Article

Emotional intractability: Gender, anger, aggression and rumination in conflict

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Abstract

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate how people's gender‐role identities (self‐identified masculinity and femininity) affect their perceptions of the emotional role of the humiliated victim in conflicts (and the norms surrounding the role), and how these perceptions affect the negativity and aggressiveness of their responses and the degree to which they ruminate over conflict and remain hostile over time. Design/methodology/approach This paper builds on literature on humiliation, aggression, gender, and rumination and presents a correlational scenario study with 96 male graduate students from a large Northeastern University. Findings Males with high‐masculine gender‐role identities are more likely to perceive the social norms surrounding a humiliating conflictual encounter as privileging aggression, and to report intentions to act accordingly, than males with high‐feminine gender‐role identities. Furthermore, participants are more likely to ruminate about the conflict, and therefore maintain their anger and aggressive intentions a week later, when they perceive the situation to privilege aggression. Research limitations/implications This paper sheds light on how aspects of peoples' identities can affect their perceptions of social norms (i.e. whether or not aggression is condoned), and degrees of dysphoric rumination and aggression in conflict. Subsequent research should investigate the social conditions influencing these processes. Originality/value Research on the psychology of humiliation has identified it as a central factor in many intractable conflicts. However, this is the first study to begin to specify the nature of this relationship and to investigate it in a laboratory setting.

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... Studies have found that in lower intensity emotional situations, such as in responding to mild organizational and relationship stressors, men are more likely to try to suppress emotions and deal with the situation with problem-solving where women are more likely to talk to others (Lim & Teo, 1996). However, when problem-solving fails for men, emotions are more likely to increase in intensity over time (Coleman, Goldman, & Kugler, 2009). Such emotions tend to trigger stronger behavioral responses such as aggression among men more so than women (Verona & Curtin, 2006). ...
... Research has also found that men are more likely than women to view aggression as a legitimate response to humiliation (Coleman et al., 2009) and to engage in all forms of counterproductive work behaviors, including withdrawal behaviors (Spector & Zhou, 2011) as well as organizational and interpersonal deviance (cf. Coleman et al., 2009;Liao, Joshi, & Chuang, 2004). ...
... Research has also found that men are more likely than women to view aggression as a legitimate response to humiliation (Coleman et al., 2009) and to engage in all forms of counterproductive work behaviors, including withdrawal behaviors (Spector & Zhou, 2011) as well as organizational and interpersonal deviance (cf. Coleman et al., 2009;Liao, Joshi, & Chuang, 2004). Samnani, Salamon, and Singh (2014) found that ...
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... Given the likelihood of negative emotions during discussions of difficult moral conflicts (Coleman, Goldman, & Kugler, 2009), it has been found to be necessary to have a sufficiently high level of positivity to buffer the deleterious effects of negative emotions in order to allow sufficient openness to the other party to learn and improve relations (Gottman, Murray et al., 2002). Therefore, we suggest that, especially in difficult moral conflicts, a higher ratio of positive-to-negative emotions is beneficial and likely to be associated with more tractable conflict outcomes. ...
... The current studies offer a test of this proposition. Typically, research on intractable conflicts focuses on investigating specific aspects of their issues, individuals, relationships, or contexts that drive more recalcitrant outcomes (Coleman, 2003;Coleman et al., 2009;Kriesberg, 2005). The current studies contribute to theory and research by moving beyond mere testing of discreet components of intractability, and providing a more basic and parsimonious understanding of their underlying dynamics (Coleman et al., 2007;Vallacher et al., 2010). ...
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... As abusive supervision is a chronic situation with sustained, hostile behaviors, targets of these behaviors are likely to find their problem-solving efforts to be fruitless. Thus, as problem-solving attempts fail, men's negative response to abuse likely increases over time (Coleman, Goldman, & Kugler, 2009). ...
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... Because women's voices are relatively underrepresented in the literature on violence and emotions, focusing mainly on women's experiences is valuable even if the findings do not generalize to men. On generalizability, though, research suggests that gender differences in emotions (if any) are in modes of expression: women discuss anger more whereas men exhibit more aggressive behavior (Coleman et al., 2009). The results cut against what we would expect if there were gender bias in measurement: In interviews, I find surprisingly inconsistent anger in a population theoretically more likely to discuss anger. ...
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... The conflict-supporting narratives are developed to enable society members to cope with the difficulties encountered and to keep ongoing mobilization for the persistence of the conflict. Thus, the narratives serve as a barrier to ideas and policies aimed at resolving the conflict peacefully (see Cairns and Roe, 2003;Coleman et al., 2009;Halperin and Bar-Tal, 2011;Garagozov, 2012). ...
Article
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... 13 These 'masculine' behaviors also often increase individual aggression during conflict. 3 However, it has been suggested that female presence during conflict situations can diffuse potential arguments and increase agreement between parties due to their less threatening and aggressive archetypes. 6,18,15 Therefore, this research project was undertaken with the goal of comparing the conflict management styles preferred by female CM students to those of male CM students at CWU using the TKI. ...
... We started by identifying key concepts relevant to this paper as initial coding categories (Potter and Levine-Donnerstein, 1999) that reflected client and co-worker interactions and the availability and effectiveness of authority, autonomy and challenging work as job resources. We highlighted and coded all text that was related to these categories and then selected comments illustrating the relevant quantitative finding (Coleman et al., 2009). Table I provides a summary of the research questions, hypotheses and findings that are discussed in greater detail below. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore how status differences relate to strained working relationships with co-workers and clients. Two statuses, gender and occupation, are examined using data from veterinarians and animal health technologists (AHTs). Competing perspectives regarding exposure to stressful relationships and access and effectiveness of work-related resources are considered. Design/methodology/approach An explanatory sequential mixed-methods design is used that combines quantitative survey data with open-ended qualitative data. The survey data are used to examine how interpersonal strain and access to work-related resources vary by status. The qualitative data are used to illustrate how strain is experienced by these workers and aids in interpreting the quantitative findings. Findings Status is linked to interpersonal client strain and access to resources. Challenging work is widely available to all three groups, but is more beneficial in reducing higher status veterinarians’ client strain. Autonomy is a scarce resource for the lowest status group (female AHTs), yet appears effective in reducing co-worker strain for everyone. Unexpectedly, work overload and market concerns appear to aggravate work-related strain and greater numbers of the lowest status group exacerbates interpersonal tensions with clients. Originality/value This paper contributes by examining stressful interactions experienced by two occupations who work side-by-side in the same employment settings, but who vary significantly by gender representation and occupational status. The authors argue that in addition to gender and occupational status, the organizational health of employing clinics and the feminization of veterinary practice may offer insights into how status differences are related to interpersonal conflict experienced in these work places.
