communication or transactions
(Image 7.1). Hence, it is not surprising that gaming is popular among viewers, but not e-mail,
web browsing or t-commerce. Television viewing is often a secondary and/or social activity. At
present, interactive services seem to a large extent to be complementary to online PC and the
interactive services that will work best on TV are probably those that do not directly compete
with functions usually performed on the PC. It might be hard to persuade viewers to start
interacting and transacting heavily within the iDTV environment.
Image 7.1 TV is associated with entertainment and information.
Television
Internet Telephone
(Entertain,
Stimulate)
Transaction Pleasure
Information
(Know, Inform,
Plan)
National
newspaper
(Buy, Sell,
Compare)
Source: Henley Centre, 2001
Communication
(Tell, Discuss)
7.2 Implications
The fact that most viewers regard iDTV as “enhanced television” rather than a completely new
medium, raises the question whether they are willing to pay for interactive programming.
Similarly, we would recommend caution in forecasting future revenues from interactive
advertising campaigns. The initial response rates for interactive advertising have been fairly
44
encouraging, yet much of this success may be due to the novelty factor rather than a change in
TV viewing habits and, therefore, may not be illustrative of future success.
Because TV is associated with entertainment and information rather than communication or
transactions (Image 7.1 above), we believe advertisers should use “soft sell” instead of “hard
sell” and should offer something of value to the viewer, in order to encourage him/her to interact
(Image 7.2).
Image 7.2 Example of Interface for Interactive Services
Source: CIA MediaLab, 2001
Additionally, interactivity cannot be forced upon viewers. Content producers should try to find
different social uses of interactivity, in order to benefit from the fact that television viewing is
often a secondary as well as a social activity. Moreover, interactive services should be user-
friendly, and not compete directly with services offered via the PC.
The t-commerce offering will be most successful for products that are well aligned with
consumers’ perceptions of the TV medium. Therefore, we believe that those products and
services focused on the entertainment and leisure have higher revenue potential than other
categories.
There are signs that women are lagging behind children and men in the usage of interactive
features (CIA MediaLab, 2001). We believe that youngsters could be instrumental in unlocking a
45
potential latent interest in iDTV. Household ‘techies’ are the first to gravitate towards iDTV and
these ‘techies’ are predominantly children (CIA MediaLab, 2001). It is also important to
recognise that some groups of consumers are easier to reach than others, and that some viewers
may never embrace the iDTV medium and its services.
Viewers have expressed high levels of potential interest in t-commerce, but there is a degree of
disappointment with the current offering. As the early days of the Internet showed us, first
movers can have a competitive advantage because of the economies of learning, brand awareness
and the locking of important partners. However, that advantage is short-lived if the proposition
being offered falls short of viewers’ expectations. Disappointed consumers are unlikely to try the
service again and, therefore, it is critical to manage viewers’ expectations. Moreover, providers
need to complement their online offer to the High Street offer.
Finally, it is important to avoid the temptation of merely transferring web content into this
platform. First, because the profile of iDTV viewers and the usage patterns that are emerging are
significantly different than those of PC users. And second because the medium has its own
characteristics and limitations (it is not suitable for small print, for instance).
46
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49
... Research in 2002 ( Brodin, Barwise and Canhoto 2002 ) suggested that iDTV adopters are demographically fairly representative of the general population, with a trend towards families with children, young adults and men. It also indicated that, unlike online home PCs, iDTV does not have a strong ABC1 bias. ...
... In 2002 ( Brodin, Barwise and Canhoto 2002 ) iDTV subscriber statistics suggested that : ...
... The executive summary of the report UK consumer responses to iDTV ( Brodin, Barwise and Canhoto 2002 ) provides the following profile. ...
... However, these increased expectations on new technologies may explain why "increased benefits may not be so noticed or appreciated" by the end consumer (Perse and Ferguson, 1997, p. 327). It has also been suggested that use of previous media such as teletext, digital television and the Internet will affect the perceptions of iTV (Brodin, Barwise, and Canhoto, 2002). Thus, if the iTV technology is to improve the television experience via interactivity, it is not only previous knowledge that needs to be considered but also the expectations from a consumer's previous experience with television and interactive media technologies. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study found that participant's previous teletext experience and previous iTV experience influenced their openness towards using interactive television in planning independent long- haul holidays. The study surveyed participants for their previous interactive media experience (internet, iTV and teletext) before viewing a linear or interactive television destination promotion. Two ad models (impulse and telescopic) were tested from two program formats (travel program segment and ad break in a lifestyle program). These were aired on a video-on-demand network in London (UK) with 164 people out of a total of 375 participating all the way to the final steps of the study. Participants were most experienced with the Internet (mean 6.29 on 1-7scale) and 50% had had experience with an interactive television provider other than the VOD network. 70% had experience with teletext. Overall, participants felt positively towards interactive television as an information source for holiday planning. Those with teletext experience or iTV experience were more open to iTV than those without such experience. Furthermore, actual interaction with the treatment seemed to moderate the previous experience - iTV attractiveness link. This demonstrated that although previous technology experiences can transfer to new media, the actual experience of using the new media is also a powerful factor.