... Opting for overt, tangible, and short-term goals such as monetary issues and products, deeper emotions and latent psychological aspects that simmer and fester and thereby escalate the initial conflict, are neglected. Despite the negative ramifications of emotional self-protective mechanisms on wellbeing and on prospects for collaboration, decades of scholarly work on conflict have granted scant attention to emotions (e.g., Coleman, Goldman, & Kugler, 2009;Curhan, Elfenbein, & Xu, 2006;Fisher & Shapiro, 2006). ...
Chapter
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The rapidly changing world we live in is fraught with increasing divisions and destructive conflict. Consequently, a resilient social fabric becomes crucial for people to feel included and empowered by their differences. The quality of relationships and the social environments, within which they are constantly being formed, are critical for successfully addressing divisive challenges and the destructive conflicts they might spawn. This chapter proposes a framework of three considerations for transforming conflict: 1. The mode of relationship- how the Self relates to the Other, 2. The perception of conflict, and 3. The social environment and the role of leadership in constructing dialogic environments. Revisiting assumptions pertaining to these considerations can support a shift from the unit of the individual (typically characterizes Western cultural and scientific traditions) to a relational unit. This shift is proposed as a premise for long-term transformation from adversarial interactions into dialogic relations. The latter is suggested as a constructive mode of relationship: a way of being with one another in which self and the other actively and equally co-create reality and relating to one another in their own terms. The chapter concludes with an example from an educational environment within which a relational transformation took place by integrating both micro efforts- consciousness raising to relational forms and dynamics, and macro work of restructuring the social context.
... Despite the negative ramifications of emotional self-protective mechanisms on wellbeing and on prospects for collaboration, decades of scholarly work on conflict have granted scant attention to emotions (e.g., Coleman, Goldman, & Kugler, 2009;Curhan, Elfenbein, & Xu, 2006;Fisher & Shapiro, 2006). Frustration, depression, anger, fear, and anxiety are a few of the strong emotions that fuel conflicts. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The rapidly changing world we live in is fraught with increasing divisions and destructive conflict. Consequently, a resilient social fabric becomes crucial for people to feel included and empowered by their differences. The quality of relationships and the social environments, within which they are constantly being formed, are critical for successfully addressing divisive challenges and the destructive conflicts they might spawn. This chapter proposes a framework of three considerations for transforming conflict: 1. The mode of relationship- how the Self relates to the Other, 2. The perception of conflict, and 3. The social environment and the role of leadership in constructing dialogic environments. Revisiting assumptions pertaining to these considerations can support a shift from the unit of the individual (typically characterizes Western cultural and scientific traditions) to a relational unit. This shift is proposed as a premise for long-term transformation from adversarial interactions into dialogic relations. The latter is suggested as a constructive mode of relationship: a way of being with one another in which self and the other actively and equally co-create reality and relating to one another in their own terms. The chapter concludes with an example from an educational environment within which a relational transformation took place by integrating both micro efforts- consciousness raising to relational forms and dynamics, and macro work of restructuring the social context.
... Among these studies, few of them have structured their methodologies on a context-dependent basis (Brewer et al. 2002;Korabik et al. 1993), i.e., most of them have not (Brahnam et al. 2005;Cheung et al. 2006;Davis et al. 2010;Gbadamosi et al. 2014;Gunkel et al. 2016 exceptional studies that featured context-dependent structures and different analysis instruments. These studies have analyzed communicative and behavioral responses (Loosemore and Galea 2008), aggression displayed in conflict situations (Coleman et al. 2009), and behaviors displayed while adapting to a conflict situation (Coleman and Kugler 2014). ...
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Construction project environments are shaped by uncertainty and complexity; therefore, conflict situations that lead to time and cost overruns are rather frequent. However, no empirical studies conducted so far have analyzed conflict management performances of indi- viduals on a context-dependent basis. This paper proposes a performance assessment methodology for conflict management that integrates two different approaches from other disciplines: hypothetical situations and competency theory. The approach analyzes managers’ perfor- mances in the exact same conflict cases through an after-scenario questionnaire based on their preferences toward candidate management scenarios, each of which reflects one of the required competencies for effective conflict management. Considering the context-dependent characteristics of the conflict phenomenon, the implementation of the methodology within this paper’s context is confined to the construction industry. The methodology was implemented among 82 construction project managers through an after-scenario questionnaire, and three random participants’ conflict management performances were analyzed. Based on a novel construction conflict management performance assessment methodology, this research can offer two contributions to the body of construction conflict management knowledge. First, it has revealed the lack of a generic hierarchy in terms of the competencies required. Second, the results confirmed that construction managers’ conflict management performances may vary despite identical years of experience and managerial positions held.
... Kemper, 1978). Thus, it becomes possible for researchers to believe that such topics as humiliation in the context of intractable conflict (e.g., Coleman, Goldman, & Kugler, 2009) can be studied in a laboratory by using scenarios. ...
... miliation, for example, power, social exclusion, and rejection (Leask, 2013); bullying (Copeland, Angold, & Constello, 2013); interpersonal violence (Jennings & Murphy, 2000;Strauchler et al., 2004); and traumatic mistreatment and torture (Phillips, 2011;Vorbrüggen & Baer, 2007). of humiliation, for example, poverty (Reyles, 2007), racism (Jones, 2006), unstable economic conditions (Lindner, 2012), coerced labor and migration (Gasanabo, 2006;O'Neill, 2010;Stark & Fan, 2011), and global insecurity and intractable conflict (Coleman, Goldman, & Kugler, 2009;Lindner, 2006Lindner, , 2009Lindner, , 2010. ...
Article
• Abstract, 2016: In the midst of global crises, feelings of humiliation are intensified (Lindner, 2008; Moïsi, 2009). Counselors are often on the front lines of suffering during turbulent times. This article explores how the dynamics of humiliation are coming to the forefront of concern around the globe. Applying a relational framework, the authors examine the impact of humiliation, offering a case example that illustrates how counselors can lead their clients out of destructive reactions into creative action. • Abstract, first draft 2012: In the midst of a confluence of global crises, feelings of humiliation are intensified. Local and global crises force individuals, communities, and nations to struggle with demoralizing disconnections and deprivations. Counselors and other clinicians are the social-psychological paramedics and healers on the front lines of suffering during these turbulent times. This paper explores how the dynamics of humiliation are coming to the forefront of concern at home and around the world. It will offer an analysis that places humiliation within a relational framework, identifying three categories of humiliation: (1) internal experience, (2) external interactions, and (3) systemic social conditions. It will examine the impact of humiliation using a case example that illustrates how counselors can lead clients out of destructive reactions into creative action.
... Thus, knowing the salient emotions experienced by people in conflict may provide important information about the source of the conflict, the factors that maintain it, and possible avenues of resolution. If humiliation is the dominant emotion for one of the parties, for example, focusing solely on issues of scarce resources-which may have initiated the antagonism-may miss the point entirely about why the conflict is sustained and seemingly intractable (for a research example see : Coleman, Goldman, & Kugler, 2009). One's efforts instead should focus on reducing feelings of humiliation. ...
Chapter
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Kurt Lewin (1948) famously observed, “there is nothing so practical as a good theory.” This simple statement captures a truism regarding the interplay of understanding, prediction, and control that characterizes every area of science. Predicting how a phenomenon will be manifest under different conditions, let alone controlling the process, is intimately linked to a coherent and generalized understanding of the phenomenon at issue. Humans, after all, did not land on the moon or send satellites to other planets by focusing on how to do these things. Space exploration would have remained a flight of fancy had it not been for several centuries of scientific concern with basic principles of physics and chemistry. This realization is relevant to the understandable concern people have for resolving the difficult and protracted conflicts that characterize interpersonal, inter-group, and international relations in today’s world. Practitioners are motivated to tackle such conflicts head-on, but their likelihood of success is ultimately constrained by the degree of scientific understanding concerning far more basic and mundane aspects of psychology.
... Male identities are said to emphasize competitiveness, daring, and strength, while females' identities are said to emphasize empathy, caution, and submissiveness. Consistent with such arguments, masculine gender-role identity, or identification with stereotypically male roles, has been linked empirically to a higher likelihood of violent offending (Beesley & McGuire, 2009) and aggressive intentions among males (Coleman, Goldman, & Kugler, 2009). Further, research finds that males are more likely to view themselves in stereotypically masculine terms, that females are more likely to view themselves in stereotypically feminine ones, and that these differences in self-perception partially account for gender differences in delinquency (Jensen, 2003). ...
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Purpose: Gender differences in delinquency are well-documented, with dominant explanations drawing largely on control, strain, and learning theories. We suggest that gender differences in guilt mediate a substantial portion of gender's association with delinquency over and above variables derived from these theories. Methods: We use negative binomial regression and path analysis to test this assertion using data collected from a convenience sample of middle-school and high-school students in a Northeastern region of the United States. Results: Results suggest that variables derived from control and learning theories may explain part of the gender gap in delinquency, but that a larger portion of the gender gap is due to gender differences in anticipated guilt. Conclusions: Anticipated guilt appears to reflect a critical component of the explanation for why males engage in higher levels of delinquency than females, and future research should therefore pay greater attention to identifying the factors that influence interpersonal differences in the experience of guilt.
... Deutsch (1994Deutsch ( , 2006Deutsch et al., 2006) in particular, provided the members of HumanDHS network with formative concepts that illuminate the disruptive power of humiliation as it relates to cooperation, competition, social justice, and constructive and destructive conflict (Lindner, 2013b). Peter Coleman, Jennifer Goldman, and Katharina Kugler (Coleman, Goldman, and Kugler, 2009) conducted a first-of-its-kind empirical study of the nature of the relationship between humiliation and intractable conflict, observing: ...participants were found to be more likely to respond to humiliating encounters aggressively when the emotional role of the humiliated victim was perceived by them as allowing for aggressive reactions against the humiliator…Furthermore, people were more likely to ruminate about the encounter, and therefore maintain anger and aggressive intentions when they perceived the situation to privilege aggressive acts… (p. 126) Beyond these institutional efforts, scholars around the world are contributing to the study of humiliation as a root cause of violence by examining the link between humiliation and terrorism, torture, and genocide (Danchev, 2006;Ginzburg and Neria, 2011;Held, 2004;Saurette, 2005;Varvin, 2005); by describing the role of humiliation in social revolutions and intractable conflicts (Fahmy, 2012;Fattah and Fierke, 2009;Victoria Fontan, 2006;Giacaman et al., 2007;Ginges and Atran, 2008;Tschudi, 2008); and by assessing the impact of humiliation in times of transition and globalization (Kaufmann and Kuch, 2011;Moïsi, 2009;Oravecz, Hárdi, and Lajtai, 2004;Saurette, 2006;D. ...
... Studies document that affronts to face result in closed-mindedness and aggression that are communicated by such methods as counter-threat, few concessions, deception, and refusal to accept proposals (Brown, 1968;Deutsch, 1973;Deutsch and Krauss, 1962;Tjosvold and Huston, 1978). Disconfirmation of face is punitive and people become defiantly closedminded toward each other that in turn very much undermine their confidence and ability to integrate their ideas and efforts (Colemen et al., 2009). Disconfirmation invalidates the other's identity and thereby undermines conflict management (Fiol et al., 2008). ...
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... In this situation, buyers characterized by high social conformity might feel that submitting a positive rating is an implicit routine. Conversely, an individual's social conformity will impact his or her behavior in conflict situations [16]. Therefore, for a buyer whose positive-rating-submitting behavior is primarily determined by his or her conflict handling style, a higher degree of social conformity means a stronger inclination to avoid conflict and to follow implicit routines, eventually resulting in a stronger intention to submit a positive rating; thus, we propose that (Fig. 1 H9. ...