... Perse and Ferguson (1997) propose that increased expectations on new technologies may explain why " increased benefits may not be so noticed or appreciated " by the end consumer (Perse and Ferguson, 1997, p327). It has also been suggested that use of previous media such as teletext, digital television and the Internet will affect the perceptions of iTV (Brodin, Barwise and Canhoto, 2002). Thus, if the iTV technology is to improve the television experience via interactivity, it is not only previous knowledge that needs to be considered but also the expectations from a consumer's previous experience with television and interactive media technologies. ...
Conference Paper
Interactive television (iTV) is a growing media and is making headway in the world of tourism. Already numerous interactive travel campaigns have successfully aired on SKY in the UK, with travel providers and destinations realising its benefits. However, little is known about factors that contribute to travellers adopting iTV into their holiday planning process. This paper investigates one possible factor that may make an individual more open to this recent information source: an individual's previous experience with interactive media. Travellers' previous access to and use of teletext, iTV and the Internet were investigated using experienced, London-based, international travellers. Results showed that travellers' previous use of teletext and iTV experiences were linked to how open they were to incorporating iTV into planning their international long-haul holidays. There was no link to previous Internet use.
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This paper reveals how activity fragmentation and multi-tasking become tools of consumer anti-choice in the online grocery sector: facilitated by new technology practices that positively encourage anti-choice. This is demonstrated through five long-term ethnographic case studies of households in the Portsmouth area of England. All the respondents made some form of conscious effort to minimize the amount of time they spent in ‘big box’ grocery stores. They spend more time at home in planning, searching, socializing online, cumulating and fulfilling internet orders than if they had visited a store: something that all could easily do. The findings suggest the need for constant innovation by internet grocers if they are to remain in tune with dynamic consumer lifestyles and advances in technology. Examples of upcoming technologies requiring retailers to re-think their internet strategies are discussed in view of the possibilities offered by activity fragmentation and multi-tasking.
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As an information intensive industry and as one of the most progressive industries in information technology adoption, travel and tourism provides an ideal context in which to investigate how new technologies such as interactive television challenge our understanding of media and media use. This research looks at how interactive television can be used by consumers and how it may be best applied by marketers in international holiday travel. Using the UK international traveller market to Western Australia as case in point, this research had three main research goals: 1) to understand how travellers use information sources with a focus on interactive television; 2) how an individual's previous interactive media and travel experiences may pre-dispose them to using interactive television; and 3) to better understand why individuals interact and what impact the interaction has on the promotional effort. A travel ad and a travel show segment were used to explore these with impulse (brochure request) and telescopic (destination video) interactive opportunities. The treatments were deployed over a video-on-demand platform in greater London and participants took part in their homes via their televisions and a self administered questionnaire. This research has furthered the use of the multi-dimensional grid in understanding information sources in relationship to one another and updated the landscape with modern information sources such as television, teletext, the Internet and interactive television. Findings from this area of investigation suggest that current interactive television offerings cater better to short-haul destinations and although it currently plays a minor role, interactive television has the potential to significantly contribute to travellers' long-haul holiday planning process. The finding that individuals understand interactive television through their experience with teletext rather than the Internet and are more likely to use interactive television if they are thorough and experienced planners supports the theory of knowledge transference. However, most importantly, if an individual has a positive experience with interactive television they will interact again in the future. Contributions were also made to a better understanding of the interactive television user and the use of interactive television applications to the travel and tourism industry in particular. Exploration of the differences between the Impulse and Telescopic approaches to interactivity highlighted that while interactivity generally enhances the promotional effort each approach has its own strategic applications.
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This paper presents the integration of interactive television into a multi-service model, which is complemented by PC and mobile-based services and favoured by the European public broadcast industry. Application of the multi-service model into a scenario for a family holiday is demonstrated.
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Many believe that within three or four years the wireless Internet will overtake the fixed-line Internet in consumer penetration and business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce. Some believe that distinctions between media will soon disappear because of digital convergence: that it will soon be meaningless to ask whether the device used for home shopping is a PC or a TV. This article argues that the various new media will continue to be distinguishable from each other despite convergence and that the dominant device, even in B2C markets, will continue to be something like today's PC.
Votes in favour of inactivity. Financial Times
  • Yinka Adegoke
Adegoke, Yinka. 2001. Votes in favour of inactivity. Financial Times. 20 November Bardsley, Nick. 2000. Cable & Satellite TV. Key Note
Don't give it all to the kids The value of the digital prophets What drives the success of concurrent enhanced TV? Future Media conference
  • Patrick Barwise
Barwise, Patrick. 2001b. Don't give it all to the kids. Financial Times, 14 August Barwise, Patrick. 2002 The value of the digital prophets. Financial Times, 23 April BBC. 2001. What drives the success of concurrent enhanced TV? Future Media conference
Eurogame and the iTV opportunity Richard Harvey School of Business, The University of Western Ontario. Case study number 9B01E015
  • Thomas Behe
Behe, Thomas. 2001. Eurogame and the iTV opportunity. Richard Harvey School of Business, The University of Western Ontario. Case study number 9B01E015. 26 October.
IDTV: Consumer Behaviour and Interactive Advertising. Future Media conference Business Week Online
  • Bskyb
BSkyB. 2001. IDTV: Consumer Behaviour and Interactive Advertising. Future Media conference Business Week Online, 2000. Special Report: Interactive TV. 7-8 September
Interactivity gap. Financial Times The box that is not too clever. Financial Times. 7 August Cane, Alan Cheap conversions. Financial Times
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