... Namely, instrumental/masculine people are more likely to perceive the social norms as privileging aggression than expressive/feminine people. 72 Thus, differences in male aggression could partly emerge from how rearing and sociocultural experiences shape traditional stereotypes regarding aggressive traits. ...
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Introduction: Biological sex contributes to aggression, but there are other factors, like gender and genes, which have also proven to contribute to this behavior. Gender is defined as the stereotyped characteristics of each sex, but currently four gender identities have been stated: androgynous, instrumental, expressive and undifferentiated. MAOA gene has been more often related to aggression, particularly the low variant (MAOAL) of the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism. Objective: This study investigated whether there was an interaction between gender and MAOA genotype on aggression. Method: 292 healthy undergraduates were assessed using an aggression questionnaire (AQ) and an inventory of gender traits (EDAIE). The genotyping technique was employed to obtain the students’ MAOA genotype. Main and interaction effects split by sex were analyzed by two-way MANOVAs. Results: Androgynous traits had an effect on verbal aggression, anger, hostility and total aggression in males and females; while instrumental traits had an effect on physical aggression in males. MAOAH genotype had an effect on hostility in males; and MAOALH genotype on verbal aggression in females. Finally, a gender by MAOA-uVNTR interaction was observed on anger and total aggression in males. Conclusions: Males are more likely to show anger and aggression when the predisposing genetic and environmental factors interact. Androgynous identity seems to lead to general aggression in both sexes; while instrumental identity to physical aggression just in males. On the other hand, undifferentiated identity apparently leads to less aggression. These findings shed light on factors that could be initial indicators for future violent behavior.
... If not handled constructively, they could turn relationships poisonous and bring rejection, defensive interactions and even violence in intractable conflicts. Yet decades of scholarly work on conflict have given little attention to emotions (e.g., Coleman, Goldman, & Kugler, 2009;Curhan, Elfenbein, & Xu, 2006). Leaders, politicians, and CEOs, those most responsible for determining the approach taken to conflict management often ignore the emotional and psychological powers affecting behaviors (e.g., Shapiro, 2010). ...
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In today’s volatile and changing environment, a resilient social fabric is key for people to feel included, participate, and learn from diverse perspectives. Inclusive social environments can empower people to reach their highest potential and optimize organizational performance. Constructive forms of relationships can be encouraged by ongoing reflection on social psychological biases and barriers to healthy connections. In this paper, I propose three key elements to be considered if we are to create inclusive contexts: 1. The mode of relating to one another; 2. A positive approach toward conflict to enable learning from the experience; and 3. Identity-relational concerns underlying and driving relationship and conflict. Together, this practical framework captures significant, yet mostly hidden emotional social-psychological considerations to be mindful of for benefiting from differences and conflicts. This threefold scaffold can be used as an X-ray for examining our connections and exploring ways to reduce the gap between our intentions and behaviors on both the personal and organizational levels. Given the increasing importance of inclusive environments, leadership’s role may be changing. The responsibility of leadership to build more collaborative and inclusive environments seems to gradually replace the omnipotent top-down leader, who does it all for others and the focus on individual aptitudes.
... Kemper, 1978). Thus, it becomes possible for researchers to believe that such topics as humiliation in the context of intractable conflict (e.g., Coleman, Goldman, & Kugler, 2009) can be studied in a laboratory by using scenarios. ...
Article
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As institutional theory increasingly looks to the micro-level for explana-tions of macro-level institutional processes, institutional scholars need to pay closer attention to the role of emotions in invigorating institutional processes. I argue that attending to emotions is most likely to enrich institutional analysis, if scholars take inspiration from theories that con-ceptualize emotions as relational and inter-subjective, rather than intra-personal, because the former would be more compatible with institu-tional theory's relational roots. I review such promising theories that include symbolic interactionism, psychoanalytic and psychodynamic per-spectives, moral psychology, and social movements. I conclude by out-lining several possible research questions that might be inspired by attending to the role of emotions in institutional processes. I argue that such research can enrich the understanding of embedded agency, power, and the use of theorization by institutional change agents, as well as
... In this situation, buyers characterized by high social conformity might feel that submitting a positive rating is an implicit routine. Conversely, an individual's social conformity will impact his or her behavior in conflict situations [16]. Therefore, for a buyer whose positive-rating-submitting behavior is primarily determined by his or her conflict handling style, a higher degree of social conformity means a stronger inclination to avoid conflict and to follow implicit routines, eventually resulting in a stronger intention to submit a positive rating; thus, we propose that (Fig. 1 H9. ...
Conference Paper
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¿Cuál es el papel que juegan las emociones en las re-laciones que tejen los hombres con las mujeres y con otros hombres? ¿Cómo entender las emociones como construcciones sociales al igual que las masculinidades? ¿Cuál es la relación entre ellas, emociones y masculinida-des en distintos grupos de hombres? Esta obra propone respuestas a estos y otros cuestionamientos. Introduce al lector en una reflexión que rompe con la visión del sentido común en que las mujeres son emocionales y los hombres racionales. Coloca a las emociones como detonantes de la acción social y como elementos centrales en la configuración de las masculinidades. El presente libro es el resultado de un conjunto de seminarios y trabajos de investigación en torno a la expresión emocional de los hombres y su conexión con la masculinidad en contextos como el desempleo, la privación de la libertad y la paternidad, tanto en hombres jóvenes como en aquellos a los que la custodia de sus hijos les ha sido negada. Los autores muestran información recabada en el estudio de diversas experiencias en las que los hombres pueden verse inmersos en entornos diferentes, al igual que la manera en que las emociones y la expresividad de las mismas influyen en la forma en que estos hombres se desenvuelven y enfrentan la cotidianidad.
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Where do self-defining, autobiographical memories fit within the human information processing system? What are their structural features and organization? What role do they play in the overall personality and sense of identity that define us as unique individuals? These questions have guided my research on self-defining memories in the two decades since. This chapter describes the five characteristics of self-defining memories. Self-defining memories are: (1) vivid, (2) affectively intense, (3) repetitively recalled, (4) linked to other similar memories, and (5) focused on an enduring concern or unresolved conflict of the personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this chapter, the authors discuss three major strategies for the study of personality and social behavior: the dispositional strategy, the interactional strategy, and the situational strategy (i.e., the dynamic interactional strategy). They examine the conceptual and methodological underpinnings of each strategy, present representative illustrations of each strategy in action, and assess the strengths and weaknesses of each strategy. The three strategies are also placed within the historical context in which they each emerged.
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The purpose of this study was to compare the emotional experiences of individuals from different cultures. The self-reported emotional experiences of individuals from 30 nations in the Intercultural Study on Emotional Antecedents and Reactions (ISEAR) database (Scherer, 1997) were analyzed across seven emotions in terms of their intensity, length, and recency. Through exploratory factor analysis, three, single-factor constructs were identified as underlying these different aspects for all seven emotions, namely emotional intensity, emotional length and emotional recency. Using these metrically equivalent constructs, the emotional experiences of citizens from different cultures were compared in terms of their intensity, length and recency. These aspects of emotionality may be related to different features of the social-cultural system. Further studies in the area may help towards understanding the socialization of emotional experience.
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Does distraction or rumination work better to diffuse anger? Catharsis theory predicts that rumination works best, but empir- ical evidence is lacking. In this study, angered participants hit a punching bag and thought about the person who had angered them (rumination group) or thought about becoming physically fit (distraction group). After hitting the punching bag, they reported how angry they felt. Next, they were given the chance to administer loud blasts of noise to the person who had angered them. There also was a no punching bag control group. People in the rumination group felt angrier than did people in the distrac- tion or control groups. People in the rumination group were also most aggressive, followed respectively by people in the distraction and control groups. Rumination increased rather than decreased anger and aggression. Doing nothing at all was more effective than venting anger. These results directly contradict catharsis theory.
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Previous research has shown that people remember details from emotional events differently than details from neutral events. However, past research suffers from inadequate equating of the details tested in the emotional and neutral events. In the current five experiments, involving a total of 397 subjects, we equated the to-be-remembered detail information. Subjects in these experiments were presented with a thematic series of slides in which the content of one critical slide in the middle of the series varied. When the critical slide was emotional (a woman injured near a bicycle), compared to neutral in nature (a woman riding a bicycle), subjects were better able to remember a central detail but less able to remember a peripheral detail. To determine whether the emotional event led to different performance simply because it was unusual, we included a third condition, in which subjects saw an “unusual” version of the event (a woman carrying a bicycle on her shoulder). Subjects in the unusual condition performed poorly when recalling both the central and the peripheral detail, and thus differently from those in the emotional condition. To determine what subjects were attending to, in Experiment 4 we gathered reports of thoughts that were evoked while subjects viewed the critical slide. Analyses of these reports indicated that differential elaboration occurred when people viewed emotional, unusual, and neutral events.
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Because forgiveness theory has tended to neglect the role of dispositional factors, the authors present novel theorizing about the nature of vengefulness (the disposition to seek revenge following interpersonal offenses) and its relationship to forgiveness and other variables. In Study 1, vengefulness was correlated cross-sectionally with (a) less forgiving, (b) greater rumination about the offense, (c) higher negative affectivity, and (d) lower life satisfaction. Vengefulness at baseline was negatively related to change in forgiving throughout an 8-week follow-up. In Study 2, vengefulness was negatively associated with Agreeableness and positively associated with Neuroticism. Measures of the Big Five personality factors explained 30% of the variance in vengefulness.
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In order to determine whether the expression of aggression on the part of angered individuals would bring about a decrease in the amount of subsequent aggression, 152 high school students were individually either annoyed by a confederate (C) or treated neutrally the C. Ss then either gave the C shocks, waited alone in the room, or worked on mathematical problems. Results indicate that preventing an angered person from engaging in annoying rumination, and the mere passage of time, seem to have aggression-decreasing effects; these effects also appear to be additive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Ss watched either an emotional, neutral, or unusual sequence of slides containing 1 critical slide in the middle. Exps 1 and 2 allowed only a single eye fixation on the critical slide by presenting it for 180 msec (Exp 1) or 150 msec (Exp 2). Despite this constraint, memory for a central detail was better for the emotional condition. In Exp 3, Ss were allowed 270 sec to view the critical slide while their eye movements were monitored. When Ss who had devoted the same number of fixations were compared, memory for the central detail of the emotional slide was again better. The results suggest that enhanced memory for detail information of an emotional event does not occur solely because more attention is devoted to the emotional information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Prior research has typically attempted to distinguish one emotion from another by identifying distinctive expressions, physiology, and subjective qualities. Recent theories claim emotions can also be differentiated by distinctive action tendencies, actions, and motivational goals. To test hypotheses from both older and more recent theories, 100 Ss were asked to recall experiences of particular negative emotions and answer questions concerning what they felt, thought, felt like doing, actually did, and wanted. Results support hypotheses specifying characteristic responses for fear, sadness, distress, frustration, disgust, dislike, anger, regret, guilt, and shame. The findings indicate that discrete emotions have distinctive goals and action tendencies, as well as thoughts and feelings. In addition, they provide empirical support for hypothesized emotion states that have received insufficient attention from researchers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this study, we examined whether highly emotional events are associated with persistence of memory for both central and peripheral detail, as has been claimed elsewhere in the literature (e.g., Yuille & Cutshall, 1989). A total of 437 subjects in two experiments were asked to report their “most traumatic memory” and to answer questions about their chosen memory. A major finding was a significant relationship between rated degree of emotion and the number of central details, but not peripheral details, the subjects believed that they remembered. The implication of this result for the study of emotional memory is discussed.
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We address the question why fear dominates hope in the life of individuals and collectives on the basis of the accumulated knowledge in the psychology, neurology and sociology of emotions. This knowledge suggests that fear, as primary emotion, is grounded in the experienced present and based on the memorized past, processed both consciously and unconsciously, causes freezing and conservatism, and sometimes leads to pre-emptive aggression. Hope, in contrast, as a secondary emotion, involves cognitive activity, which requires anticipation and the search for new ideas and thus is based on complex processes of creativity and flexibility. Therefore, hope is often preceded and inhibited by spontaneous, automatically activated and faster fear. Fear and hope can each become a collective emotional orientation, and as such organize society's views and direct its actions. Societies involved in intractable conflict are dominated by a collective fear orientation. This orientation is functional for society's coping with the stressful and demanding situation—but it may serve as a psychological obstacle to any peace process, once it starts. The case of the collective fear orientation in the Jewish Israeli society is presented as an example. The article ends with a presentation of a particular approach, suggesting that individuals and collectives can overcome their fear with much determination, and establish an orientation of hope which allows change in situations dominated by fear. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Many men who are strongly committed to the traditional male role experience masculine gender-role stress (MGRS) when faced with situations they perceive as posing a threat to their masculine identity. Men who experience high levels of MGRS often turn to substance abuse as a means of managing insecurities regarding male role expectations, which may increase their risk of engaging in verbally and physically abusive behavior. In the present investigation, we examined the association between MGRS, anger, and intimately abusive behavior among substance-abusing men. Our sample consisted of 57% White and 43% African American male substance abusers. Approximately 72% of participants reported earning less than $20,000; about 19% earned between $20,000; about 19% earned between 20,000 and $39,999; 4% earned between $39,999; 4% earned between 40,000 and $59,999; 5% earned between $59,999; 5% earned between 60,000 and $79,999, and less than 1% reported earning over $79,999, and less than 1% reported earning over 80,000. It was hypothesized that, compared with low-MGRS substance-abusing men, high-MGRS substance-abusing men would report higher levels of anger and would be more likely to report engaging in verbally and physically abusive behavior directed at their female partners. In general, support was found for these hypotheses. Our results indicate that high-MGRS substance-abusing men experience higher levels of anger and that they were more likely to have engaged in abusive behavior in the context of their intimate relationships with female partners.
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This paper describes the development of a self-report scale to assess the internal experience of humiliation. After defining the construct, an item pool of 149 items was generated, utilizing a five-point Likert scale response format. A sample of 253 individuals ages 15 to 51 (M= 20.66) was used to conduct the item trial. The item pool was evaluated through item and factor analyses. Factor analysis identified two correlated factors accounting for 58% of scale variability. The 20 items loading on factor one were labeled the Fear of Humiliation Subscale and the 12 items loading on factor two were labeled the Cumulative Humiliation Subscale. The full scale of 32 items is called the Humiliation Inventory. Reliability analyses indicate that the subscales and the full scale have high internal consistency. Exploratory analyses of mean scores across six demographic groups indicate significant differences between male and female mean scores on the total scale and the two subscales.
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The southern United States has long been known to be more violent than the northern United States. The authors argue that this may be due in part to an ideology justifying violence for self-protection and for maintaining "honor " or a reputation for toughness. Analysis of data from three surveys shows that southern White males do not endorse violence unconditionally but do endorse violence when it is used for self-protection, to defend one's honor, or to socialize children. These data fit well with behavioral data concerning gun ownership and the types of homicide committed in the South. Although the conditions that gave rise to southern violence are largely gone, it may be sustained through collective representations emphasizing the importance of honor and through violent self-fulfilling prophecies centering on hypersensitivity to affronts. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/68596/2/10.1177_0146167294205012.pdf
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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Low self-esteem people are assumed to have more severe emotional reactions to failure than are high self-esteem people, but this assumption has not received consistent empirical support. In this article the authors report 2 investigations that found that self-esteem differences of this sort emerge for emotions that directly implicate the self (e.g., pride, humiliation) but not for emotions that do not directly implicate the self (e.g., happiness, unhappiness). Additional evidence suggested that this occurs, in part, because low self-esteem people overgeneralize the negative implications of failure. The relevance of these findings for understanding the nature and functions of self-esteem is considered.
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This chapter examines the appropriateness of statement analysis in the evaluation of adult eyewitness testimony. A distinction is made between the cognitive and the motivational aspects of statement analysis. The cognitive evaluation focuses on the detail and accuracy of the account. This has been the concern of the laboratory based studies of eyewitness testimony. The motivational evaluation is concerned with assessing the credibility of the account. The chapter presents a review of field studies which evaluated the cognitive aspects of eyewitness accounts of actual crimes. It is concluded that for some crimes witnesses can form remarkable memories. A remarkable memory is distinguished by its detail, its accuracy and the fact that it persists over time. Such memories stand in contrast to those usually studied in the laboratory. A quantitative procedure has proved useful in the analysis of real witness’ memory. The chapter concludes with an examination of a laboratory study and a criminal case in which the quantitative procedure was combined with qualitative analysis to evaluate statement credibility. The preliminary results indicate that this combination of approaches may be effective in assisting credibility assessment.
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Discussion on results of recent studies on Irritability and Emotional Susceptibility scales introduces the presentation of a new scale to study individual differences related to aggressive behavior. The new Dissipation-Rumination Scale results from examining the influence of the interval of time between the instigation and the opportunity to aggress and is related to the inclination to overcome and abandon more or less rapidly feelings of distress and wishes of retaliation associated with the experience of insults suffered. While principal-components analysis confirms the unifactorial structure of the scale with respect to groups of Ss of different language and nationality, results of experimental studies clarify its construct validity.
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This paper describes what people experience and how they react when they feel humiliated. It discusses ways in which our society is humiliation-prone and emphasizes the ubiquitous nature of the humiliation dynamic in every-day life.
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A major cause of socio-political violence is the social process of humiliation, whose main elements are closely related to central aspects of the cultural repertoire of complex societies. This paper presents the outlines of a theory of humiliation, showing that the capacity to humiliate and be humiliated are aspects of a dense web of"hot"filaments wired into the tissue of culture, giving it a potentially explosive character that is too little recognized. This paper probes this dense web and explores how it acquired its present character. I will argue that our conceptualization of humiliation has changed as our sense of human dignity has grown. Humiliation should be understood as not simply an extreme or marginal condition, but a central feature of the social order. Viewed within this broader context, the elements that constitute humiliation should be recognized as fundamental mechanisms in the formation of modem society. Such a recognition is central to understanding the relationship between humiliation and violations of human rights. The streets of Mogadishu One of the defining images of the late twentieth century is a dead American soldier being dragged by a triumphant crowd through the streets of Mogadishu in Somalia. This was an overt act of humiliation. The Somali crowd was wreaking vengeance upon America and the United Nations. In the words of a former Somali diplomat,"the UN came with the agenda that they know what is good for the Somali people[,]...got entangled in the fight with [General] Aideed... spent so much money on that...[and] caused the death of no less than 10,000 Somalis!" The Somalis felt humiliated by the apparently well-meaning intervention of the UN and reacted with an act of counter-humiliation. American troops serving with the UN had to fight for their lives in Mogadishu and were forced out of Somalia. The impact upon American public opinion of this humiliating experience was so great that in subsequent ye, ars the American government was unwilling to commit ground troops in similar situations. Humiliation has been a potent force in domestic politics and international
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This article identifies the dynamics of humiliation as a core agent in conflicts that escalate into cycles of violence, such as terrorism or genocide, where parties feel humiliated and entitled to retaliate with violence. I describe a 4-year research project on the notion of humiliation, which had its starting point in the hypothesis that the humiliation experienced by Germany after the first World War contributed to the outbreak of the second World War. Then I analyze more recent incidents of genocidal killings in Somalia, Rwanda, and Burundi, and conclude with recommendations for healing the cycles of humiliation.
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L'auteur fait le point sur les recherches concernant les comparaisons sexuelles (aptitudes cognitives, personnalite, comportements sociaux) et les systemes d'attitudes a l'egard du genre. Les facteurs de contexte socio-culturel sont examines
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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The well-known antimalarial properties of naturally occurring cyclic peroxides artemisinin (qinghaosu), yingzhaosu A and yingzhaosu C have stimulated the development of new strategies for the synthesis of cyclic peroxides with diverse structures, and the investigation of the chemical transformations and properties of such compounds. In this review, recent progress in the chemistry of mono- and polycyclic organic peroxides with ring sizes of five or greater is highlighted and discussed.
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Reviews the book, "Women, War, and Peace in South Asia: Beyond Victimhood to Agency," edited by Rita Manchanda. This volume is comprised of six case studies of the role of gender in six conflict zones in the South Asia region. For the psychological scholar, this volume can be read as an exploration in how femininity, and thus gender identity, is situated within different social and political contexts. Central issues within social and political psychology, such as group identity, community identity, and ethnic identity, are addressed. Likewise, further motivation for political participation and action is addressed. The different conflict cases can also be read as studies of how women construct and narrate their femininities within a context which is highly masculinized: armed conflict. Although none of these themes are specifically framed as a theoretical discussion within psychology, the case studies in this edited collection offer invaluable insights into core themes within the discipline, as well as for scholars interested in the psychology of gender and conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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the emotions play a central role in most theories of personality / yet, personality psychologists have shown a remarkable tolerance for ambiguity with regard to the nature of emotions per se / more often than not, emotional concepts have been used in a global, undifferentiated fashion, or else in a manner unique to each theory / a fuller appreciation of the variety, organization, and principles of emotion is necessary for the advancement and possible integration of personality theory the domain of emotion (the meaning of emotional concepts, the organization of emotions) / a framework for the analysis of emotion (levels of organization, relations among levels) / component responses (cognitive appraisals, peripheral physiological change, expressive reactions, instrumental acts, verbal behavior, feelings) / emotional states / emotional syndromes (emotional rules, emotional roles) / emotional potentials and capacities (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A model is proposed in which the goal of people with high self-esteem is to cultivate personal strengths in order to excel, whereas the goal of people with low self-esteem is to remedy personal deficiencies in order to become adequate In two experiments, subjects received initial outcome feedback of either success, humiliating failure (internal attribution), or failure that allowed face-saving (external attribution) Experiment 1 then measured subjects intrinsic motivation to pursue the task during free-choice time Subjects with high self-esteem had the highest intrinsic motivation after success Subjects with low self-esteem had the highest intrinsic motivation after the humiliating failure Experiment 2 required a second performance on a similar task Performance results were consistent with the intrinsic motivation results of Experiment 1, with one exception High self-esteem subjects were sensitive to the different failure treatments, performing well after humiliation but poorly after face-saving Subjects with low self-esteem performed the same in both failure conditions The relation of the present model and results to previous work is discussed
Article
This research compares memory for traumatic events with memory for non-traumatic versions of the same event. In Experiment 1, subjects watched an event depicted in slides while focusing and rehearsing the central detail of each slide. They were tested after a short or a longer retention interval (20 min or 2 weeks). Subjects who watched the traumatic version were better able to recall the central details that they had rehearsed, but were less well able to recognize the specific slides that they saw. Better recall for the traumatic group did not occur because the words used to describe the recalled details were inherently more memorable, as shown in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, subjects watched either a traumatic or non-traumatic version of a filmed event and about 6 months later they were asked to remember the essence of the film. Subjects who saw the traumatic version were better able to recall the essence of the film. A similar finding was obtained with a group of subjects from Experiment 1 who were also contacted about 6 months after their initial participation. These results suggest that some information (the essence, the theme) of a traumatic event might be relatively well retained in memory, while memory is impaired for many of the specific, and especially peripheral, details.
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See www.humiliationstudies.org/whoweare/evelin/01.php. Please contact the author at e.g.lindner@psykologi.uio.no if you would like to have access to this book. Please see also www.humiliationstudies.org/whoweare/evelin02.php for other full texts to download.
Article
Research on the psychology of humiliation has illustrated its central function in many intractable conflicts. Feelings of humiliation have been found to be among the strongest human emotions; they can permeate people's lives with an all-consuming intensity and are among the most potent forces creating rifts between people and groups. However, it is not merely the type of emotions that distinguishes tractable from intractable conflict, but rather differences in the social structures and processes that imbue them with meaning. Feelings of raw emotion are often experienced, acted on, and remembered in ways that are socially determined. Thus, emotional experiences are shaped by rules and norms that define what certain emotions mean, whether they are good or bad, and how people should respond to them. Similar emotions may be constructed and acted upon differently in distinct families, communities, and cultures. Communities entrenched in ongoing conflict may unwittingly encourage emotional experiences and expressions of the most extreme nature, thereby escalating and sustaining the conflict. This paper presents an experimental study on the effects of strong roles and norms on experiences of and reactions to humiliating encounters, part of a program of research on humiliation and intractability.
Article
An experiment was conducted to test a hypothesis emanating from a similarity in data pattern between studies on amnesia and studies on the effects of arousal on memory. The hypothesis was that arousal and amnesia might be related, or more precisely, that amnesia induced in the laboratory might be mediated by high levels of arousal. Subjects in this experiment were presented with a thematic, short story in pictorial form. One version of the story consisted of a traumatic, arousal-inducing event placed between neutral events. A second version of the story contained the same neutral events in the beginning and the end, but also a neutral event in the middle. Palmar skin conductance, heart rate, and subjective self-ratings were used to determine that the manipulation made had caused different degrees of emotional arousal for the two groups of subjects presented with the different versions of the story. The methods used to determine memory performance were recall and recognition. The data obtained indicate that amnesia induced in the laboratory is mediated by emotional arousal in terms of concepts of attention and reconstruction.
Chapter
Over the past decade there has been unprecedented interest in fostering improved health practices through lifestyle change and stress reduction. This interest is reflected in the popular literature as well as in health-related research. Whereas the burden of health-related problems was once imposed by infectious diseases, today many serious health problems result from unhealthy life styles (Baffi, Redican, Sefchick, & Impara, 1991). As interest in health research has grown, so has attention to identifying factors that make distinctive populations of individuals uniquely vulnerable to various forms of stress and illness.
Article
This study attempted to examine aggression within a personological framework by using the Dissipation-Rumination Scale (Caprara, Personality and Individual Differences, 7, 763–769, 1986). Individual responses to a provoking situation in which there is a delay between instigation of aggression and opportunity to retaliate were examined. Forty males selected from the scale received either provocation or no provocation and after a 10-minute interval were given the opportunity to retaliate against a confederate. As predicted individual differences in responses were exhibited, with low dissipators-high ruminators displaying higher levels of aggression when previously provoked, F(15.215) = 0.000, P < 0.05. It was concluded that higher levels of aggression are exhibited by personality types who have the tendency to harbour thoughts and feelings of vengeance with the passage of time, when presented with a provoking situation. This was discussed in relation to the cognitive factors that affect the aggressive behaviour of individuals.
Article
Previous research has found that self-focused rumination maintains or increases depressed mood, whereas distraction decreases depressed mood (S. Nolen-Hoeksema & J. Morrow, 1993; S. Nolen-Hoeksema, J. Morrow, & B. L. Fredrickson, 1993). The present series of experiments examined these mood regulation strategies in the context of an angry mood. In Experiments 1 and 3, rumination increased anger, whereas distraction decreased or had no effect on anger. In Experiments 2 and 4, women were more likely to choose to ruminate when in a neutral mood but to distract themselves following induction of an angry mood. Men were equally likely to choose rumination or distraction, regardless of mood condition. The results are interpreted and discussed within the framework of an associative-network model of anger.
Article
Typescript. Also in microfilm. Thesis (D.S.W.)--Catholic University of America, 2000. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 129-136).
Article
21 witnesses observed a shooting incident in which 1 person was killed and a 2nd seriously wounded. The incident took place on a major thoroughfare in midafternoon. All of the witnesses were interviewed by the investigating police, and 13 witnesses (aged 15–32 yrs) agreed to a research interview 4–5 mo after the event. In the present study, the eyewitness accounts provided in both the police and research interviews were analyzed. The witnesses were highly accurate in their accounts, and there was little change in amount or accuracy of recall over 5 mo. However, some aspects of color memory and age, height, and weight estimations were found to be erroneous. The eyewitnesses resisted leading questions, and their stress levels at the time of the event appeared to have no negative effects on subsequent memory. The results differ from the pattern of many laboratory studies of eyewitness memory (i.e., in the degree to which the witnesses in the present study were actively involved in the event) and point to the need for field research of this type to evaluate the generalizability of laboratory experiments. (41 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes the development of a new sex-role inventory that treats masculinity and femininity as 2 independent dimensions, thereby making it possible to characterize a person as masculine, feminine, or "androgynous" as a function of the difference between his or her endorsement of masculine and feminine personality characteristics. Normative data, provided by 561 male and 356 female college and junior college students, are presented, as well as the results of various psychometric analyses. Findings indicate that: (a) The dimensions of masculinity and femininity are empirically and logically independent. (b) The concept of psychological androgyny is a reliable one. (c) Highly sex-typed scores do not reflect a general tendency to respond in a socially desirable direction, but rather a specific tendency to describe oneself in accordance with sex-typed standards of desirable behavior for men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes a series of surveys on the everyday experience of anger, and a sample of data from these surveys is used to address a number of issues related to the social bases of anger. These issues include the connection between anger and aggression; the targets, instigations, and consequences of typical episodes of anger; the differences between anger and annoyance; and possible sex differences in the experience and/or expression of anger. However, the primary focus of the present paper is not on anger and aggression, but anger is used as a paradigm case to explore a number of issues in the study of emotion, including the advantages and limitations of laboratory research, the use of self-reports, the proper unit of analysis for the study of emotion, the relationship between human and animal emotion, and the authenticity of socially constituted emotional responses. (68 ref)
Article
Hypotheses about the effects of self-focused rumination on interpretations of events and interpersonal problem solving were tested in 3 studies with dysphoric and nondysphoric participants. Study 1 supported the hypothesis that dysphoric participants induced to ruminatively self-focus on their feelings and personal characteristics would endorse more negative, biased interpretations of hypothetical situations than dysphoric participants induced to distract themselves from their mood, or nondysphoric participants. Study 2 showed that dysphoric participants who ruminated were more pessimistic about positive events in their future than the other 3 groups. Study 3 showed that dysphoric ruminating participants generated less effective solutions to interpersonal problems than the other 3 groups. In Studies 1 and 3, dysphoric ruminating participants also offered the most pessimistic explanations for interpersonal problems and hypothetical negative events. In all 3 studies, dysphoric participants who distracted were as optimistic and effective in solving problems as non-dysphoric participants.